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Washington County 


Past and Present 







— -A 


As a circle of one inch in diameter and one of forty million miles 
in diameter have exactly the same geometrical qualities, so the hap- 
penings and the history of a village and those of an empire are essen- 
tially the same, and one can study and become acquainted with human- 
ity in the one as well as in the other. — Schopenhauer. 


"About five years ago I published a little German volume of 
sketches, mostly of a historical nature, on Washington county, Wis- 
consin, titled 'Gedenkblatter zur Besiedelung von Washington 
County, Wisconsin.' The work found a most hearty welcome among 
the foremost German scholars of the state. It was much more than I 
dared to expect for a book that had but a casual origin. The work 
at the time was pointed to as a model for other counties to follow. 
The collection of sketches first appeared as a serial article in the 
'Beobachter,' a weekly paper published at West Bend, Wis., the pro- 
prietors of which ventured to publish the book. The present work is 
essentially a translation of that book into English, done by me. 
Several chapters have been enlarged, others rearranged, or brought 
up to date, one is entirely new, while other things, especially the 
poetry of the first edition, have been omitted, for I was content to 
write a readable English prose. It was the desire to make the work 
available to English readers, that prompted me to translate it. History 
is likened to memory. A people who do not know their own history 
are like a man who has lost his memory. This should hold good also 
with reference to county history. The material of the sketches has 
been collected during the fourteen years in which I have held a Ger- 
man editorship in the county. It came from many sources, from old 
chronicles, old newspaper files, bulletins published by the state and the 
federal government, speeches on olden times, which I have listened 
to, recollections of old settlers with whom I became acquainted, and 
my own observations during all these years. If the reader will con- 
sider that the book was written in the few weary leisure hours that 
the wrestle with the fate of German newspaperdom in this country 
left, he will perhaps look kindly on the shortcomings of the work." 

The foregoing foreword I had written for a historical work on 
Washington county. Wis., the publication of which was just under 
consideration, when a representative of the S. J. Clarke Publishing 
Company of Chicago appeared in our office, looking for somebody to 


write a county history. Upon looking through my manuscript and 
conferring with some representative local men, he engaged me as the 
editor of the first volume of "Washington County, Wis., Past and 
Present." To the original fourteen chapters fifteen more were added 
to make the work more comprehensive and in accordance with the new 
title. Much of what has been said of the original work also applies 
to the additions. I am indebted to many people for furnishing me 
with the necessary data, or helping me in the researches. All of them 
I wish, at this juncture, to thank most heartily. 

Carl Quickert. 


The Genesis of the Soil i 

The Aborigines 7 

A Jaunt to the Mounds 13 

The Indians 17 

The First White Man 21 

The Vanguard of the Pioneers 25 

Founders of "Burgs" 39 

The Fight for the County Seat 51 

Some Incidents of Pioneer Life 53 

The Legend of Holy Hill 59 


The Yankee Element 63 

Episodes 69 

The German Element 79 

The "Latin Settlement" 87 

Clouds with Silver Linings 91 

Fragments of a Chronique of i860 97 

The War Period 109 

The County Today 127 

Husbandry 135 

In Romantic Territory 145 

The Public Schools 151 

Organizations 159 

The Lakes Beautiful 171 


The Hall of Fame 179 

The Churches 197 

Politics and Civics 217 

The Chief Industries 227 

Statistics 237 


T'SEi Press 241 

Epilogue 247 

Appendix 249 


History of Washington County 



The surface of those four hundred thirty-two square miles of 
Wisconsin, which subsequently were named Washington county, was 
for the most part shaped under the influence of a prehistoric glacial 
period, when almost the entire area of the state lay buried under sheets 
of ice. Like gigantic icy tongues they stretched from Canada south 
to the Ohio and Missouri rivers. One of these tongues, or lobes, 
filled the basin of Lake Michigan and is known as the Michigan 
Glacier; another one, the Green Bay Glacier, moved along through 
the valley the middle of which lies between Green Bay and Lake 
Winnebago. For a stretch of about one hundred fifty miles the rims 
of these two glaciers either touched each other, or they were separ- 
ated by the accumulations of the moraine. As it is with all glaciers, 
the ice slowly moved from the center toward the borders. Imbedded 
in the ice, a mass of stones, from the size of a pebble to that of im- 
mense boulders, were dragged along and deposited at the edges of the 

The chains of hills which traverse the county from the north-north- 
east to the south-southwest are made up of debris dumped there from 
the edges of the glaciers. Here the Michigan and Green Bay glaciers 
met. These ranges of hills are called kettle moraines, because they 
were piled up as though in huge caldrons, the sides of which consisted 
of walls of ice one hundred and more feet high. The continuous 
melting of the ice at the rims of both glaciers produced an enormous 
amount of water which could be drained only through the kettle. 
Thug the debris was piled up, creating the ranges of hills running 
nearly parallel and consisting of gravel. Each range indicates the po- 
sition of the glacier's edge at the time, which would advance or retreat 


according to the prevailing climatic conditions. A cross section 
through the elevations of this area would show from three to five 
ranges of hills which occasionally unite in acute angles. 

A most impressive view of the kettle moraine is gained from the 
hill half a mile west of the depot at Schleisingerville. Looking 
toward east, the village is relieved against a background so abrupt 
and distorted as to appear like a pile of hills dumped one upon another. 
To the west, over one hundred feet below the spectator, extends 
the slightly rolling ground moraine which was formed below the 
ice of the Green Bay glacier. Between the kettle moraine in the 
east and the ground moraine in the west lies a strip of low lands 
several miles broad, partly swampy and occasionally interrupted by 
groups of hills which are also the work of the receding glaciers. 
The ranges and hills rise from one hundred to several hundred feet 
above the plain at their bases. 

The valleys between the chains of hills indicate the drainage lines 
of the water from the glaciers. As a valley could drain the water 
only as long as the ice stood on one or both sides dumping debris 
into it, it cannot be expected that these valleys look like well developed 
river beds. The last of the drainage lines on the side of the Green 
Bay glacier was the low land at the western foot of the moraine, 
as mentioned above. It includes the trough of Pike lake. On the 
side of the Michigan glacier, at the eastern foot of the moraine, the 
Silver creek and the lakes and swamps through which it flows mark 
in part the last drainage line of that sheet of ice. Like the lowlands 
to the west, those east of the ranges are dotted with more or less 
isolated hills ; occasionally they appear as islands in the marshes. A 
well developed area of such hills is found between Little Cedar lake 
and Silver lake; tongue-like it extends from the high ridge of the 
moraine toward southeast. East of the Silver creek the plain at 
places shows deep depressions, shaped like kettles, which give quite 
a romantic touch to the country. These kettles are especially con- 
spicuous on the east side of Silver lake. There gigantic blocks of ice 
broke away from the receding glacier, which were imbedded in sand 
and gravel. When the ice was at last melted, the kettles remained. 
The process may have lasted hundreds of years, perhaps longer. 

In this way the climax of scenic beauty in the county was created : 
Big Cedar lake. The accidental inclosure between morainic ridges, 
and the partial filling of the trough with immense chunks of ice, are, 
according to Prof. N. M. Fenneman who has made a thorough geo- 
logical investigation of these parts, factors which in the genesis of the 


lake can be traced with certainty. Its rocky bottom lies buried too 
deeply below the drift to gain satisfactory knowledge of pre-glacial 
soil conditions. At Hartford, six miles southwest, the paleozoic lime- 
stone is found near the surface of the ground, and on both shores 
of Little Cedar lake, about a mile east of Big Cedar, the same rock 
is found only ten feet below the surface of the water, or about thirty 
feet below the surface of Big Cedar. The rocky stratum below the 
latter lake therefore lies much deeper than at its sides. Consequently, 
there existed a pre-glacial depression which, however, did not cause 
the trough of the lake, but only resulted in its greater depth. The 
deepest place in this lake measures 105 feet. The origin of Little 
Cedar lake and the other lakes of the vicinity is traced back to the 
same immense forces of nature. They are all fed by subterraneous 
springs which, it is believed, in part originate from residual ice de- 
posits buried deeply in the morainic accumulations. 

The shores of these lakes, consisting of such loose material as 
cobble-stones, gravel and sand, necessarily underwent many changes 
since their origin, and these will continue in the unbroken chain of 
cause and effect. This may be demonstrated on a peninsula of Big 
Cedar lake. Linden Point. The peninsula at one time was an island 
that rose 35 feet above water. Its base unmistakably shows traces 
of cuts made by waves. Those on the west side originated in a period 
when the currents from the south flowed uninterruptedly through 
the channel between the island and the mainland, which was over 
one-eight of a mile wide. In the course of shore construction the 
currents from the north and the south were compelled to use the 
larger channel on the east side of the island, and the comparatively 
quiet water in the rear of it received the material which the currents 
dragged along from the island and the steep shores to the south. 
From the mainland and the island tongues of land, or spits, ex- 
tended which finally united, finishing in a miniature isthmus. This 
in a prettily swung curve has adapted itself to the currents of the 
shore to the south. The stagnant water to the north is filled with 
bulrushes and weeds — the vanguard which in the natural course of 
things at some future time will be followed by the mainland. 

The water which since the solidification of the surface of our planet, 
the fiery sun-bom child Gaea, played such an important part and 
caused the "coat of mold" on which we living creatures scamper 
around continues to work out its task assigned by the Supreme Will. 
It works on big and little scales. Slowly but untiringly it tears down 
what it had once built up — to use the units for something new. 


But how could this terrific glacial period come over the country, 
which nevertheless fathered the most chamiing landscapes of the 
county? Eduard Hinze in his "Schopfung der Erde" offers the fol- 
lowing explanation : 

"The first attempts at an explanation reached back to astronomical 
causes. It was held that the sun at a very remote period radiated less 
heat, and consequently our latitudes had an arctic climate. This ex- 
planation is correct, however it needs a hypothesis: the diminishing 
heat of the sun. Then they believed to have found the cause of the 
glacial period in the fact that within a period of 21,000 years one-half 
of the globe receives a little more warmth and light than the other; 
but this hypothesis, too, was not regarded as sufficient cause by sci- 
entists. The famous geologist Lyell, on the contrary, endeavored to 
show that solely in our geographical conditions the cause of the former 
extent of the ice is to be found. The influence of the distribution of 
water and land, according to him, causes the climatic changes even to 
the complete glaciation. He especially pointed to the effects of the 
ocean currents. Penk called attention to the fact that the predom- 
inating system of winds, especially the so-called region of calms, is 
shifting. With it the trade-winds will wander, and with these again 
the ocean currents. On that half of the globe which carries the region 
of calms, the trade-winds are blowing, according to Penk, and with 
these the tepid waters from the other half flow in, and the higher the 
latitudes are in which the zone of the calms lies, the stronger will be 
the overflow of warm waters. That half of the globe which has the 
longest summers and consequently (as is accepted) carries the zone of 
the calms, receives through the ocean currents a part of that warmth 
which the sun had originally meted out to the other half. Its seas 
are warmed, while those of the latter give off heat. The cooler hemis- 
phere then has a cold ocean climate which greatly favors snow and 
the formation of glaciers. These, if once started, will bring the cold 
down from higher regions into lower ones, and, as Penk puts it, let 
temperate climes share of the cold which other regions produced. 
With the spreading of glaciers the temperature is considerably shifted, 
and in the vicinity of big masses of ice a change of the climate condi- 
tions must necessarily take place. For a considerable deployment of 
glaciers, for the inauguration of a true glacial period, not such a se- 
vere cold is, after all, needed as one is inclined to think. Continuous, 
severe winters, without the changes of freezing and thawing, will not 
allow the formation of glaciers, while cool, rainy summers will 
favor it." 


MOSI AS Till (J A( 




Washington county in that remote period wore a mail of ice like 
parts of Alaska, or Greenland, do at the present time. Simultaneously 
— geology calls the age the diluvium — Europe and Asia had their 
glacial times. 

Since Milwaukee and Chicago grew to be great cities. Big Cedar 
lake is one of the many Wisconsin lakes favored by that lucky part of 
their population who can afford to spend part or all of the summer in 
the country. Quite a number of hotels, splendid summer homes, as 
well as modest cottages rose on its shores, where the jaded city- 
dwellers seek and find recreation at the bosom of Nature, in sweet, 
pure, and invigorating air, and among charming scenery. The smaller 
lakes in the neighborhood with their peculiar, coy, primeval beauty 
share this favor. They are sought by those who want real rest, or 
exercise like swimming, rowing and walking in the most healthful 
surroundings, or who would be all themselves for a spell. The summer 
guests, steady or transient, leave quite a little money in the county. 



After the disappearance of the glaciers and the return of a milder 
clime it must have taken a vast amount of time before the bleak gravel 
hills and valleys and the plains of sand and clay could sustain plant 
life, and clothe themselves with a luxuriant vegetation. It must have 
taken longer for animal life to appear and find sustenance. And it 
still was in prehistoric times when the first man set his foot on these 

Before the dawn of history, ere the Indian regarded North America 
as his hunting grounds, a people lived here whom posterity gave the 
name of "Moundbuilders." They did not leave any written docu- 
ments, or signs carved in stone, and so they were called after the 
mounds or hillocks which they are supposed to have thrown up, and 
which are of various shape, including contours of animals, and even of 
man. The existence of this people is to a great extent mythical. 
Where did they come from ? What became of them ? Nobody knows. 
The strange earthworks alone tell us of their whilom presence, and 
they speak an extremely curt language. 

The mounds which are ascribed to the Moundbuilders are found — 
a peculiar fact — almost exclusively in the state of Wisconsin, com- 
paratively few, however, in Washington county. Mounds, it is true, 
the first settlers found in goodly numbers, and many an old farmer 
will remember how he plowed them down to get them out of the way. 
But they were most likely of a later date, they had not the outlines 
of animals, but were mostly rectangular, or rounded, and served as 
burial places for the Indians, as the quite well preserved skeletons 
found in them seem to prove. In this class also belong the Indian 
cornfields which were found plentifully in the county, and which were 
laid out on artificially banked-up ground. Although since their aban- 
donment woods had grown on them, the first settlers could very well 
discern the rows with their little hills and furrows. Many of these 
queer earthworks have been preserved up to modem times, as in the 
towns of Erin, Farmington, and West Bend. 



Because animal mounds were found nowhere in the county, the town 
of Farmington alone excepted, it is not believed that the Moundbuild- 
ers lived here in large numbers. It was diiferent in the neighboring 
counties of Milwaukee and Waukesha, where near the mouth of the 
Milwaukee river and on the banks of the Rock river numerous of 
their specific mounds or tumuli were found, and where they must have 
lived in large numbers. But there can be no doubt about their hav- 
ing very diligently pursued the hunting and fishing chances in the 
western part of the county as far as Big Cedar lake, and still farther 
east to Silver lake. In this vicinity have been found, and are still 
plowed out of the ground, numerous objects wherewith they dexter- 
ously took the game of the air, the ground and the water. They con- 
sist of arrowheads, fish spears, lances, knives, axes with holes for 
the handle, chisels and needles primitively made of metal, mostly 
copper, also pottery for cooking purposes made of burned clay and 
adorned with something like the unmistakable beginning of a regular 
design. The workmanship of all these things proves that the skill of 
these artisans was far superior to that of the Indians. It was pre- 
sumed that the Moundbuilders got the copper, out of which they made 
these things from the vicinity of Lake Superior, on the southern 
shore of which traces of prehistoric copper mining, shafts with lad- 
ders and galleries, have been found. But if it is considered that up 
to this day lumps of native copper weighing from a few ounces up to 
many pounds are found in the diluvial soil, which the glaciers had 
together with the rocks torn off and on their backs toted down from 
the north, it may be allowed to assert with some claim as to plausibility 
that these half-fabulous natives, as far as they lived or hunted in this 
vicinity, simply stooped down to pick up the reddish metal when they 
unearthed it while building their mounds, to shape it for their pur- 

Attention may here be called to the remarkable fact that in North 
America the stone age succeeded the copper age, and that the culture 
of the first epoch, however crude it was, experienced a vast retro- 
gression in the second, while in Europe just the reverse took place, i. e. 
the bronze age followed the stone age. 

The only earthworks of considerable extent in the county, which 
with a fair degree of certainty can be traced back to the Mound- 
builders, are found in the town of Farmington. The mounds are con- 
structed of sand, of which the upper stratum of the soil in that town 
for the most part consists. They are piled up to a stupendous extent 
without a corresponding cavity in the ground from which we would 


expect the masses of sand to have been taken. Their height varies 
from one and a half to five feet, some with undiscernible shapes are 
even higher, and all most likely were higher at the outset of their ex- 
istence because the wind must have blown away a good deal of the 
sand. On one farm are two tumuli which have the outlines of men. 
One is 1 80 feet long, and the other 200 feet, and their height is about 
five feet. Head, rump, arms and legs are easily discernible, while the 
distance between the finger tips of the outstretched anns of one of 
the figures measures about 100 feet. On the same farm a mound is 
to be seen which has the contours of an immense lizard. 

When the Indians living in that vicinity were asked whether they 
were the originators of those earthworks, they shook their heads. 
They knew nothing of them except that they always had been there 
— it was the same answer Chidher the Eternal Youth received when 
he visited a certain spot on earth once every 500 years to see the 
changes it had gone through, a legend put into verse by that wistful 
German poet, Friedrich Rueckert. 

A burial place of veritable giants was found years ago on a farm 
close to these strange earthworks. Some farmers were loading gravel 
to build a road with, when in a layer of sand they found a mass of 
human bones. They were struck with their size and put a skeleton 
together which measured eight feet from the top of the skull to the 
bottom of the heel bone. Alive, the owner of the bones must have 
been a regular giant. The skull was well preserved, and in the jaws 
stuck teeth that measured one inch in length. It did not have the pro- 
truding cheek bones of the Indian skull, and therefore pointed to a 
different race of men. Soon after their contact with the air, the bones 
were reduced to dust which would warrant their great age ; the skull 
alone did not crumble. 

From the same grave which was only a few feet away from a 
dwelling house — a circumstance which caused a mild shudder in the 
farmer's family — about six bushel baskets full of human bones were 
gathered. They lay under only four feet of sand, but most likely the 
wind had blown away part of the cover. In two places the sand 
above the bones had hard, rusty brown veins which like rays branched 
off toward the surface — the petrified results of decomposition. Most 
likely this too was a grave of aborigines. What had happened here 
in prehistoric times? Had it been something terrible, or did these 
men die in a peaceful way? 

Often farmers and other people who more or less may lay claim to 
the title of archeologists have tried to examine the animal or picture 


mounds. But all they found after they had bored or shoveled to 
the level of the surrounding soil was a thin layer of charred matter, 
a proof that something had been burned. Below that they came upon 
gravel which forms the sub-stratum of the sand. Who were the 
Mound builders ? Will the question ever be answered ? 

Not only is the origin of the Moundbuilders but also that of the 
Indians shrouded in a veil of mystery. Human remains found in 
Europe, as in the Leander valley, prove that man existed long before 
historical times. In America, too, parts of human skeletons and ex- 
amples of handicraft have been found together with bones of extinct 
mammalia. For example in Ouadaloupe, near Natchez in Missouri, 
in New Orleans, in the coral reefs of Florida, in Kansas, etc. In 
Florida the eminent scientist Agassiz found human bones the age of 
which he estimated to be 10,000 years. Dr. Dowler found some buried 
beneath four sunken forests in the delta of the Mississippi near New 
Orleans, and believes to be right in judging their age to be 50,000 
years. Human bones have also been discovered in the pliocene forma- 
tion of California. 

In the valleys of the Mississippi, the Ohio, and the Missouri rivers 
the settlers met with extensive earthworks, some reminding of sim- 
ilar ones in Mesopotamia, and others of the amphitheaters of the 
Romans and Greeks. In Mexico they attain the form of pyramids 
with four sides and steps leading to the flat top on which stands a 
temple or Teocalli. Europe received its first knowledge of these monu- 
ments through the great explorer and scientist Alexander von Hum- 
boldt. There also exist smaller tumuli which most likely served as 
tombs. These earthworks are from 1,000 to 2,000 feet square and 
from 60 to 90 feet high. They are not unlike the giant tumulus of 
Alyattes near Sardes. There is one in the state of Mississippi, which 
is said to cover a ground space of six acres. The earthworks found in 
the vicinity of the Mississippi river probably served as ramparts for 
defensive purposes. They are from 6 to 30 feet high and enclose 
spaces from 100 to 600 acres; their shape is either circular, or square, 
or rectangular. R. C. Taylor presumes that the animal mounds of 
Wisconsin are monuments for the dead. 

Could it be that the Moundbuilders were the people alluded to in 
the Iceland sagas as inhabiting New Iceland? The traditions of the 
Iroquois tell that their ancestors, the Lenni Lenapi, migrated from 
the northwest to the Mississippi, in the eastern valley of which a great 
civilized nation lived in fortified places, tilling the soil. They allowed 
the Lenni Lenapi the trespass of their country, but attacked them 


treacherously while they were crossing the river. A war followed 
which ended with a victory of the Indians. 

Does the idea seem incongruous that a thousand or more years ago 
there was a war fought in Wisconsin between the yellow and the 
white races, between a Germanic and a Mongolian people, in which 
the latter were victorious? For if the Moundbuilders came from 
Iceland — a supposition which is not altogether unfounded — they must 
have been Teutons, and if the Indians came from the eastern coast 
of Asia, they were Mongolians. The "Yellow Peril" which is a topic 
of the day, would then have had a precedent in America. 



The monuments of prehistoric times, which still exist in the town 
of Farmington and which are ascribed to that mysterious people, the 
Moundbuilders, had at last aroused my curiosity to such a degree that 
I could not bridle it any longer and simply had to go and look at 
them. It was on a warm afternoon in May when I with five com- 
panions, started from West Bend. We had agreed to walk as the 
crow flies, as much as possible, to cut off some of the distance which is 
about five miles. For almost two miles we followed the railroad track 
toward north. The Milwaukee river, being dammed below, and for 
that reason assuming a Mississippi-like width, glided past to our left. 
The brownish water outside the channel was dotted with black tree 
stumps, drear remnants of a woodland of yore. 

Spring had been exceptionally tardy ; or rather, it did not come at 
all, for summer almost stepped on the heels of winter. The warmth 
contrasted strongly with the few green things that had ventured out. 
The willows were just putting "on the first leaves, and on the trees the 
first buds were bursting, some were yet all but bare. And still we were 
in the second half of the "merry month." On the swamps the yellow, 
dried-up cat-tails of last year were still rustling. But the air was 
full of the joy of spring: Red-winged blackbirds, bluebirds, robins, 
meadow-larks, woodpeckers and the rest of the winged chorus gave 
their grand concert. Occasionally a ruby-colored humming bird darted 
past. The first violets peeped out of the young grass. 

We were in no mood to hurry. One of us carried a shot-gun, and 
because no other game came before its muzzle, he emptied it into a 
bull-frog in a swamp. It was the biggest bull-frog that I ever beheld, 
and with outstretched hind legs measured about a foot. In about two 
hours we arrived at the farm, owned by J. Myers, on which the mounds 
are. We soon saw that it would be well to take a guide along. Nearby 
in a field two boys were planting com, two affable and intelligent young 
lads who were willing to be our cicerones. 


First we came to the "Horses," two mounds lying closely together 
and having the outlines of horses. They may be about 50 feet long and 
2 to 3 feet high. We then came upon the "Lizard." The head, legs 
and tail of the saurian can be plainly distinguished. It is 250 feet 
long, the front legs taken together measure 50 feet, and the hind legs 
52 feet. This mound is a little higher than the "Horses." A few 
trees stood around these mounds. We now went into a denser wood- 
land. Here we found a real maze of mounds some of them six 
feet high and higher, but without discernible animal shapes. Perhaps 
time had effaced them. At last we came upon a mound shaped like a 
man with outstretched arms, measuring 200 feet from head to foot. 
The head, body and limbs were plainly there. One of us made the re- 
mark that he looked like George Washington, for it seemed as though 
he was wearing the three-cornered hat of revolutionary days. Our 
guide told us that in a field a short distance away another mound of 
human shape existed, but that both legs had already been plowed 

All of these mounds or tumuli are rounded off at their crest, their 
sides rising either abruptly or gradually from the surrounding soil, 
according to their height. On some of them trees as thick as a foot 
and a half in diameter are growing. The building material is sand 
which forms the top layer of the ground for miles around. They 
are covered with grass and brush which prevented their being leveled 
by the winds, and which preserved their outlines through many cen- 
turies up to the present day. The woodland surrounding them is 
mostly composed of maple trees. On some of the mounds more or 
less digging by less adept than curious people had been going on, for 
considerable portions of the original shape are missing. It is said 
Ihat a summer guest from Cedar lake spent an entire summer here 
digging, and when he found nothing of the builders, had some bones 
sent from his home in another state, of which he triumphantly claimed 
that he had unearthed them at the mounds. The gentleman seems to 
have made a mess of paleontology and sport. We were told that the 
strange earthworks are annually visited by many people from many 
parts of the Union. 

The impression which these mute witnesses of an extinct people 
leave on the mind of the spectator is deep and singular, but mixed 
with some disappointment. For they are no ruins of old temples or 
tombs, still grand in their crumbling state, but simple piles of earth 
which in their crude outlines imitate the form of living beings. Their 
immense size and our utter ignorance of the people who threw them 


up are the only moments that are imposing and amazing. Nature here 
has let an entire people disappear without seeming to mind it. Judged 
by this, how little and unimportant must the individual be to her! 
Such thoughts strike the meditating visitor who stands before these 
figures of sand with about the same perplexity as before the Egyptian 

1 could not get rid of the impression that I was on a burial place, 
that these mounds had been erected to the memory of departed loved 
ones, that they are altars at which before the gray dawn of history 
the sorrow and the hope of mankind had prayed. A people who could 
honor their dead with such stupendous works were no savages, but 
had climbed a good number of rungs on the ladder of civilization. 
Their innemiost being is lucidly revealed here even if their origin 
and history will stay a puzzle forever. 

We had two cameras with us, and took some pictures of the mounds, 
but the efforts were in vain. For owing to the great extent of the 
objects and the little contrast with the surroundings, the elevations are 
hardly visible on the photographic film or plate. After we had taken 
a snap shot at our two guides seated on a mound, to repay their troubles 
with a few photographs, for money they would not take, we started 
for home. Instead of taking the road, we walked across the fields in 
a southwestern direction to the lakes near Barton, taking the big ice- 
houses as loadstar, where a good deal of the ice that is annually used 
in Milwaukee is stored up. How many barb wire and snake fences we 
had to wriggle through or climb, I don't know. In the dusk we ar- 
rived at home, thoroughly tired, but certain of having seen something 
that was worth all the trouble to see, and that will never be forgotten. 



The former Indian population of Washington county is for the first 
time mentioned in the reports of the Jesuit Fathers La Salle and Hen- 
nepin. On a journey in the year 1679 they and their companions were 
compelled by rough weather, perhaps also by other causes arising 
from traveling in frail crafts on Lake Michigan, to land at the mouth 
of Sauk creek. There they found a village of Pottawatomie Indians 
who had entered an eternal peace treaty with the tribes of the Sacs 
(Sauks, Ozaukies) and the Foxes. The three tribes freely mingled 
with each other and had their hunting grounds in common. They 
belonged to the family of the Algonquins. One hundred and fifty 
years afterwards the Pottawatomies were found virtually in the same 
places in which the old missionaries had met them. But a change 
was preparing. 

The first settlers could notice how the Pottawatomies slowly pushed 
to the south and the west. The vacated country was peopled by the 
Menomonies who also belonged to the great family of the Algonquins 
and heretofore lived in the southwest, where Waukesha county lies to- 
day. At the time the Indians ceded their land to the government, the 
Menomonies lived east and north, and the Pottawatomies west and 
south of the Milwaukee river. 

In the treaty of February 8, 1831, the Menomonies ceded their land 
to the government; about two and one-half years later, on September 
26, 1833, the Pottawatomies followed their example. The treaty of 
the latter was ratified on February 21, 1835, but the Indians had a 
clause inserted which left them in possession of the land for three more 
years. So it happened that the country east and north of the Milwau- 
kee river was opened for settlement seven years earlier than that west 
and south. The tribes were removed to reservations west of the Mis- 

Many of the transplanted Indians, however, longed for their old 

cherished hunting grounds ; they wandered back singly and congregated 

roi. 1—2 



in villages, living among the settlements of the whites and sustaining 
life with hunting and begging. After a while, Solomon Juneau, "the 
William Penn of Wisconsin," induced them to return to their reser- 

One of these Indian villages, quite a large one, was a short distance 
south of West Bend, near the shore of Silver lake; another one lay 
on the eastern shore of Pike lake in the town of Hartford. But the 
only places in the county which have adopted an Indian name are the 
town and the village of Kewaskum. It was the name of a noble chief 
of the Pottawatomies, who with his community lived near the village 
that today bears his name. The wigwam lay on a hill of considerable 
height, which ever since is called the "Indian Hill." It has on its top 
a roomy depression which afforded protection from rough winds. In 
the vicinity the grave of Kewaskum is shown up to the present day. 

No wonder the Indians found it so hard to forget their old hunt- 
ing grounds in the county. The primeval wilds in their grandeur 
had nothing superior in all the state. The ground was covered with 
forests of oak, maple, beech, elm, basswood, cedar, birch and hickory ; 
they were so dense that one could not see for more than a few rods 
in any direction. Between the trunks the wild vine hung its festoons. 
The many streams, creeks, rivulets and rivers, fed by thousands of 
bubbling springs, were lined with willow, elder and lilac. The low- 
lands had been picked out by the tamarack and juniper. Anything 
that would grow in a wild state in a temperate clime, whether tree, 
shrub, herb, or flower, could be found here. And the game ! It is al- 
most incredible what the oldest settlers tell of it. One could not walk 
for a mile without a deer running across the way. Millions of pass- 
enger pigeons were cooing at the water courses. When they came in 
spring their immense flocks would cloud the sun. Today they seem 
to be exterminated. Partridges also lived here in great numbers. An 
old settler once saw a bevy of partridges alight on a hickory tree 
which under their weight bent to the ground and snapped. The lakes 
were covered with water fowl. The only reminder today of the 
once teeming animal life are the songbirds which in such numbers are 
said to be found nowhere else in the state. But even their variety 
has been lessened. The redbird of pioneer days no longer is seen in 
these parts. (The Hon. S. S. Barney, judge of the U. S. Court of 
Claims, in an address at the tenth anniversary of the West Bend Pub- 
lic library, Oct. 7, 1911.) There was a lot of other game besides, and 
the lakes and streams were full of fish. It must have been a prototype, 


or something close to it, of the Indians' happy hunting ground, or 
the Eden of the redskin. 

Proofs of their dihgence as hunters are plentiful. There was 
hardly an old settler who did not possess a collection of flint arrow 
and spear heads and knives, stone hatchets and axes and spuds that he 
had plowed up from his fields. Indian trails, at some places sunk 
to three feet into the ground, ran in all directions, and because they 
were chosen with great care as to surface conditions, some of them 
were later widened to roads. 

With the whites the Indians were on friendly terms. They were 
honest and appreciative of favors. Animosities, or bloody wars be- 
tween the two races, which stained advancing civilization in other parts 
of the country, were unknown here. A noble trait in the character 
of the redskins was that although to sustain their life they had to do 
considerable begging, they always tried to be of some service to their 
benefactors, or pay them back with something that might be of use 
to them. It is true, they had a great foible for "Goodnatosh" (fire 
water, whiskey), and for a jug full of it they would willingly give the 
result of a whole day's hunting. On their little clearings they laid 
out their peculiar cornfields on which they raised com with irregular 
rows of kernels on the cobs, but of a superior taste. 

The squaws did all of the manual labor ; they were admirably skilled 
in making baskets of bast which were so tight that in them they could 
cook maple sugar over a fire. The bucks spent their time hunting and 
fishing. They walked in single file, if there happened to be several 
of them, or rode on ponies, and it was a droll contrast indeed when 
an especially lank Indian sat astride on one of the little animals, his 
leather pants showing slits like rifts on the sides. 

It is a long time since the red man has disappeared from the county, 
but a kindly remembrance of him he did leave behind. 



The fur trade with the Indians and the zeal of the Jesuit Fathers 
to spread Christianity among the savages most hkely brought the first 
white men for a longer stay to the shore of old Washington county 
which formerly extended as far as Lake Michigan. This, according 
to the old mission journals, happened in the summer of 1673. Two 
years previous, in 1671, the country came into the possession of the 
crown of France, to which it belonged for ninety years^ thereafter. 
The French reign, however, was felt very little, and only fur traders 
and missionaries tried to bring the red son of the wilderness under 
their civilizing influences. 

In May, 1673, the adventurer and fur trader Louis Joliet and the 
Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette with three companions in two In- 
dian canoes had on an exploration trip started from the Straits of 
Michilimackinac, the water way which connects Lake Huron and Lake 
Michigan. They paddled along the northern shore, always keeping 
the land in sight, for their flimsy conveyances would not have 
withstood hard weather on the lake. When the dusk fell, they 
turned to the shore to go into camp for the night. In this way they 
reached the Green Bay and ascended the Fox river to a point where 
later the Portage was founded. There they engaged some Indians 
to guide them to the Wisconsin river which was not far away. On 
that river they glided down into the Mississippi, and on the back of 
the Father of the Rivers they continued their journey to the mouth 
of the Arkansas river. Then they again paddled their canoes up the 
Mississippi and by way of the Illinois river reached Lake Michigan. 
Along the western shore of the lake they proceeded to the newly 
founded mission at the Green Bay. 

From their mode of traveling it may be presumed with the best 
chance to hit the truth that the party spent at least one night on the 
shore of old Washington county. They probably landed at the mouth 
of Sauk creek which could be easily reached in a day after leaving 



the mouth of the Milwaukee river. It was the place where the steep 
high shores of red clay retreat for a distance, forming the trough in 
which the business portion of Port Washington now lies, and which 
m a former era most likely was washed out by the Sauk creek seeking 
entrance to the lake, after the clay which, as science tells us, is of 
lacustrine origin, had by plutonic forces been lifted up from the bottom 
of Lake Michigan. 

Autumn had put golden and purple tints on the leaves when the 
expedition took to the shore. It is said that from here Marquette 
made a side trip to the unknown inland and traveled some twenty 
miles west until he reached a hill of dominant height. The legend 
of Lapham's Peak, or Holy Hill, as it is called since the advent of 
the pilgrimages to its summit, 824 feet above the surrounding country, 
relates how Father Marquette ascended the steep hill and planted a 
cross on its top, dedicating the place to his patron saint, the Virgin 

In October of the following year Marquette with two white com- 
panions (Pierre and Jacques) and ten canoes full of Pottawatomie 
and Illinois Indians undertook another trip south along the western 
shore of Lake Michigan to the mouth of the Chicago river. The 
journey took a month, and it is assumed that this party too landed at 
the mouth of the Sauk creek. If Marquette at any time made a 
stop there, it must have been on the previous or on this journey, 
for on his return he died and was buried on the eastern shore of 
Lake Michigan. 

Another expedition which followed the route of the last one and 
which had for its object the christianizing of the Indians and the 
establishing of trading and military ports was started upon by the 
Jesuit Fathers La Salle and Hennepin and twelve companions in 
September, 1679. Mention of this trip has already been made in 
the chapter on the Indians. They used four canoes, and on their way 
were subject to the fury of the storm-swept Michigan, and ivere often 
compelled to make for the shore. 

One evening the raging elements again drove them ashore. Their 
provisions had been exhausted or spoiled by the waves dashing over- 
board, and they were glad to find tractable Indians who supplied 
them with com for which they paid out of their store of barter 
articles. Because this was the last landing north of the Milwaukee 
river, it is supposed to have been on the ground of old Washington 

In the seventeenth century two more white men, Henry de Fonty 


and St. Cosme, journeyed by water along the western shore of Lake 
Michigan. The latter in 1699 found an Indian village at the mouth 
of a rivulet, probably that of the Sauk creek. There he learned 
that in the preceding winter a Jesuit missionary had lived and worked 
among the Indians of the place, and the wooden cross which he 
erected was still up, a witness of his labors. His name was Joseph 
J. Marest, and he most likely was the first white man who lived in 
the county. 

During the entire eighteenth century nothing worthy of Clio's pencil 
seems to have happened in the parts known later as Washington county. 
We will shortly recite the vicissitudes they went through as a parcel 
of a vast territory. In 1761 England, after the Seven Years' War 
with France, took possession of the West which included the future 
state of Wisconsin, then a "howling wilderness" without any real 
settlers. The English rule — if such it can be called — lasted till 
1796, although after the revolutionary war and since the treaty of 
peace with Great Britain the country belonged to the United States 
and was a part of the "Northwestern Territory." For a time the 
eastern part of the county was embodied in a vast stretch of land 
including the states of Indiana, Michigan, and portions of Ohio and 
Illinois, all of which was named Wayne county. Since July 4, 1800, 
Wisconsin was a part of the "Territory of Indiana." March 2, 1809, 
it was transferred to the "Territory of Illinois," except a small por- 
tion between the Green Bay and Lake Michigan. In 18 18 it was 
attached to "Michigan Territory." July 3, 1836, Wisconsin was 
made a territory, its name of Indian origin and meaning "wild 
rushing water" appearing for the first time. It then included Iowa, 
Minnesota and a part of Dakota. May 29, 1848, Wisconsin became 
a state with boundaries as they exist today. 



In this chapter it is attempted to present a short history of the 
beginning of the several townships. Only the names of the very 
first few settlers will be mentioned, for it would be beyond the com- 
pass of this work to tell of all who with their brawny arms have 
swung the ax of the settler, and it would not be meet to overburden 
a work that should be entertaining as well as instructive with names, 
however deserving their bearers may be. 

Town Addison. — By an act of the Legislature the town of Addi- 
son was incorporated on January 21, 1846. It included the ter- 
ritory of the town of Wayne. On March 11, 1848, by another act, 
the latter was separated and the present town line established. Tim- 
othy Hall, the first settler of the town of Hartford, found at his 
arrival in July, 1843 Alfred Ohrendorf to be the only settler in all 
of Town Addison. He had settled on Limestone creek, close to the 
Fond du Lac Road. In the same summer Uriel S. Wordsworth 
took up land two miles farther away. Hall helped him build his 
log house. In 1844 four more settlers, Simeon Aaron Andrus, 
Harmon Ostrander, and Jacob and Franz Stuesser, arrived in the 
town. Following them, and during 1845, the pioneers came in squads 
and platoons to take possession of the teeming wilds. On April 7, 
1846, the first town meeting was held in the home of Caleb Spauld- 
ing. It was resolved to levy $50 for incidenta:l expenses, and $9 
for the poor fund, furthermore that the town officers shall be paid 
$1 a day for services and that pigs shall not be left running at large. 
The first street built by the town commenced near the house of 
J. W. Dickerson and led in a northwesterly direction to the town 
line. At the first election in November, 1846, a total of 44 votes were 
cast. Among the first settlers of the town was Lehmann Rosenheimer 
who in 1844 arrived with his young wife and bought a farm. In 
Germany he had learned the butcher's trade, and this vocation he 
continued here, besides doing a lively business as a drover. He ac- 


quired extensive tracts of land in the town, and in 1856 removed to 
Schleisingerville in the town of Polk. Another Gemian whose name 
stands out prominently among the old settlers was John Schlagen- 
haft. He came in 1850 and was the first Catholic layman who settled 
in the town. In 185 1 Father Bieter of Hartford read the first mass 
in the old church of SS. Peter and Paul, which was built of logs. 
The surroundings were as primitive as the church. 

Town Barton This town, originally called "Town Newark," 

was in 1848 sliced off from the town of West Bend to the south and 
the town of North Bend (now Town Kewaskum) to the north. On 
November 25, 1853, the county board re-baptized it "Barton," in 
honor of its first pioneer, Barton Salisbury. In the home of Martin 
Foster (the site now lies in the village of Barton) on October 16, 
1848, the first town meeting was called to order. John K. Avery 
was the moderator, and Samuel H. Alcot the secretary. After being 
organized, the meeting repaired to the schoolhouse where the election 
of officers was held. The schoolhouse was built of logs, and had 
formerly served as living quarters for Barton Salisbury who on an 
exploration trip along the winding course of the Milwaukee river in 
1845 had decided to settle here. When in the following year he 
built for himself a frame house, the log shanty was turned over to the 
cause of education, yet in its swaddling clothes like the rest of the 
community. At the election aforesaid thirty-seven votes were cast. 
A coffee pot served as a ballot box. The first assessment of all tax- 
able property in the towns of Barton, Trenton, West Bend, Farm- 
ington, and Kewaskum showed as a grand total the sum of $3,700. 
The old log schoolhouse in the village of Barton was the accepted 
meeting place of the old pioneers. They gathered there to talk over 
the questions of the hour as well as to perpetrate many a stunt. From 
all over the country they came. One evening they had a sham session 
of the Legislature. Hank Totten was elected governor, and Reuben 
Rusco secretary of state. Each town in the county had a representa- 
tive. But when these had assembled it was found that the secretary 
of state had mysteriously disappeared. The doorkeeper was ordered 
to look for him and bring him back as quick as possible. He found 
the recalcitrant officer way off in the woods where he and another 
deserter were deeply absorbed in a game of Seven-up on a spacious tree 
stump. After the governor's order had been read to him, he thought 
it best to leave the jacks, spades, clubs, aces, etc., and betake himself 
to the schoolhouse. The session was a highly humorous one. No 
burning question, whether touching upon state or national affairs, 


escaped the tongs of the joke-smiths. The bull's eye was hit by a 
legislator who claimed to represent the territory east of Ozaukee, 
consequently Lake Michigan, by rising and in a demosthenic appeal 
claiming equal rights for all fishes. The assembly was of the opinion 
that the champion of the fishes' rights should be soaked in cider. 
Whereupon they adjourned. 

Toum Erin. — As the name suggests, the first settlers of this town- 
ship were Irish — they were Catholics from the Emerald Isle. 
Michael Lynch on November 27, 1841, was the first one to take up 
Government land. In the following two years the valleys fairly 
resounded with the efforts of the Ryans, Quinns, Daleys, Fitzgeralds, 
Welches, Donohues, Murphys, McCormicks, Gallaghers, McLaugh- 
lins and others of distinctly Gaelic lineage to create a home in that 
most hilly portion of the county. German names among the first 
settlers are rare exceptions. By 1846 the last patch of arable land 
was taken. The town was well settled before the first tree was 
felled in the town of Hartford. Town Erin was incorporated on 
Jan. 16, 1846. On April 6, 1846, the first town meeting was held 
in the home of Patrick Toland. At the election of the town otificers 
seventy-four votes were polled. The first mass was said in the 
home of Barney Conwell by Rev. Kundig. The priest had come on 
foot — per pedes apostolorum — from Prairieville (now Waukesha). 
Soon afterwards at Monches, a tiny hamlet of the town, a little log 
church was built, and in it gathered for years the pious settlers of 
the town, devoted to the Church of Rome. In 1857 at Thompson's 
postoffice the second Catholic church, a frame structure, was erected. 
Politically, Town Erin was from the very beginning of its existence 
the stronghold of the Democratic party in Washington county. Until 
1859 nobody who was not a Democrat could poll a vote. Lincoln 
in i860 was the first one to effect a breach in that solid phalanx. 
He got one vote. But the election officers thought that it certainly 
must have been a mistake, and — threw it out. Since then the Re- 
publican party slowly gained ground. In the next few elections 
that solitary Republican vote regularly reappeared. There is the 
following story to it : An Irishman after landing in New York was 
taken violently sick, and was taken up and nursed in the home of a 
compatriot. When he had recovered, he wanted to pay for the 
shelter and good care he had received, but his benefactor would not 
take any money, instead, he made his ward promise to vote at the 
polls no other ticket save the Republican. This Irishman settled in 
the town, and he kept his promise faithfully. 


Town Farmington. — On February ii, 1847, the Legislature pro- 
ceeded to prune the town of West Bend and declare the northeastern 
portion a new township with the name of Clarence. In the year 
following this name was changed to Farmington — a fitting appella- 
tion, for farming is the occupation of most every inhabitant. The 
first settlers were Amasa P. Curtis and Elijah Westover, both of 
whom took up land on Oct. 14, 1845. November 22, of the same year, 
William Smith became their neighbor. When the year slipped away, 
the wilderness had not attracted any more than these lonely three. 
More pioneers came in the following year, and the names of Wescott, 
Schwinn, Bolton, Detmering and others appear in the records — names 
that are interwoven with the days of old and ring true to this very 
day. About two months after the creation of the towi\ on April 6, 
1847, the first town meeting and the election of officers were held in 
the home of Thomas Bailey. Thirty-five votes were cast. Fifteen 
dollars were allowed for schools. At a special meeting on Oct. 2, 
1847, it was decided to levy taxes to the ainount of $200 to build a 
bridge across the Milwaukee river. Soon afterwards the project 
was dropped. It was thought too much of a burden for most of the 
settlers who had little or no means beyond what they needed to sustain 
life. Still they managed to build a log schoolhouse in the same fall 
and called it the "Washington Union School." In the same year a 
Methodist minister held the first service in the log shanty of Sylvester 
Dan forth. The Methodists organized the first congregation in the 
town. The first sawmill was built by Delos Wescott on Stony creek. 
The first physician was the aforesaid Sylvester Danforth. The 
first log house was built by Jonathan Danforth who was the first 
postmaster. In 1859 the German Methodists followed their English 
brethren in founding a congregation. The first church built was 
that of the St. Peter's Catholic congregation which with forty-two 
members was organized in 1846. In 1859 the St. John's Catholic 
congregation was formed. In 1861 the German Evangelicals united 
in St. Martin's congregation, and two years later they built a church. 
In 1857 a number of German lovers of ideality founded the Farming- 
ton Humanitaetsverin with A. W. Demuth as president, Fitz Hueb- 
ner as secretary, and Wilhelm Kletzsch as treasurer. The society 
flourished for many years and possessed a library of about 400 Ger- 
man volumes. In 1862 the Farmington Turnverein was organized. 

Tozvn Germantown. — Of all townships in the county Germantown 
was the first to be settled. As its name tells, the old pioneers were 
almost all Germans. They came by the way of Milwaukee where 


they had learned of the new country just opened for settlement. 
They had come to America to conquer the wild and cultivate the soil. 
In Town Mequon, adjoining to the east, many Germans had already 
settled, and the neighborhood of compatriots encouraged the new- 
comers to push into the wild to the west. The first settler of Town 
Germantown was therefore the first settler of Washington county 
of the present day. This first settler was a German, Anton D. Wis- 
ner. His name appears first in the records. On March ii, 1839, he 
took up eighty acres of Government land. In the second place ap- 
pears the name of Levi Ostrander who bought his eighty on the same 
day. He had followed closely. In the same year sixteen more set- 
tlers arrived and settled mostly in the southern part of the town. 
For five years following the pioneers poured in steadily, and by the 
end of 1844 most all of the land was taken up. The settling in this 
town was not so much wrought with hardships and want as in parts 
farther north. Milwaukee, at that time quite a village, was not far 
off, and victuals could be toted from there with comparative ease. 
Many of the settlers had not come without means. Among the 
first buyers of land of non-German nationality the Scotchman Alex- 
ander Mitchell may be mentioned, who later in Milwaukee amassed 
a fortune that made it unnecessary or undesirable for him to take to 
his eighty acres and agriculture as recourse. The town was incorpor- 
ated on January 21, 1846. On April 7, 1846, the first town meeting 
was held in the home of John Mattes. The clerk was J. T. Brown, a 
scholarly man well versed in the English language. But something 
seemed to weigh down his spirits, and poor and melancholy he passed 
his old age in the poorhouse. In the meeting eight road masters 
were elected for as many districts. $150 were allowed for the poor 
fund, $100 for highways and bridges, and $400 for schools. Votes 
were cast in favor of the admission of Wisconsin into the sisterhood 
of states, and the removal of the temporary county seat onto the 
county farm, and the raising of $1,000 for the erection of county 
buildings. There were 123 voters present. At the election of town 
officers George Koehler was chosen chairman. 

Tozvn Hartford. — It is thought that a Canadian by the name of 
Jehial Case was the first white man who lived in the town of Hart- 
ford. He was a squatter or a man who made himself at home on 
a piece of land without having a title of Uncle Sam. It is not 
known when he came. Timothy Hall who arrived in July, 1843, 
found him in a log shanty. In the fall or winter following he sold 
his claim, consisting of a small clearing and the hut, to a settler 


named Scheitz. The first settler who took up land was the aforesaid 
Timothy Hall. One day he arrived with his wife and worldly be- 
longings on an ox-cart from Milwaukee, to the great surprise of the 
Canadian squatter. He settled on Section 12 and built his shanty, 
the second one in the town. It later for many years served as an inn, 
for it lay half way between Milwaukee and Fond du Lac, and many 
a weary traveler hailed it in those railroadless days. The first post- 
office was set up here. The first German settler whose name ap- 
pears in the realty records was Nicolaus Simon. He and another 
German, John Theil, arrived in 1843 from Prairieville (now Wau- 
kesha), on a landseeking trip. They walked around Pike lake, on 
the shore of which they struck a village of Pottawatomies. The In- 
dians had a different, and it seems more appropriate, name for Pike 
lake. They called it "Nokum," or Heart lake, and the lake actually 
is heart-shaped. While Theil stayed on the land, Simon returned to 
Prairieville to tell the two Rossman brothers of the rapids of the 
Rubicon river at the place which furnished the site for the city of 
Hartford, and to coax them to come along and to improve of the 
splendid opportunity to harness a water power. In the summer of 
1844 he returned with them, and they bought 40 acres of land ad- 
joining the river. In the fall of the same year they built a dam, and 
in the following spring a sawmill. In 1846 a flouring mill droned 
complacently on the river bank. Thus the nucleus of the city of 
Hartford had been created. More settlers had come in 1844, and at 
the end of the year thirty entries had been made, but only about 
fifteen families had actually settled. In the four years following 
the noise of the ax in some pioneer's brawny fists echoed through 
nearly every section of primeval forest. The town's first name was 
Wayne which was subsequently changed into Benton, then into 
Wright and finally the popular predilection settled on the name Hart- 
ford. The greater number of the settlers were Yankees who took 
the leadership in civic affairs. The first poll list, that of the election 
in November, 1846, contains almost exclusively English names. In 
April, 1846, the first town meeting was held in the home of E. O. 
Johnson. The chairman was John G. Chapman, and the secretary 
John Barney. Town ofiicers were elected and votes were cast in 
favor of the admission of Wisconsin to the statehood, the removal 
of the county seat to the county farm, and the raising of a school 
tax of one-fourth of one per cent of the assessment. There were 
forty-two voters present. 


Town Jackson. — By a legislative act the town of Jackson was 
created on Jan. 21, 1846. But some years previous the settlement of 
the fertile and almost level land, watered by the Cedar creek and 
numerous tributary rivulets, had already begun. The first entries 
were made in 1843 by John McDonald and Peter Devereau. Each 
one took up eighty acres. In May of the same year John Kinney 
followed the Scotch-French vanguard and picked out forty acres. 
By fall thirty-one entries were made, and until the winter of 1845 
their number had increased to 149. Much land was bouglit for 
speculation. The first poll list, that of the year 1846, showed up 
only one-fourth of the names in the realty records. The value of 
the land was in those early days readily recognized by people who 
saw the day coming when steel rails would glitter alongside of the 
foot-worn Indian trails, and the little heap of grain that was ground 
between two stones would be overtaken by golden wheat fields and 
the clacking mill. Among the first settlers was a large contingent 
of Germans. A troupe of German Lutheran immigrants headed by 
their pastor Kindermann and their teacher Steinke largely settled in 
the town and founded the hamlet of Kirchhayn which today can 
boast of having one of the oldest Lutheran congregations in Wis- 
consin. Smaller fractions of the same troupe founded colonies in 
the neighboring hamlet of Freistadt in the town of Mequon, and in 
Watertown. April 7, 1846, three months after the town had been 
born and baptized, the first town meeting was held. It appears to 
have been looked at as a most important affair, for 43 voters were 
present — evidently the entire voting population. It was in the turlni- 
lent times of the quarrel about the seat of the county's offices, and 
Jackson had its hands ig the pie. The Poor Farm already lay within 
the borders of the town. Why not move the other offices onto tlie 
grounds and have everything together? The intentions were ex- 
cusable and the arguments plausible, but the older towns laughed at 
the little shaver w-ho tried to put on father's big hat. But regardless 
of the scofifs they unanimously voted for the removal of the county 
seat to the town of Jackson. The meeting was held in the home of 
L. Toplifif who was the clerk. He also was the first to be elected 
chairman of the town. It was decided to levy $100. of which $75 
were for general expenses and $25 for schools. Thus the town 
began to manage its affairs. 

Town Kewaskiwi. — The territory comprised in this town originally 
belonged to the town of West Bend, as was set forth in an act of the 
Legislature of January, 1846. In 1847 it was separated and received 


the name of North Bend, the Milwaukee river which is flowing 
with many windings through the town being the sponsor. In 1849 
its name was changed to Kewaskum, in honor of an Indian chief 
who lived there and was highly esteemed. In 1844 William P. Barnes 
and his wife settled in the town, and the couple are considered the 
first settlers. The first town meeting in the town of North Bend 
was held on April 6, 1847, i" the home of the first settlers men- 
tioned. Twenty-six voters congregated. The minutes of the meeting 
are still extant. They read as follows : 

"At the annual town meeting, held at the house of William P. 
Barnes, in the town of North Bend, Washington county., T. W., 
April 6, 1847, the friends who were there organized by calling Harry 
N. Strong to the chair, and appointing Joshua Bradley, clerk. The 
meeting being called to order, the following motions were made and 
carried in the affirmative : 

"First. — That the next annual town meeting is to be held at the 
house of Ferdinand Dagling, on Section Number 21. 

"Second. — That town officers receive for their services $1 per day 
where the price is not fixed by law. 

"Third. — That the town raise one-eighth of one per cent for the 
benefit of schools in the town. 

"Fourth. — That we, or the town raise one-eighth of one per cent, 
to be applied to roads in the town. 

"Fifth. — That Samuel Ladd serve as Overseer of Highways in 
the town of North Bend till others are appointed. 

"Sixth. — That we raise $75 to pay officers and to bear the neces- 
sary expenses of the town. 

"Seventh. — That the Supervisors accept no account unless it is 
itemized, dated and sworn to. 

"April 9, 1847. 

John S. Van Eps, Town Clerk." 

In the same house in the same year two elections were held : Sep- 
tember 6 for territorial and county officers, and November 29 for 
delegates to the constitutional convention at Madison in which the 
fundamentals of the state-to-be Wisconsin were laid down. The 
first election in the newly baptized town of Kewaskum was held on 
April 2, 1850, in the home of Nathan Wheeler. He also was the 
first postmaster. It proved to be void because it was held outside of 
the town limits, and the elected chairman J. T. VanVechten was re- 
fused the vote in the session of the County Board. Matters were set 
right in another election. 


Town Polk. — The first settler of this town was William William- 
son. Timothy Hall, the first settler of Town Hartford, says of him : 
"At the time (in 1843) I found William Williamson five miles away 
from my place toward Milwaukee; he was the first settler of Town 
Polk. In November of the following year Densmore W. Maxon 
came and settled on Cedar creek where he still lives." The entries 
essentially corroborate his statements. Williamson who uses here 
the given name of James took up his forty acres on Aug. 7, 1843, 
and on Dec. 7, 1844, Densmore W. Maxon took up his forty, to 
which in March, 1845, he added another forty. Maxon was a young 
surveyor who in 1843 had settled in the town of Mequon and with 
his instruments had explored the country east. On the bank of the 
Cedar creek, the volumned outlet of the Cedar lakes, he bought a 
piece of land and built a dam and a sawmill. His next neighbor was 
Kewaskum, a noble chief of the Pottawatomies. Both men united 
in a lasting friendship. Prior to the year 1846 a large part of the 
fertile land traversed by ranges of low hills was sold, but little settled. 
In 1847 the clearing began on a larger scale, and in the next few 
years the woods of oak, maple, beech, and hickory fairly resounded 
with the ax-strokes of the pioneers. The biggest entries of land in 
the town were made by B. Schleisinger Weil, the founder of Schleis- 
ingerville. In December, 1845, he took up nearly two thousand acres 
— the best part of the northwest quarter of the town — in the name of 
his son Jules and his wife Adelaide. The first town meeting was 
held on April 7, 1846. The minutes of it are lost, but from the 
proceedings of the first session of the County Board it is evident that 
the first supervisors of the town were D. W. Maxon, Silas Wheeler 
and John Detling. Jacob Everly was the first treasurer, and C. B. 
Covender was the first clerk and school commissioner. After the 
removal of the latter, John Rix was appointed clerk, and Andrew 
Dunn school commissioner. The proceedings further show that the 
first town meeting was held in the home of John Rix, for the use 
of which, together with the light used, he was reimbursed with $1.50. 
There existed five taverns in the town in 1846; they were conducted 
by Jacob Berwind on Section 26, Peter Brenner on Section 25, 
Julius Schleisinger on Cedar lake, Nikolaus Guth on Section 28, and 
Emanuel Mann on Section 35. The oldest extant poll list, that of the 
November election of 1846, contains the names of 21 voters. 

Town Richfield. — The first one to turn his eyes to the arable clay 
soil of the town of Richfield, dotted in its southwestern part by 
morainic hills, was Samuel Spivey. On May 31, 1841, he bought 160 


acres of Government land in Section 36, but it is not known that he 
ever settled on it. July 6, 1841, Jacob Snyder had 40 acres in Section 

35 entered, and about his settlement on the land there is no doubt. 
He is considered the first settler of the town, and for almost a year 
he also was the only one. In the fall of 1842 fifty odd entries were 
made. In 1843 the tide of German immigration began to find its 
way into the town, and two years later little Government land was 
left. Town Richfield was incorporated on January 21, 1846. A 
few resolutions of the first town meeting have come upon us. They 

"Resolved, By the citizens of the town of Richfield, in annual 
town meeting, held at the house of Zachariah Fuller, April 7, 1846: 
(First), that it is our duty and it shall be our aim to practice strict 
economy in the government and management of our town affairs, and 
that our motto is 'the greatest good to the greatest number,' and in 
order to carry out these principles, therefore, 

"Resolved (Second), That the pay and fees of the officers of the 
town shall be as follows, to-wit: Supervisors, Commissioners of 
Highways, Commissioners of Common Schools, and Assessors shall 
receive each $1 a day, and no more, for every day necessarily em- 
ployed on the business of the town, and that the Town Clerk shall 
receive the like sum of $1 per day when the business is such that it 
can be calculated by the day ; in all other cases he shall receive for all 
necessary writing on town business six cents per folio, and the com- 
mittee of investigation shall order that the resolution be altered in 
such manner as to convey the same meaning in a less number of 
words; they shall make such revocation in the charges as they shall 
deem fit. The Collector shall receive for his services 5 per cent on 
all money by him paid into the Town Treasurer. The Treasurer 
shall receive for his services 2 per cent for all money received by 
him, and i per cent for all money by him paid out. 

"Resolved (Third), That in all surveys of roads, that pay shall not 
be allowed to more than four persons, to wit ; a Surveyor, two Chain- 
men and a Marker. 

"Resolved (Fourth), That we will raise $80 to pay the expense 
of the town for the ensuing year. 

"In addition to the above $80, $70 more was voted for at special 
town meeting, held at the house of Philip Laubenheimer, at i o'clock, 
the 6th day of May, 1846. 


Michael Fogarty, Town Clerk." 


The style and slips in the above are those of the original. The 
chairman of the first meeting was Balthus Mantz. Tradition says 
that in the meeting the first indemnity amounting to nine dollars was 
paid to Gustavus Bogk, a pioneer. His wagon on which he had 
packed his earthly belongings, tipped over on the Fond du Lac Road, 
whereby a stove and other things were broken. He blamed the poor 
condition of the road for his mishap, and the town fathers agreed 
with him and allowed for the damage. It is a historical fact, there- 
fore, that Gustavus Bogk had the first tip-over in the town. The 
first church in the town was built of logs by Catholic pioneers in 
1845 '^"^ dedicated to St. Hubertus. The first priests were Revs. 
Meyer, Kundig and Obermueller. Another log church, that of St. 
Augustine, was started soon afterwards by another settlement of 
German Catholics. 

Tomn Trenton. — As far back as 1836 the forest-clad undulations 
of this town, between which the Milwaukee river in many windings 
ate its way, attracted the attention of speculators. The land near the 
river bank, which now is the site of the village of Newburg, was es- 
pecially desirable. Here Solomon Juneau, the founder of Milwaukee, 
Michael Anthony Guista, Charles Hunt, M. C. Johnson, James Duane 
Doty, Joseph R. Ward and others bought land on which they never 
settled nor changed anything of its primeordeal appearance. Only 
the realty records give notice of the erstwhile owners. It was nine 
years later, in 1845, when the first real settlers arrived. They were: 
Peter Nuss, Ferdinand Nolting, Patrick Keown, Michael Bower, 
Edwin R. Nelson, Thomas Jessup, Moses Young, Emanuel Mann, 
Christopher Long and Fred Firstenberger. The vanguard on the 
spot, the main force of the pioneers, with axes and ox carts, brought 
up in the following year. In the years 1847 and 1848 the remainder 
of the land was settled. In the winter of 1847 Newburg, the most 
important village of the township, was founded by Barton Salis- 
bury. He was busy getting the village of Barton, some ten miles up 
the Milwaukee river, started, and sent a man by the name of Watson 
down to a place where the river's rapids invited some captain of in- 
dustry, with directions to build a log house. Into this Salisbury 
moved with his wife in 1848. He built a dam, a saw mill, a grist 
mill, and also an ashery in which the potash gained by the settlers 
from the vast ash-piles of their clearings was converted into pearlash. 
Salisbury was joined by two of his nephews. Under his direction 
some more buildings were put up and it was at the construction of 
the first hotel that a poor rafter broke under his feet, and he fell and 



came to a tragic death. The first town meeting was held on April 
4, 1848, in the house of John Smith. The chairman was James H. 
Watson, and the clerk John A. Douglas. For roads $50 were ap- 
propriated, for the support of the poor $25, for general expenses 
$200, and for schools "as much as the law allows." A special tax was 
imposed on each freeholder for every eighty acres of land, consisting 
of five days road work, or five dollars in cash. As a polltax each had 
to put in two days' work for the community. The first supervisors 
were John A. Douglas, Reuben Salisbury, and Turner Bailey. The 
first town clerk was Frederick Balch, the first treasurer Eli L. Hurd, 
and the first justices were Frederick Leson and James H. Watson. 
The office of the "Sealer of Weights" that since sank into obscurity 
was held by John A. Douglas. In the first general election, held in 
the town in November, 1848, 58 votes were cast. 

Town Wayne. — The northwestern quadrangle of the county map 
was named Town Wa)aie. The settlement of the wooded, undulat- 
ing country dotted with numerous steep gravel hills and stretching 
west of the morainic ridges began in 1846. On June 8, 1846, Alex- 
ander W. Stow took up the first eighty acres. In the fall of the 
year several other pioneers arrived. Among the first ones was a 
German, Konrad Schleicher. He on Feb. i, 1847, had three tracts 
of forty acres each in Section 28 entered under his name, and brought 
his wife and two children out from Milwaukee to his big estate in 
the wilds. He left them in the care of his brother-in-law and re- 
turned to the city to work and save up a little capital to run the 
farm with. They began to clear the land and the woman put in her 
solid share of the work. An experience of her's throws a spot-light 
on the hardships these pioneers had to wrestle with. She needed 
flour to bake bread, and walked nine miles to get it. With a sackfull 
placed on her head — a practice which the peasant women of the 
fatherland, who carry large baskets and jugs filled with butter, 
eggs, milk, etc., for miles to the next market-place, still follow — she 
started for home. At one place she had to cross a creek swollen with 
heavy rains, which she could not ford. There lay a tree athwart the 
water, and on hands and knees, pushing the sack carefully before her, 
she managed to crawl over, and for a time she again could stuff the 
hungry mouths of her family. In the house of Patrick Conolly the 
first town meeting was held on April i, 1848. Eleven voters were 
present — hardly enough to fill the offices. They chose A. S. Mc- 
Dowell for chairman; he also served as street commissioner and jus- 
tice of the peace. The salary of the officers was fixed at $1 a day. 


$io were appropriated to the poor fund, and $75 for general expenses. 
The latter sum seemed to some of them too weighty a burden for 
the young community, but after a long squabble in which the epithets 
"extravagant" and "stingy" were liberally exchanged, it was carried 
by a vote of six to five. Until 1850 the town was mostly settled by 
Yankees and Irishmen. Then the German pioneers came in larger 
numbers, and they kept on a-coming and buying land of the first 
settlers, or taking up the rest of the homestead land, until the town- 
ship was almost entirely peopled by Germans. 

Town West Bend. — The original town of West Bend, as divided 
ofi by the Legislature on January 20, 1846, included the areas of 
the towns of Barton, Trenton, Farmington and Kewaskum which 
have since gone in the administrative business for themselves. The 
area was trimmed several times until it was reduced to its present 
size. As the first settlers of the town M. A. T. Farmer and Isaac 
Verbeck are set down. Both hailed from Pennsylvania and were 
related to each other. In the spring of 1845, they with their wives, 
children, and two thousand pounds of baggage arrived in Wau- 
kesha county, not far from the border line of Washington county, 
where two brothers of Verbeck had already settled. From there 
the restless Isaac undertook a cruise into Washington county. Like 
Columbus he did not trust his good luck altogether, for he had heard 
of beautiful lakes and land farther east. On the way he spent a 
night in a wigwam among hundred fifty odd Indians. Here he be- 
came a witness of the Indian's sense of justice. A German had shot 
a deer which had been hunted by some Indians. One of them was 
greatly nettled at the German's claim of the booty. He retired to 
the woods and fired at the German without hitting him, whereupon 
the latter answered the shot and killed his adversary. The other 
Indians who carried the body away entirely sanctioned the action of 
the German, saying that "John" who was known as a "bad Indian" 
had received what he deserved. When on the following morning 
Isaac from the wigwam overlooked the prairie, the chief stepped 
to his side and said : "White man, walk on !" And he walked on and 
came into the vicinity south of West Bend. He liked the country 
so well that he took up land and settled on it with his brothers and his 
brother-in-law Farmer. They put up the first shacks in the town. 
Besides these settlers the following arrived in the years 1845-46: 
The Alsacian Moses Weil and his family, the innkeeper G. N. Irish, 
the Rusco brothers, Jehiel H. Baker, Walter Demmon, the Young 
brothers with their families, Daniel Freer, Edward Helm, Elder 


Babcock, James L. Bailey, the blacksmith Sinn, and others. Like 
other places, the city of West Bend is indebted to the Milwaukee 
river for its existence. The swiftly running water offered a strong 
inducement for a sawmill and a gristmill. Byron Kilbourn of Mil- 
waukee on an exploration trip through the county noticed the excel- 
lent waterpower, and he and two other Milwaukeeans (James Knee- 
land and Dr. E. B. Wolcott) bought land along the river bank. This 
was in the fall of 1845. In the following year a dam and a saw- 
mill were built, and in 1848 the clang of a gristmill joined the 
intermittent buzz of the band saw. They turned out lumber for 
houses and flour for bread, the two most necessary staples of the 
pioneers, and so the work of building up the future county seat could 
begin. The voters held their first town meeting on April 7, 1846, in 
the house of Isaac Verbeck. The minutes of that meeting have been 
lost. But a few recollections of it have come upon us: That the 
meeting didn't know exactly how to constitute themselves; that 
finally somebody swore in somebody else as clerk, and he in turn 
swore in the election officers ; that Barton Salisbury was chosen chair- 
man, Verbeck secretary, and Farmer treasurer. There is a difference 
of opinion as to whether a coffee pot or an old tallow candle box 
was used to collect the ballots. Between thirty and forty votes were 





Barton. — The original name of Barton was Salisbury's Mills, which, 
after the retreat of the nvimerous Yankee population, was translated 
by the incoming Germans with "Salzburg." The founder of the 
village was Barton Salisbury. On a surveying trip in the fall of 
1845 he discovered the strong current of the Milwaukee river at the 
place. It looked to him like an invitation to build a mill on the bank. 
The surroundings, too, seemed to be predestined by Nature for the 
site of a village. He at once got busy and started to build a log 
hut. Some settlers who had located a little way south came up to 
help him. They found him and two other men cutting down trees 
which two oxen dragged to the lot. During the fall and winter 
several other pioneers arrived, among them Charles and Foster 
Buck, James Frazer, John Douglas, Martin Foster, Rev. Bela Wilcox, 
W. P. Barnes and the Danford family. Mrs. Danford was the first 
white woman who put her foot on the ground of the village. Ere 
the spring of 1846 blew into the land, Salisbury had his sawmill 
humming. In 1847 the big flouring mill of Edward and William 
Caldwell was finished. Thus the seed was planted out of which the 
village did grow — to use a trope. The last named brothers, in 1846, 
fitted up the first general store. Their stock, the "fall line of goods," 
they brought from Milwaukee on an ox cart. On their way home 
they in West Bend met Moses Well who was just putting up the first 
store building of that place. Barton had become a "business center" 
ahead of the future county seat. The first school teacher was Rev. 
Wilcox. He did not have to pass a teacher's examination. School 
commissioner Young simply asked him to write out his certificate 
himself, which the school board signed. The reverend schoolmaster 
was also the first postmaster. The official name of the postoffice was 
"Salisbury Mills Post Office." The mail was carried from and to 
Cedar creek, the nearest railroad station at that time, by Wm. Ellis 
"in a pouch made of W. P. Barnes' vest pocket." For that reason 


it was called the "Vest-Pocket Mail." The first sermon was held by 
a Rev. Traine in the schoolhouse which was a board shack originally 
built by Salisbury for his own use. The first congregation, of the 
Presbyterian creed, was organized by Rev. Elliot of Milwaukee. For 
want of a better edifice he sometimes had to preach in the — sawmill. 
In 1853 the congregation built a church. The first saloon was opened 
by Martin Foster. On Christmas day, 1857, Father Rehrl held 
the first Catholic service. September 30 previous, Bishop Henni of 
Milwaukee had laid the corner stone for the first Catholic church. 
Father Rehrl also founded a convent of the Sisters of St. Agnes. 
The convent since has been discontinued, and the low building with 
its boulder walls and Gothic windows is now used partly as a dwelling 
and partly as a stable. In 1855, ten years after the founding, Barton 
had 1,095 inhabitants. It had considerably more than West Bend 
at that time. As the years went by the tide turned. 

Boltonville. — This village was founded in 1854 on the Stony 
creek in the town of Farmington. In its baptism it received the 
surname of Harlow Bolton, a settler. The first house, a store, was 
built by Horace Smith. Following him, E. A. Duncan erected a saw- 
mill on a tributary of the Stony creek. He made improvements on 
it as necessity demanded and his means allowed him. Next came a 
gristmill which Bolton & Schuler built on the bank of the Stony 
creek, and which also in course of time was enlarged and improved. 
In 1858 Bolton put up a store building. By and by other tradesmen, 
blacksmiths, wagon makers, cobblers, harness makers, etc., arrived and 
fitted up their stands. A school saw to the education of the children, 
and a church — "for man does not live of bread alone" — catered to 
the spiritual wants. 

Hartford. — The founders of the city of Hartford were the Ross- 
man brothers, James, George and Charles, and Nic Simon. As has 
been said in the chapter on "The Vanguard of the Pioneers," they 
were induced by Simon, a German settler, to come over from Prairie- 
ville, now Waukesha. James and George arrived in the summer of 
1844, immediately bought forty acres about the rapids of the Rubicon 
river, built a dam in the fall of that year, and had a sawmill running 
early in 1845. In 1846 Charles joined his brothers and built a grist 
mill which had three runs of stones and did a fine business. Simon 
felled the first tree and built the first log house in the village. In 
April, 1846, Hiram H. Wheelock arrived from Oconomowoc and put 
up the first general store. It was 12x18 feet in size. The year fol- 
lowing, Reuben S. Kneeland came and formed a partnership with 


Wheelock, whereupon the firm built larger quarters, this time 20x40 
feet in size. They also started an ashery which proved very profitable. 
The settlement soon became the central trading point for the country 
a score of miles around. Other early settlers who came before the 
incorporation of the village in 1846, were Joel F. Wilson, John 
Rumrill, Christopher Truax, Ralph Freeman, Isaac Maxfield, Ches- 
ter Ewers, Warren Sargent, John D. Morey, Henry Washburn, John 
G. Chapman, E. O. Johnson, Calvin S. Wilson, Francis Willmuth, 
C. Smith and genial and generous John Barney. A vivid picture of 
what Hartford looked like in its first years is presented in the follow- 
ing extract from a letter of Mr. Bissel, an old settler, published in the 
"Washington County Republican" of March 16, 1881 ; 

"I first saw the village of Hartford in the spring of 1845, coming 
in by the south road. After a walk of twenty-five miles, just at 
sundown, we came out into a broad chopping of some two or three 
acres, extending along the west side of the present Main street, from 
the corner mentioned, to the river. Just north of the present brick 
hotel and nearly opposite Wheelock, Denison & Co.'s store, stood one 
log house, occupied by E. O. Johnson who gladly fed and piloted 
land-lookers, for a consideration. After a few months, he put on 
more style, built a small addition, got a bottle of whisky, painted 
"Noster House" on a small board with iron ore, nailed it to a tree in 
front of the house, and thus commenced the hotel business in Hart- 
ford. He used to inform those of us not so well educated that he 
had studied Latin, and that 'noster' meant 'our.' At the time just 
spoken of, the frame of the sawmill was up; not a stroke had been 
done toward putting the machinery in place, or on the dam. There was 
a small house by the river, nearly opposite the parsonage, where the 
man who had put up the frame of the sawmill had stayed, but no 
family had occupied it. On the lot way out in the woods, now owned 
by J. C. Dennison, Ralph Freeman had put up the body of a house, 
but no one had yet lived in it. 

"In the southwest part of the town were the families of Julius 
Shepherd, John Rumrill and John Graham, both of the latter families 
living in one house, and Henry Winters and Thompson Harper in 
another. These families came in the fall of 1844, by way of Mil- 
waukee and Neosho road, leaving that road at or near Cherry Hill. 

"Going east from the mill, the first house was John Brasier's on 
the bank of the lake. He could have been there but a short time, and 
made or bought little furniture, for, in coming from Milwaukee, and 
getting belated, I stopped with them over night, they taking down 


the outer and only door for a supper-table. On the east side of 
the lake was Fred Hecker, an old bach, living in an Indian bark 
wigwam, and just south of him were two sailors, also old baches, 
but they stayed but a short time. About one mile further east was the 
family of John Mowry, and a little north of him his brother-in-law, 
Churchill, on the farm so long, and perhaps yet, owned by Chris- 
topher Smith. North of him and well toward the north side of the 
town, were the families of Deacon Chapman, Chris Truax and Cor- 
nelius Gilson. I am not sure whether Chester Ewer, Isaac Maxfield 
and the Pulfords were here then or not, if not, they came very soon 
afterward. Nicholas Simon had selected his farm but had not com- 
menced work on it. These families embraced all, or nearly all, here 
at that time. In the northwest quarter of the town, not a settler 
had yet located. Wagons had come in as far as the mill, or Ross- 
man's mill, as it was called, but no wagon had crossed the river. I 
drove the first wagon across, turning down the hill nearly where 
the Mill House stood so long, and perhaps does yet, and crossing about 
half way down between the gristmill and the foot of the tail-race. 
This was not a good crossing, and another was opened just below 
the sawmill, which was used until the first bridge was built by Almon 
Washburn, for $25. The first road was the old Milwaukee and 
Fond du Lac road which crossed the northeast corner of the town. 
The next was the Territorial road from Grafton, Ozaukee county, to 
Hustis Rapids, now Hustisford, in Dodge county, both being large 
and important points, in future prospects, being the present road 
through the village east and west." 

Jackson. — In 1848 Franz Reis, a young German of twenty-seven 
summers, acquired a preemption on an area of land on which subse- 
quently the village of Jackson arose. The year before, he had immi- 
grated from Germany, and was almost penniless. Bodily vigor, 
coupled with courage and determination, were his capital. When he 
had saved up a little money, he bought forty acres of land. To this 
he added one stretch after another, as his means would allow, until 
at last he owned four hundred acres of the finest soil in that vicinity. 
His domain he worked in the best way and with the best means 
of the pioneers. When the "air-line" railroad was built from Mil- 
waukee to Fond du Lac, Franz Reis was not slow in offering to the 
company free of charge a right of way and a plot of ground for a 
depot, for he was aware of the advantage he would reap from a 
railroad that would pass through his farm and would stop right at his 
door. Not only would he be benefited by it, but likewise the entire 




neighborhood. The offer was accepted, the rails were laid across his 
land, and a depot was built. Thus he became the founder of Jack- 
son which was formerly called Riceville after his Englished surname, 
so that Americans could pronounce it correctly. On his farm the 
village was built. In 1873 he erected a large general store and 
saloon, and also an elevator, and around this nucleus the village grew. 
The founder had six children, of which the three sons followed the 
footprints of their father. He died in 1878. 

Kewaskum. — The first pioneer who built a log house on the bank 
of the Milwaukee river, on the site of the present-day village of 
Kewaskum, was J. H. Myers. It happened in 1852. In the same 
year F. W. Buchtel fitted up the first smithy, and in the fall, Myers 
constructed a primitive sawmill on the river bank, where the rapids 
promised a fine water power. In 1854 the latter also began the erec- 
tion of a flouring mill which was completed in 1856. The first frame 
house was raised by Henry P. Fames ; it was a structure of a story 
and a half, and stood close to the river, south of Main street-to-be. 
The next settler, William Pickel, lived one-half mile away. William 
Spicer kept the first store. In the spring of 1854 the Dutch Re- 
formed organized the first congregation. They started out with four 
members, and their pastor was Rev. M. Davenport. In 1855 a Sun- 
day school was added. The Catholics built a church in 1862, the 
Methodists in 1866, and the Lutherans in 1868. A lodge, Kewaskum 
Lodge, No. loi, I. O. O. F., was organized Feb. 4, i860. Their 
meetings the members held at first in English, later substituting Ger- 
man. After a while, the lodge disjoined, and since the restoration 
on Feb. 2, 1876, the English tongue is again used in the meetings, 
although many of the members are of German descent. June 2, 1878, 
the Kewaskum Turnverein was organized. The society flourished 
for years, but went out of existence long ago. With the advent of 
the railway to Fond du Lac, the village developed a vigorous growth. 
In its name, the name of the noble Indian chief Kewaskum is per- 
petuated. His grave near the village is pointed out to this day, and 
attempts are made to have it preserved. 

Mayfield. — A native of the German part of Switzerland, Andreas 
Reiderer, was the founder of this little village. He named it after 
his birthplace Maienfelden, translated into English. In 185 1 he was 
joined by another pioneer, George F. Fleischmann, and in the spring 
of 1852 the two men platted the village, laid out the main street and 
the side streets, and named them. On his land, on the bank of the 
Cedar creek, Reiderer built a sawmill. The baby village had a 
struggle to hold its own and to keep the plow away from its empty 


blocks, and up to now it is but a quiet hamlet. When Joseph Katz 
and his partner, Jacob Pfeil, opened up a general store, the name 
Katzbach came up, and because many of the inhabitants, and also 
many outsiders, took a fancy to it, the original name which was cer- 
tainly much more poetic, was almost done away with, to the chagrin 
of the bland Swiss founder who, together with both of the store- 
keepers, John Metz the shoemaker, and a blacksmith whose name is 
no longer known, for many years entertained hopes for a radiant 
future of the place. In 1859 Mayfield was made a postoffice, and the 
first postmaster was John Toedly. Once a week the mail was brought 
over from Cedar Creek. But when Jackson, situated one mile east, 
got to be a railroad station, trade mostly drifted thither. The out-of- 
the-way hamlet withered, and its streets, planned for a flourishing 
community, are well-nigh empty and deserted. 

Newburg. — The founder of Newburg was Barton Salisbury, an 
Anglo-Saxon who in the first act of our civic drama played the most 
conspicuous part, and the most tragic too. When he had founded the 
village of Barton, farther up the Milwaukee river, he in the winter 
of 1847-48 sent one of his workingmen by the name of Watson to 
a place where now the village of Newburg complaisantly spreads, to 
build a log house. On his exploring trip up-stream he had noticed the 
swift current of the river at that particular place, and he intended 
to make use of the water power. In the spring of 1848 he came to the 
place himself, built a dam, a sawmill, and a gristmill. He then erected 
an ashery, or an establishment for the manufacture of pearlash out 
of potash. The latter the settlers extracted from the immense ash 
piles on their clearings, for the brush and useless wood was burned 
up to get it out of the way. The potash thus gained was a by-product 
which the needy pioneer gladly turned into ready cash at the ashery. 
These were the beginnings of Newburg. The founder was assisted 
by two nephews who shared their uncle's vim and push. They built 
some of the first houses, among them the first hotel, the Webster 
House. At the construction of the latter. Barton Salisbury lost his 
life. He was working on the roof, when one of the rafters broke 
and he fell down into the basement. He was mortally injured and 
died soon afterwards. Fate reached him at the early age of 36 
years. After having founded other places, he intended to settle here 
permanently and make Newburg the most important place in the 
county. Prematurely his life's thread was cut ofif, and the vision of 
a singularly energetic and enterprising spirit did not materialize. 


Richfield. — With the founding of this village the name of I'hilipp 
Laubenheimer is inseparably associated. His bearer was born in 
Hesse-Darmstadt on March 23, 1803. In 1842 he was seized by the 
great migratory wave which swept the northwestern and middle parts 
of Europe and which finally landed him in the wilderness on the site 
of the future village of Richfield. He was accompanied by his wife 
and seven children. For the first two weeks the family camped be- 
neath a spreading tree, until the log house was finished. Soon after- 
wards his wife and child died. They were the first white people 
buried in the village. The old Fond du Lac Road ran through his 
land, and Laubenheimer conceived the idea that a tavern might be 
made to pay. He accordingly opened one up, and after a while put 
in a supply of needles, cofTee and sugar, thus making a start in the 
store business. When room was lacking he built an addition to his 
log house. He had to do that several times. His house came to be 
the meeting place of the German settlers of the vicinity. Lauben- 
heimer was the first German who kept an inn and a store in Wash- 
ington county. He created the commercial center of the surrounding 
country, and when in 1855 the La Crosse Railroad was built 
and led right through his land, the stability of his business was as- 
sured. He offered a plot to the railroad company on which they 
could build a depot, and this was another good move of his. The 
gift was accepted. Later he erected a large store building of boulders 
and brick. His second wife was Mrs. Annie M. Arnet of German- 
town, who bore him five children. He died in 1878. Laubenheimer 
was a close friend of Solomon Juneau, one of the founders of Mil- 
waukee. The two men often met. Juneau enjoyed great esteem 
among the Indians and was very influential with them. This relation 
the redskins who were still numerous in the settlement conferred on 
his friend Laubenheimer. 

Schleisingerville. — The Romulus of the "City of the Seven Hills," 
Schleisingerville, — but without the stigma of manslaughter which 
adheres to that historic name, — was B. Schleisinger Weil, a German- 
Alsacian and a member of the Semitic family of nations. In Decem- 
ber, 1845, he bought much Government land in the town of Polk, 
on 527 acres of which he platted the village of Schleisingerville. A 
merchant dyed in the wool, he first built a store and a dwelling. His 
assortment of merchandise comprised everything the settlers could 
make use of. And these in return fetched him everything their land 
would produce. This way the place very early became the most im- 
portant mart for many miles around. Blacksmiths, shoemakers, 


vvagonmakers, and other artisans settled here. A hotel was built 
to accommodate the traveling public. Then two tanners, George 
Ippel and Thomas Jenner, arrived and started a tannery. Weil later 
on built a distillery. It is also due to his untiring efforts that the La 
Crosse Railroad, now the St. Paul, was run through the place. When 
in 1855 the track had reached Schleisingerville, he invited a large 
number of prominent Milwaukeeans to a sumptuous feast, the ex- 
penses of which he paid out of his own pocket. Among his guests 
were Stoddard Judd, president of the railroad. Judge Larrabee, 
Mayor James B. Cross, Moritz Schoeffler, and Harrison Ludington. 
When the train pulled in, an artillery salute was fired off. The carousal 
in the upper story of the hotel, which followed, was a favorite topic 
of the town gossip for many years afterwards. The Milwaukeeans 
fairly gulped Weil's hospitality. They missed the return train. Late 
in the evening a special train arrived, on which their host packed 
them with difficulty, and which carried the merry crowd back to the 
Cream City. Until i860 Weil remained in the place which he had 
founded and which bears part of his name. He then moved to the 
shore of Big Cedar lake, a few miles away, where he owned a fine 
home, later moving to West Bend, and finally to Milwaukee. Soon 
after Schleisingerville had become a railroad station, Lehman Rosen- 
heimer, another merchant, arrived on the scene of business activities 
in the infant village. He in 1856 built a large store, and besides 
did much cattle and grain buying. Five of his six sons followed the 
footprints of their father. The advent of the house of Rosenheimer 
marked another era of advancement for Schleisingerville. Among the 
early business men of the place the name of John Pick, Sr., also 
stands out prominently. The first church was erected by the Cath- 
olics in 1862. In 1863 the Lutherans reared their place of worship 
and after it had burned down in 1866 they and the Methodists had a 
church in common until the former built a new one in 1872. The 
village was incorporated in 1869. In 1868 the Odd Fellows organ- 
ized a lodge, and in 1877 a Tumverein stepped into existence, but 
went out of it again, long ago. 

West Bend. — The attractive site of West Bend with its frame of 
green hills and the audaciously swung bend of the Milwaukee river 
in the valley, could well point to an idealist as the founder of the 
city. But probably very few cities have been founded by such peo- 
ple. Here, too, the prime motive was a very material one : the strong 
current of the river which warranted an excellent water power for 
mills. In the summer of 1845 E. N. Higgins secured a preemption on 


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a stretch of land along the rapids. Soon afterwards Byron Kilbourn 
of Milwaukee came along, stopped at the same place, and was delighted 
with the mill site. He went back to Milwaukee, got James Kneeland 
and Dr. E. B. Wolcott interested in the enterprise, and the trio 
bought eight eighty-acre tracts of land adjoining Higgins's holdings, 
and made him a partner. That was in the fall of 1845. Before the 
year slipped away, the surveyor Jasper Vlieth of Milwaukee had 
finished the plat of West Bend. On his own expense, E. B. Wolcott 
piled up a dam and built a sawmill and also a gristmill with the stip- 
ulation that the water power was to belong to him. The dam and 
the sawmill were finished in 1846, and the gristmill in 1848. The 
sawmill was rented by George N. Irish, and the gristmill was rented 
by Daniel Cotton and his brother. Meanwhile the settlers had come 
in platoons. In the summer of 1845 Isaac Verbeck took up land on 
the spot which later was nicknamed "Battle Creek" in commemoration 
of a family feud which came off there. He and M. A. T. Farmer 
had with their families moved from Pennsylvania to Waukesha county 
where two brothers of the former, Joseph and William Verbeck, had 
already settled. But they all liked the West Bend country better, 
which Isaac on his wanderings had come across and admired. So 
they, with two thousand pounds of luggage and furniture brought 
along from the East moved to the land of their preference. Among 
the luggage was a big chest which the practical Yankees had con- 
structed of four doors from their homes in the Keystone state. When 
it was taken apart, each one had a door for his shack. They moved 
into their temporary abodes in the beginning of November. In Jan- 
uary, 1846, Jacob E. Young arrived on foot. It was on a cold even- 
ing when he halted at Verbeck's shanty, coming from the south. The 
next morning his nimble-tongued daughter Jeanette told him of the 
land along the river bank. He took a look at it, and on the same 
afternoon hiked to Milwaukee where on the following day he ap- 
peared in the land office and bought a quarter-section of land, and in 
the office of Kilbourn, Wolcott & Co. appropriated two lots in the 
village. He paid everything with gold coin, having one thousand 
dollars of the precious metal on his person. In the land office he in his 
forgetfulness left his bag of gold lay. But the officer was an honest 
soul, and when Young came in distress for his treasure, he handed it 
back to him with an earnest admonition. In the spring he built him- 
self a roomy log house. In, the fall his brother Christian arrived with 
his family and his mother. The aforesaid George N. Irish arrived 
in 1846 from Cedar creek and erected a log house in which he also 


kept a tavern which enjoyed quite a renown in pioneer days. He 
and Verbeck boarded the mechanics from Milwaukee, who erected and 
fitted up the mills. The log-house inn later developed into the 
"American House," the first hotel of West Bend. In August, 1846, 
Moses Weil arrived. He was born in 1798 in the fonner French 
province of Alsace, and, when in Paris, had witnessed the return of 
Napoleon I from the battle of Waterloo. He built the first frame 
house on the "Sharp Corner," and opened up the first general store. 
The lumber for it his son Paul hauled from Milwaukee on wagons 
drawn by oxen, and his assortment of goods he got in the same way. 
Of other early settlers may he mentioned : Jehiel H. Baker the mer- 
chant, and William Wightman the innkeeper, both arriving from 
Michigan in the summer of 1846; B. Goetter who in the spring of 
1849 opened up the first brewery and later erected the "Washington 
House," one of the largest and finest hotels in the state at the time, 
and for many years the preferred rendezvous of the German pioneers; 
John Wagner who came in 1848, and John Potter the merchant, who 
came in 1849; and William H. Ramsey who was the first male school 
teacher and taught the village school in the winter of 1847-48. 

Young America. — This hamlet was founded in 185 1 by Morris Wait, 
when he harnessed the rushing waves of the Milwaukee river with 
a dam and made the stored-up power run his sawmill. The mill was, 
according to pioneer notions, an up-to-date plant, but hardly had it 
"yanked out" lumber for three hours, when a fire started and con- 
sumed the building to the ground. It almost seemed as though that 
was the end of the village. But five years later, in 1856, it re- 
ceived another and stronger impetus, when Cook & Elliott built a 
flouring mill on the site of the burned sawmill. Again a fire frus- 
trated the efforts of the town builders. On September 19, 1856, 
the mill, after being almost completed, burned down. But it was 
rebuilt at once, this time of brick. On August 10, 1857, the mill- 
stones turned for the first time. The mill had two sets of stones 
which daily could grind one hundred and fifty barrels of extra fine 
flour which found a ready market in Milwaukee. The mill owners 
also ran a cooper shop, manufacturing their own barrels. A bridge 
was built across the river, which was considered the finest piece of 
iron bridge engineering north of Milwaukee in those days. Soon 
after its completion, the mill was sold to A. W. Coe who also fitted 
up a general store. Shortly before the outbreak of the Civil war 
he sold the mill to W. P. Horton, and he in turn soon disposed of 
it to Fred Hart. The milling business had for some reason received 


a kink, and several other owners vainly tried to bring it back on a 
paying basis. At last it was given up, and the mill was left to rust 
and crumble, and many other buildings shared the same fate. The 
place, once prosperous and promising, is today a very quiet and 
sequestered hamlet. 



Because Washington county has some thirty namesakes in the 
Union, who all hit upon the happy idea of calling themselves after 
the Father of the Country, it is necessary to say that this particular 
one lies in Wisconsin. It contains 431 square miles and borders in 
the south on Waukesha county, in the west on Dodge county, in 
the north on Fond du Lac and Sheboygan counties, and in the east on 
Ozaukee county. The latter formerly was a part of Washington 
county, but since the legislative act of March 7, 1853, runs its own 
affairs. The separation was the result of a heated quarrel about the 
seat of the county's administration. In newly settled parts quarrels 
of this kind were a staple article. 

When on December 7, 1836, the Legislature had created the county. 
Port Washington was made the county seat. Until 1840 the county 
belonged to the judicial circuit of Milwaukee county, and had also its 
administrative machinery run from there. When on August 13, 1840, 
by the Act of Organization it received its own administration, and 
Port Washington had fallen in decay and was almost deserted, the 
necessity of the removal of the county seat was pressing. Thus 
Grafton received the honor, which was formerly called Hamburg. 
But when on February 20, 1845, the county received its own court, 
plans were again ripe for the removal of the seat. This time four 
places, Port Washington, Cedarburg, Grafton, and West Bend, 
fought for the honor which also included material advantages, and 
because each one was bound to get it, and consequently none could get 
it, the administration led a kind of nomadic life ; it was a county seat 
on wheels, meting out justice and decrees here and there, where it 
seemed best. From 1847 ""til the separation Port Washington again 
was the county seat. 

In 1848 it was attempted to settle the burning question by a popu- 
lar vote. Three elections were held, none of which brought the de- 
cision but plentiful were the accusations of foul play. Thereupon 



the people asked the Legislature for help. That high body, instead 
of ordaining a county seat, divided the county in a northern and a 
southern half to the great surprise of the inhabitants. Those of the 
south half which received the name of "Tuskola" were to vote on the 
measure. They, of course, voted against the division. In 1852 a vote 
was taken on the question of whether Grafton or West Bend was to 
be the county seat. Grafton won out, but the election was annulled 
because at one place gross irregularities were traced. This was too 
much for the patience of the lawmakers at Madison, and on March 
19, 1853, they cut the Gordian knot by dividing the county from the 
north to the south, to stay divided. The smaller eastern half was 
named Ozaukee county and received Port Washington as county seat, 
while the larger western half, with West Bend as county seat, kept the 
old name of Washington county. 

Thus ended the thirteen years' fight for a county seat. The follow- 
ing skirmishes by the opposition, like the hiding of the realty records 
when the authorities of West Bend wanted to get them in Port 
Washington, could not change the law, and are a humorous after- 
math of the affair. 



All old settlers who came in touch with the Indians agree that they 
were peaceable and friendly. There is no case known where a white 
man was harmed by a redskin. The following little story throws a 
flash light on the relations of the two so widely dififerent races to 
each other, of which the Caucasian was nevertheless destined to su- 
persede the Indian : 

In the fall of 1847 three Yankee families (the names of the families 
were Curns, Chasty [little May's], and McCormack [little Billy's]) 
settled on a tract of land a half a mile north of the former County 
Poor Farm. They huddled in a single shanty built of rough boards 
until log houses would be finished. Shanties and tents were the first 
abodes of the pioneers. There were two children among the new- 
comers, five-year-old May and three-year-old Billy. One day at the 
frugal dinner they overheard their parents talk of buying chickens as 
soon as somebody would get to Milwaukee. At that time Milwaukee 
was the nearest place where the settlers could do their buying. At 
three o'clock the children came home to get their afternoon lunch, 
.saying that they intended to go to Milwaukee to buy chickens. No- 
body, however, took their babble serious, and no further attention 
was paid to them. 

Night fell, but the children did not return to the shanty. The par- 
ents, plodding in their mind for an explanation, at length came to think 
that the little ones must have been in dead earnest when they talked 
of going to Milwaukee to buy chickens. Little May and little Billy 
had started on the way and were now undoubtedly lost somewhere in 
the wilderness. The anguish of the parents grew when hour after 
hour passed and the little tots were not found in the immediate vicin- 
ity of the settlement. The mother of May took her disappearance 
very hard, while the mother of Billy was less disconsolate although her 
boy was the younger one of the two. The few neighbors who had 
settled in the vicinity were aroused and helped to look for the chil- 



dren. All night the neighborhood was searched with lanterns, but it 
was in vain. The following morning each one took a gun and the 
search was continued. They dispersed in different directions, and the 
one that found the little ones was to call. But the sun was low in the 
west, and not a trace of them had been found. Now one of the men 
proposed that two of them should go to a settlement near West Bend 
to get someone familiar with the Indian tongue. Thence they should 
go to the Indian village not far away and get some of the Indians to 
join in the searching party. 

This was done. After the Indians had learned what was up, they 
sent one of their tribe into the pasture to get two ponies. Two lank 
"Injuns" mounted them, and accompanied by two of their keen-scented 
dogs and led by the three Whites, the party started toward the south. 
It was growing dark when they arrived at the settlement of the three 
families, and following the advice of the Indians who with the aid 
of signs made themselves intelligible, the search was postponed until 
the following morning. 

With daybreak the Indians and the Whites set out. It did not take 
long until the party came to a brook in the soft bank of which the 
footprints of little shoes could easily be seen. The dogs sniffed at the 
traces and followed them in a northwesterly direction. The Indians 
could hardly keep up with them, let alone the Whites. The steeple 
chase hunt may have lasted for twenty minutes when the dogs barked. 
A moment later the Indians found the children. In a swamp, beside a 
fallen tree, they sat. Fatigue and hunger had brought them to the 
verge of death, for they had wandered about the woods for two nights 
and a day without anything to eat and without protection. To slake 
their thirst, the little girl drew water with the palm of her hand and 
drank, and in this way also let her younger companion in distress 

Who can describe the joy of the parents over the recovery of their 
children, after a state little short of despair? The mother of little May 
swooned when they laid her daughter into her arms. Her husband 
rewarded the Indians with a twenty dollar gold piece, a big sum in 
pioneer days. The father of little Billy loaded the Indian ponies to 
their carrying capacity with provisions. May and Billy grew up, the 
former probably with a dim recollection of the dreadful experience of 
her early youth, and both with a feeling of thankfulness for their 
Indian friends who had saved their life. 


When the first settlers arrived in Washington county, the country 


was a vast wilderness — the forest primeval covered its plains and hills. 
Few of the younger generation can form an idea of wild lands and 
the life on them. The woods were so dense that it was impossible 
to see farther than a few rods in any direction. No street led through 
them save a casual Indian trail, and for days one could wedge through 
the rank vegetation to find a miserable board shack with a hopeful 
pioneer in it. In night time no light from some farm house shimmered 
through the darkness at almost every stone throw, as now-a-days. 
Very often the traveler had to take night lodging in the seemingly 
endless wilds, no matter how much he dreaded it. Here is another 
story of those days: 

It was in the spring of 1847. In the northern part of Town Fre- 
donia, in the old county of Washington, a German had settled with 
his family. With united efforts they had cleared a small part of their 
homestead, when one morning, after some trees had been felled, the 
woman wanted to get the oxen to drag the logs away. One of them 
had a bell tied to his neck, the sound of which could be heard from 
the distance where the animals were grazing. She set out in the direc- 
tion of the sound, while her husband continued his work. But some 
time passed and she had not come back. Uneasy he went to the shanty 
expecting to find her there. But he only found the baby which had 
been left all alone while the parents had gone to their hard day's work. 

The mother had followed the sound of the bell and had lost her 
way. More and more she had deviated from the right direction, and it 
grew dark without her having found the way home. It was a weird 
night for the poor woman. The wild beasts howled around her, and 
to the anxiety which befalls everyone lost at night came the harassing 
thought of her nursing baby and her worried husband. The sleepless 
night passed. In the morning she reached the clearing of a young man 
who did not understand her German address. Her knowledge of Eng- 
lish was confined to but a few words, but she succeeded in making him 
understand who her next neighbor was and that her home was near a 
little lake. The young settler offered the tired and hungry woman 
something to eat, and after she had rested awhile, he led her to the 
next lake in the town of Scott. They went around its entire shore but 
nowhere was a trace of a settlement. On the way back they met a set- 
tler who opined the lake to be Schwinn's lake in the southern part of 
the town of Farmington. They now started for that lake, the man 
walking ahead, clearing a way through the dense brush, and the 
woman following. 

But night came again, and another day and another night, and the 


home of the woman had not yet been found. On the third morning 
they came to Schwinn's lake, sore-footed, worn out, and almost 
starved, only to be disappointed again, for the settlement was not 
there. They now turned to the north, and after a walk of a few 
more miles arrived on the clearing of a German, Mr. Beger, who was 
acquainted with the neighbor of the woman and who brought her 

Before she reached her home, she heard the woods echo with the 
voices of men, for her husband and some neighbors had not yet given 
up the search for her. When she stepped into her hut, the baby shouted 
lustily at her. The family was united again, after the wild had separ- 
ated them for days. 


As Washington county of today has a town which bears the name 
of an Indian chief, so a township of old Washington county, of that 
portion which was sliced off to end the fuss about the county seat, was 
named after an Indian chief's daughter. It is the town of Mequon. 
A pathetic story is told by an old settler of the life of that Indian 
maid. It was at the beginning of summer in 1845 when in the woods 
he met a young Indian and a pretty Indian girl. The former he had 
seen several times before. He was a spruce and friendly youth with 
whom he could lead a scanty conversation by means of signs. He 
showed him the ginseng root and other roots and tubers which were 
edible and savory, and formed a part of the Indian fare. He was not 
of the Pottawatomies who lived in the country about, but belonged 
to the tribe of the Menomonies who lived to the southwest, in the 
county of Waukesha. When he saw his white friend, he waved his 
hand at him to step closer. Pointing to himself he said : "Pewaukee;" 
and pointing to the girl he said: "Mequon." He then pointed to a 
bevy of wild pigeons which in those days were abundant in the woods, 
and his lips again uttered the word "Mequon." The settler concluded 
from this that the girl's name was "Mequon," and that the word meant 
"wild pigeon." It was probably the first time that one of the settlers 
of that section heard the word "Mequon." The settler learned that the 
girl was the only daughter of the old Pottawatomie chief Waubekee 
whose tribe had their village on the western bank of the Pigeon creek 
and the Milwaukee river, where the tepees snuggled behind a ridge 
which shielded them from the northwest winds and where running 
water was always at hand. When the southeastern part of the terri- 
tory of Wisconsin was divided into coimties and towns, the old pioneers 
chose the name of Mequon for their town, in honor of that beautiful 


Indian princess. The original Indian name of Pigeon creek or Pigeon 
river was Mequonsippi, because its banks were the breeding place of 
innumerable wild pigeons. In the fall of 1845 the old chief Waubekee 
broke up camp and with his people moved north into the town of 
Fredonia where he stayed for a short time, and then moved farther 
north. The girl was seen several times later, but seemed to be in a 
very unhappy and run-down condition, and died shortly after the re- 
moval from Fredonia. Her lonely grave is said to be on the height 
skirting Elkhart lake. There is little doubt that Pewaukee and Meq- 
uon felt a strong liking for each other, that old Waubekee for some 
reason was opposed to a marriage, or had disposed otherwise of his 
daughter, and that she died of grief over her hopeless love. Pewaukee 
afterward was never seen again. The memory of the beautiful Indian 
maid still lingers in the parts where she once lived. 



The chains of hills which run through the county in a direction 
southwest toward south assume in the town of Erin the character 
of a miniature mountain country. They almost fill the eastern part of 
the township and give it a touch of ruggedness as bold as it is found 
nowhere else in the county. Surrounded by a retinue of lower hills 
rises the wooded cone of Holy Hill or Lapham's Peak or Hermit Hill 
— the vulgar sometimes call it the "Sugar Loaf" — to an altitude of 
824 feet above Lake Michigan. If you add the height of Lake Michi- 
gan above sea level, 578 feet, you have a relative height of 1,402 
feet. The hill is the second highest elevation in the state. But 
already its absolute height is quite imposing, and it is visible for miles 
around. It happened that a legend took hold of it, and for decades 
it has been a place of pilgrimage of the Catholics, and is known as 
such all over the state and far beyond its borders. A church decks 
its summit, and a monastery leans to its side, which is in charge of 
Carmelite monks. The legend on which the virtues and hopes of a 
pilgrimage to Holy Hill are founded and which may serve as a sam- 
ple of the origin of places where the most helpless of humans still 
hope for help runs thus : 

Many years ago it happened that a farmer was on his way home 
from the village of Hartford to his farm among the hills. It was late 
at night, the full moon had just risen, and at his approach from the 
west the hill with inky blackness stood bold against the silvery light 
of the eastern sky. The outlines of the hill were as sharp as those of a 
silhouette, and on its summit the farmer could discern the shape of 
a cross and of a human being kneeling in front of it. He may have 
watched the queer spectacle for an hour, when the devotee slowly rose 
and disappeared in the dark woods on the hillside. One morning 
soon afterwards the farmer again saw the strange being performing 
religious exercises on top of the hill. 

The news of the arrival of the hermit soon spread through the 



vicinage, and upon investigation it was found that he lived in a dugout 
made by himself in a crevice on the eastern side of the hill. 

Nobody molested him. His only occupation seemed to consist of 
his pilgrimages to the summit and to prostrate himself in prayer. 
By and by he waxed more confidential with the people of the neigh- 
borhood, responding to their greetings, and casually entering on a 
talk about religious subjects. One farmer especially was favored 
with his trust, and to him he related his life story, the gist of which 
follows : 

His name was Frangois Soubrio. His birthplace was about twenty 
miles from Strassburg, in the former French province of Alsace. 
His parents belonged to the gentry of the country, and they intended 
their son for the priesthood. While he was studying, he fell in love 
with a prepossessing girl who lived not far from the convent where 
he prepared for his work in the vineyard of the Lord, and when he 
saw that she also loved him, he threw his vow of chastity to the winds 
and was publicly engaged to her. Whereupon he fell in disgrace 
with his family, and also incurred the ban of the church. To let the 
aflfair settle down a little, he bade his fiancee farewell with the promise 
to come back in a year. When at the end of the year he returned, 
he found that his love was as faithless as she was beautiful, and in 
a fit of maddening jealousy he killed her. 

Thereupon he fled to America, landing in Quebec. He became a 
monk in one of the monasteries of that old Canadian city. Many 
years he spent in retirement, while the harpies of remorse were 
torturing his conscience for the break of his vow and the still greater 
sin of a rash murder. The only relief from his soul's pangs he found 
in prayer, in penance, and in the reading of old French manuscripts 
which he found in some dusty corner of his cell. Among the latter 
was a manuscript which appeared to have been the journal of Jacques 
Marquette during the summer and fall of 1673, and in which was a 
detailed account of his memorable trip with Louis Joliet on the 
Fox and Wisconsin rivers to the Mississippi, and back on the Illinois, 
and along the western shore of Lake Michigan to Green Bay, from 
where they had started. His attention was particularly focussed on 
the report of a side trip during the voyage. On his return Father 
Marquette had landed on the mouth of a creek, and after a good day's 
walk west had come to the foot of a steep, high and cone-shaped hill 
which he ascended, and at the top of which he built an altar of rub- 
ble and erected a cross. In the name of his patron saint, the Virgin 
Mary — thus the record read on — he dedicated the place as holy ground 


for all times. After that he returned to the landing place of his 
boats and continued on his journey. 

Francois, upon reading this, felt that now the way to the complete 
atonement of his sins had been pointed out to him. He fell on his 
knees and pledged himself to find that holy hill again, and to re- 
place the cross on its summit, doubtless decayed long since, by a new 
one. The description of the shore, and a map sketched by Joliet and 
added to the handwriting, made it easy for him to find the place again. 
He set out for it, but was taken severely sick in Chicago, which inter- 
rupted his travel. Both of his legs were partly paralyzed. Crippled 
he finally reached the hill. It was late at night, and on his knees he 
crept through the dense underbrush up to the top where he spent the 
rest of the night in prayer to the Virgin Mary. With daybreak he 
arose rejuvenated and in the full possession of his former good health. 
The palsy had disappeared. 

On the place where the wonderful cure was effected, Franqois built 
a chapel of rough boards, and during the day and the night, often 
twice and three times, he wended his way up to pray. In the course 
of time a well-trodden path formed under his feet, at the side of which 
at certain distances he erected crosses before which he knelt on his 
way to the top and back. To do extreme penance he often made the 
way on his bare knees. The people of the vicinity, who had heard 
of his miraculous cure soon came to seek relief for their ailments at 
the shrine of the hermit. 

For seven years Frangois lived in his dugout which had a kind of 
vestibule built of rough boards and extending from the cleft. One day 
he had disappeared as mysteriously as he had come. A rumor claimed 
that he has afterwards been seen in Chicago. Imaginative minds also 
claimed that they occasionally saw his figure in the dusk, kneeling 
before one of the crosses at the foot path, or melting into the chapel 
where the relics of the former shrine were preserved. 



Immediately after the Indians had ceded their land to the govern- 
ment, the white race began to settle on it. The vanguard of the new- 
comers consisted mostly of Yankees from the eastern states, especially 
New York. As the east was overcrowded, the most hardy and daring 
ones looked for on outlet. It was the first time that the call of the 
West was heard and heeded. Wisconsin was a part of the vast 
Northwestern Territory that was very attractive to the colonists, al- 
though hardly anyone knew much of the country in which he was to 
cast his lines. One reason why Wisconsin appealed so much to them 
was the comparative ease with which it could be reached. They could 
go aboard some vessel in their home state, packed with provisions and 
necessaries for a few weeks, and sail over the Great Lakes, through 
the Strait of Mackinaw, and land in Milwaukee. The voyage was 
perilous, but they took it in the bargain ; they were no milksops anyway. 
Some of them could trace their ancestors to the early English colonists, 
maybe to the pilgrims on the "Mayflower;" others were of a mixture 
of Dutch and English blood. Some brought swords or guns along 
which their forefathers had carried in the Revolutionary war, or 
papers of dismissal from the army, signed by George Washington 
himself — old mementos of the family history, which were carefully 
preserved. It may go without saying that they did not leave behind 
the ancestral pride of the New Englanders. The newly broken virgin 
soil of Washington county gave promise of rich harvests, while on the 
worn-out, meagre soil of their eastern farms they could barely eke 
out a living. They were not disappointed. 

Being Americans by birth, and well versed in the language and 
government of the country, and being in the majority in almost every 
township, they naturally had to play the first fiddle in the local ad- 
ministration and politics. In American civics they were the instructors 
of their German fellow citizens. Long after their numbers had 
dwindled away, they were a powerful factor in public life, and very 


respected. Their influence can be traced to this very day. Many 
rubs between the nationalities occurred in those early years, it is 
true, but they did not seriously disturb the development of the county. 
They were only like the sputterings of the metal in the melting pot 
before the amalgam is finished. 

When the great tide of German immigration set in, most of the 
Yankees sold their land to the Germans and went farther west. The 
main reason for this lay in the Yankee's eye for a profit. The Germans 
offered him fivefold what he had paid for his land. He took the profit 
and bought cheap wild land in another section. Then the Yankee 
used more brain in farming and was constantly bent upon inventing 
devices that make toil lighter, while the German used more brawn, 
making the soil respond to his doggedly hard labor and what knowl- 
edge of better farming he brought over from the fatherland. Both 
could have learned from each other, but the Yankee decided not to 
enter into competition, or in a compromise. The time had not yet 

In the annual meeting of the Washington County Old Settlers' 
Club, on February 22, 1907, a letter of Mrs. Elisabeth Maxon was 
read which deals with the life and the experiences of those earliest 
settlers. The most interesting passages follow : 

"I was born in the village of Katskill on the Hudson river, New 
York state, Feb. 22, 1828. My father, Peter Turck, and his family, 
consisting of his wife and seven children, landed at Milwaukee bay 
in August, 1837. * * * 

"No pier, not even a plank, projected from the shore to receive pas- 
sengers. The boat anchored in the bay, and we were lowered into 
a yawl-boat, the men carrying the women and children from the 
yawl-boat to dry land. At that time Milwaukee had two dry-goods 
stores, one of which I remember was run by Mr. Hollister. There 
were only two small hotels, the Leland and the Belleview, and one 
small school house. 

"My father took his family to Mequon, about sixteen miles north 
of Milwaukee, the latter place being our nearest post-office. We had 
no neighbors nearer than two miles, and communication by mail was 
expensive, the postage rate being twenty-five cents in cash paid on 
delivery of letter accompanied by a way bill. 

"My father built the first sawmill in the vicinity of his new home 
in 1837, and there was a great demand for lumber. The following 
year the country settled very rapidly. There was no gristmill at this 
time within reach and flour was made from corn and wheat pounded 


fine in a mortar by the men in the evenings. The first flour mill which 
bolted the flour was built, accessible to this new territory, about the 
year 1841, and this was at Prairieville, now the city of Waukesha. 
* * * 

"Our first school teacher was my sister Mary, aged seventeen. The 
term opened in the summer of 1839, and the school was the attic 
chamber of my father's log house. The pupils numbered four in 
addition to my brothers and sisters. The first schoolhouse was built 
in 1843 in Washington county. * * * 

"In 1846 I was married to Densmore W. Maxon and moved with 
an ox-team to Cedar creek, Washington county, which place I still 
hold my residence although living elsewhere part of the time with 
my sons and daughters. * * * in two years' time what was the 
forest wilderness of Cedar creek and vicinity was as thickly colon- 
ized as at the present time. The territory between that point and Mil- 
waukee was practically all entered from the government. * * * 

"For the first few years of our pioneer life we were bountifully 
supplied by the Indians with such game as venison, fish, wild turkey, 
geese, ducks, quails*, partridges and pigeons, who gladly exchanged 
them for farm products. The prices of meat in those days, as com- 
pared with the present prices, were very low. Pork in the retail at 
Milwaukee markets sold at 2^4 cents, and beef at 4 cents per pound. 

"While pioneer life had its drawbacks and privations, it had many 
advantages over the strenuous life of modem competition. If modem 
conveniences could go hand in hand with the ease, freedom and health 
of pioneer life, there could be no more ideal existence." 

The intellectual life of those Yankees was another noteworthy thing. 
They had some very good writers in their ranks, and also several 
poets and poetesses whose talent was above mediocrity. One of the 
most brilliant examples was Josiah T. Farrar, the editor of the old 
"Washington County Democrat," the first paper printed in the county. 
He flourished in the last few years before the outbreak of the Civil 
war. There is but one volume of the paper in existence, edited by 
him, but it is enough to prove his mastery of the pen, and his buoyant, 
indomitable Yankee humor. His locals which breathe the spirit of 
pioneer times up to this day have not lost their tingling quality, prob- 
ably because his is almost a lost art. (There is a little volume of his 
writings in the West Bend Public Library, and also in the State His- 
torical Library at Madison, collected by the author of the present 
work under the title of "The Wag in the Editor's Chair." Selec- 


tions from the book have been compiled for one of the succeeding 
chapters.) He was befriended with the best joumaUstic talent of 
his time in the state, and his paper ranked among the best in the 
state. It was for years also the only one published in the county, 
and the literary talent among the settlers found its vent through its 
columns. Here is a specimen of native poetry, full of lofty thoughts, 
albeit wanting of rythm, written by Nell Osborn and published in the 
"Democrat" of January i6, i860: 

Oh! I have loved, when the fair light of 

Early morn tipped each hillside's leafy 

Crest with fairy light, to revel in the 

Wondrous beauties which a Father's hand has 

Scattered on every side, above, below; 

Beauties that in their perfectness are fit 

Models for man's high ambitions, and meet 

Emblems of what his mind should be. And thus 

I've mused upon this life we live, thought 

Of its graceful swells of purity which 

Time can never crumble neath his wizard 

Wand, and all its depths of woe and darkness, 

W^here decay is traced on every brow 

That heaven's free sunlight kisses. The rose. 

In fullest bloom, is as beautiful a 

Thing as the Creative Hand has shaped. 

Yet, when the luscious richnes.^ of its hue 

Is gone, and its leaves crisply nestle to 

The ground, there is no power on earth save 

God's, that again can gather up those 

Scattered leaves, and cluster them in beauty; 

And moving back their faded brightness 

Breathe o'er them that sweet fragrance, sweet as the 

Breath of summer eve. Thus 'tis with man ! He 

Lives and moves, seemingly because 'tis so. 

He wills; his mind each day unaided seems 

To grasp new truths and drink new pleasures. 

So fresh and pure as dewdrops nestled in 

The lily's paleness are to wild birds. 

And as he each day climbs to some prouder. 


Higher realm of light, some steeper height of 

Science, and, looking down o'er the path worn 

By his footsteps, thinks 'tis so because he 

Willed it so to be; and he forgets 

In "the littleness of his greatness" the 

Giver of those powers which he so leaned 

Upon, as an aged pilgrim leans upon 

His staff, when 'tis all he has to rest his 

Weariness through all his toilsome way. 

But when low spirit voices whisper of 

Failing strength, exhausted powers and slow 

But silent decay, is there aught of earth that 

Can bring the glow of youth back to his mind 

Again, or give the even flow of young 

Life to the crimson tide that ebbs into 

His heart ? And, when some gentle eve, or 

Darksome midnight, or lovely morn, upward 

His spirit flutters; can any power of 

Earth stay it on its airy way? Or grasp it? 

See it? And when all that's left is dust 

Of the dust, and earth of the earth, can aught save 

Power divine make it flesh again ? Or 

Cause his heart to be a throbbing heart ? 

His hand a pulsful hand? 

In every human heart there are some 

Chords which, swept with skillful hand, sent forth the 

Same sweet sounds, fraught with some cherished joy, 

And hardened with rich hopes. In every 

Human heart — however deep its depths of 

Sin may be, however black the darkness 

It has wrought, there is some good ; some quiet 

Shaded sanctuary where good resolves 

Are bom and ofttimes buried. 

Few there are whose lives seem born of heaven ! 

That pure as a star-beam seem breathing 

A happier, holier breath than earth 

Can give. But I have known such ! Sin and 

Temptations passed them unheeded by, 

Because they had no power to tempt or 

Lead astray. And if hastening some, happy 

Were they still ; for looking beyond them, they 


Grasped the hand that sent them, and that was 

Their support. They sought "the wisdom that 

Cometh from above," lived near to God ! . ■ 

Saw Him in the rustling, faded leaf, as 

Well as in the opening bud ; in the 

Falling snow-flake, the pattering rain-drop. 

As in the summer sun; in the breath of spring 

And ripening fruit; in pain and suffering, 

As in joy and pleasure. 

Who e'er has sought to fill the immortal 

Soul with peace and purity except through God, 

Sought mellow grapes beneath the icy pole; 

Sought blooming roses on the cheek of death ; 

Sought substance in a world of fleeting shade ! 

There is another English-speaking element in the county, which 
shall be mentioned in connection with the foregoing chapter, for want 
of a better place. It is the Irish population. They came simultane- 
ously with the Yankees, and are thinly sprinkled over the county with 
the exception of Town Erin where they constitute almost the entire 
population. Although they picked out what would seem to an ordi- 
nary farmer's eyes the most undesirable part of the county — the town 
being very hilly — they found it to their advantage as compared with 
the poverty-stricken, oppressed life on their beloved Emerald Isle. 
They make a comfortable living with farming, and especially with 
sheep raising, and live free and happy. While the old Irish settlers 
were steeped in the customs and traditions of Ireland, modified by 
their new surroundings, their children are thoroughly Americanized, 
and are a valuable and esteemed part of the population. 



The Lost Realty Records 

From the gloom of county history — fifty odd years suffice in fast- 
living America to shroud historical events with the shadows of cen- 
turies — an episode looms up. It happened in 1853. A part of Wash- 
ington county had been lopped off by the Legislature. It was a rather 
painful operation that gave birth to a new county. And the records 
were yet in Port Washington and had to be brought over to West 
Bend, the seat of the reduced county. To do this proved to be no 
easy sledding. 

The newly-elected county board ordered the removal of the county 
offices, but the only officer who complied with the order was the 
register of deeds, Adam Schanz of Addison. But while engaged in 
packing his curule chair and pigskin tomes on a wagon, an injunction 
was served to him. The game of bluff, however, did not work with 
the inhabitants of West Bend. They got up a petition to set aside 
the injunction and entrusted Messrs. L. F. Frisby and Paul A. Weil, 
two lawyers and prominences in local history, with its delivery into 
the hands of Judge Larrabee. At the time the judge held court in 
Marquette, at the outermost periphery of his large circuit, and it took 
the messengers a whole week to reach him. They returned with the 
desired writ pocketed. 

On the following day, four plenipotentiaries went to Port Wash- 
ington to clean up the office of the register of deeds. But the sheriff 
at the Port had "smelled a rat" and taken to precaution to prevent the 
removal of the books. Besides, he knew nothing of the revoked in- 
junction. After sundown — darkness was considered a helpmate in 
the undertaking — the expedition from West Bend, provided with 
bags, entered the office. They were eagerly occupied, the volumes 
rapidly disappearing in the gaps of the bags, when the executor of 
the law put his hand on the door latch. The keen eyes of the sheriff 


had noticed a light in the room, and an inspection through the key 
hole had revealed the whole thing. He seemed to have discovered 
a dreadful conspiracy. The riot bell was rung, the militia called out, 
and the office was soon surrounded by an excited crowd of people. 
The West Benders were seized and shoved on the street; the sacks 
with the books were taken away from them and brought to a safe 
hiding place. The morning sun of the following day shone upon 
empty, bleak book shelves. In a morose mood the expedition returned 
to West Bend and reported that the records had been stolen. 

For some months all attempts to find the books were futile. It was 
only after the supreme court had declared the division of the county 
to be constitutional that they began to bob up. One day Mr. Frisby 
received a letter from Mr. R. A. Bird, the editor of the "Washington 
County Times," in which he was informed that a part of the volumes 
had been found. Again, under the cover of darkness, two men went 
to the house of the hero of the quill, situated a short stretch west 
of the Sauk creek. They arrived at about one o'clock in the morning 
and received the books ; to them also was given a clue where the others 
could be found. Early in the morning they reached West Bend with 
their precious load of books, and with their bandanas tied to sticks 
and floating in the fresh breeze, they triumphantly entered the newly- 
created county seat. 

Soon afterwards the other volumes with the exception of volume M 
were found hidden between the plaster and the brick wall of the Ar- 
cade building in Port Washington. Volume M was discovered in 
an obscure hiding place while remodeling a business place. 

Thus Washington county at last got its record books together, 
long after the minds of the people had been appeased over the division 
of the county. 

A Phlegmatic Settler 

The old county of Washington that before the division was washed 
on its eastern boundary by the waves of Lake Michigan had among its 
pioneers a character that reminded somewhat of Rip Van Winkle, the 
hero of one of Washington Irving's famous sketches. How a man 
of such a temper could stray into a life that with every step demanded 
battle and work and privation, is not easy to understand. But one 
day he bobbed up in the midst of it and called himself Timothy 
Wooden. He lived in the vicinity of Grafton. If somebody asked 
him where he came from, he would answer that he did not come at 
all, but had grown up with the country. Because he got along toler- 


ably well, although he hardly ever was seen working — Tim never 
denied that he was lazy — it was believed that he had connection with 
spirits of the woods, wights, elfs, hobgoblins, or the like, who would 
admit him to their treasures in hidden caves, and allow him to help 

One time some Menomonee Indians who knew of his foible and 
wanted to test it to the breaking point, persuaded him to go with them 
to Milwaukee Falls (the present village of Grafton). Upon arriving 
there they told him that they wanted his scalp. They tied him to a 
tree, piled wood around him, and acted like real savages who with dev- 
ilish cruelty were about to bum their victim alive. 

When all preparations were finished, and the flame could have licked 
the pyre any moment, the Indian chief stepped up to Tim and whisp- 
ered in his ear that the white men had upon one time pardoned him, 
and that from sheer gratitude he would do the same to Tim and 
spare his life if he would but walk to Milwaukee, and not tell any- 
body what had happened to him. 

"Twenty miles I should foot?" exclaimed Tim whom the stake had 
not robbed of his composure. "If you give me one of your horses, 
I'll do it." 

Whereupon the Indians let him go. He had stood the test. 

Many other stories about Tim and his sluggishness were afloat 
among the old settlers, but some of them were believed to be pure 
invention, while others were exaggerated. But the truth of this one 
seems to be vouched : 

One day Tim was taken sick with cholera. WHien his end ap- 
proached, one of his friends stepped to his bedside and said : "Tim, 
I believe you are dying." 

"Well, I ain't doing anything else," came his answer back. A few 
hours later he breathed his last. 

In spite of his phlegm, Tim died a well-to-do man. After his 
death, his widow moved to Chicago and lived comfortably off the 
income of his estate. 

The First of the Solons 

The first one to represent Washington county in the State Legisla- 
ture at Madison was — nomen et omen — Solon Johnson. He took his 
seat on June 5, 1848, a short time after Wisconsin had risen to the 
level of a state. From the life of this gentleman two anecdotes have 


come upon us, which throw spot lights on his character as well as 
on life in general in those days. 

Solon Johnson was gaunt, and measured six feet five in his socks. 
In his ways he was somewhat eccentric, but that did not hinder him 
from being kind and noble-minded. In his extenuated body he car- 
ried a kind of penned-up gayety which occasionally broke loose in the 
most waggish way. After he had been elected — his abode was in 
Port Washington, the former county seat — he went to Milwaukee 
and bought himself a new suit in which he intended to make his 
debut in the halls of Legislature. He had always been rather negligent 
in his dress, and his fellow citizens would have craned their necks to 
see him in a dress-suit and with a silk hat. Solon presumed the like, 
and carefully packed his suit away. He intended to don it on the 
day of his departure for Madison. Until then, the purchase should 
stay a secret. 

But somehow, as it is often the case, the secret leaked out. Some 
one was put on to Solon's purchase, and soon the whole town knew 
about it. A meeting was called and a scheme devised how Solon could 
be made to show and "wet" his new garb. "General" Wooster Har- 
rison, a jocose Yankee, known in those days all over the eastern part 
of Wisconsin, was entrusted with the execution. The ruse worked 
to perfection. 

Harrison went to Solon and found him in his room where the fol- 
lowing dialogue occurred : 

"Good morning. Your Honor." 

"Good morning." 

"I have called on you," began Harrison with measured and im- 
pressive voice, "to pay — to pay — well, you know, Solon — pardon me 
for addressing you by your given name — but, believe me, my motives 
are prompted by the purest of friendship." 

"I can assure you," replied Solon, "that no apology is necessary." 

"My object in calling," continued Harrison, "is to compliment you 
on your success in attaining to the very high and honorable position 
of representing our new state in the maiden Legislature. The re- 
sponsibilities are great, as the laws formed at this session will serve 
as precedents for all coming generations, and we feel confident as to 
your ability to represent judiciously the interests of Washington 

"You do me a great honor," replied Solon, touched with the hom- 


age of his friend. "I know not how to express my gratitude towards 
my friends for this manifestation of their loyaUy and their good 
wishes, and I shall try and prove myself worthy of the great con- 
fidence they have imposed in me." 

"And now," continued Harrison, "that my humble mission is at 
the end, I have one request to make. I know you will think me 
foolish, but then you will pardon the whim. What I wish, my friend, 
is to see you dressed up in your new togs. I have heard that they 
are worthy of the high office you are to represent, and have a great 
anxiety to see how you look in them." 

"Well, I have a new suit," admitted Solon, somewhat flattered, 
"and although it is not as grand as you may have imagined, I will 
comply with your request." 

With that he began to invest himself with his new "toggery," 
while his visitor prodigiously complimented him as every piece was 
fitted to its respective place. When he had everything on, his toilet 
finished, and his friend standing before him in simulated ecstacy 
over his appearance, heavy knocks fell on the door below. Then 
followed a commotion in the hallway, and some one shouted up with 
excited voice : 

"Where is Mister Johnson? I must see him at once." 

Meanwhile Solon had opened the door of his room, and a mes- 
senger, panting and livid, rushed toward him. 

"Are you Solon Johnson?" he gasped. 

"I am; what can I do for you?" 

"A friend of yours has been seriously hurt, and desires to see you 
at the hotel at once." 

"Who is it?" 

"I don't know. I couldn't catch his name ; they told me to get you 
with all possible speed." 

"You had better go at once," suggested Harrison, feigning inno- 

There was no need for a second bidding. Solon took his hat, and 
in his new clothes accompanied the two men to the hotel. He found 
a large crowd gathered there, asked to be led to his friend, and in- 
quired as to the seriousness of his injuries. In response, a roaring 
laughter rose from the crowd, followed by three cheers. 

Solon grasped the situation. "Harrison, you old rogue," he ex- 
claimed, "this is another of your diabolical tricks." 

Another roar from the crowd confirmed his apprehension. "Well, 


boys," he added, "you have earned your treat. Landlord, they all 
drink at my expense." 

Three more cheers were given to the representative of Washington 
county. He had been made to show and "wet" his new suit. 


Soon after the Legislature had convened, Solon Johnson introduced 
an important bill on which he wanted to speak. Before, he had given 
a sumptuous dinner, at which considerable wine was drank, and he 
had paid more homage to Bacchus than was good for him. He hardly 
had entered the hall, when he began addressing the Assembly. This 
being out of order, the speaker reminded him of the parliamentary 

"Order, or no order," exclaimed Solon, "I wish you to understand, 
Mr. Speaker, that I am here to represent the interests of the great 
County of Washington; and, if my bill is not passed, I will tear this 
house down over your heads." 

Some of his friends succeeded in calming him. He was brought to 
his room, where he could meditate over the fix his indulgence had 
put him into. His bill was afterwards passed, and so were a goodly 
number of others which he introduced and urged for passage "with 
great vigor and fair ability." Taken in all, he was an able, though 
somewhat rash, representative. 

Alexander of the Wilds 

It was upon a day in the autumn of the year 1845 when a young 
man of medium size, light complexion, and blue eyes — a pure Anglo- 
Saxon type — arrived on the bank of the Milwaukee river at the very 
spot where today the village of Barton stands. He threw his ax 
and surveyor's instruments down and sank weary into the tall grass. 
For days he had followed the endless windings of the river and 
hewn a path through the primeval forests of the bottom lands which 
never before the foot of a white man had trodden. 

Barton Salisbury — this was the name of the blonde Anglo-Saxon 
— had, in 1839, come from the East to Wisconsin, and settled in the 
town of Mequon. His belongings consisted of a horse and a wagon 
wherewith he had traveled. Arrived at his chosen place, he sold 
his rig, and with the money bought a piece of land bordering on the 
Pigeon creek, or Mequonsippi, as the Indian name was, a tributary 
to the Milwaukee river. He built a small sawmill, and upon the 


completion of it, a log house. Into this he moved with his wife who 
had meanwhile, upon his bidding, arrived from Ohio. In it he also 
held primitive court sessions, having been elected justice. For two 
years he lived on the spot and followed the occupation of a sawyer; 
then he swapped his sawmill for one hundred and sixty acres of land 
with house and barn. The house was so roomy that he decided to 
start a tavern in it. 

He was a "Jack of all trades," so to speak. He had tried his brawn 
and brain as a sawyer, a carpenter, a judge, a farmer, and a host 
before we saw him wearily stretching in the grass at the beginning 
of this sketch. Three years after he had taken to farming, he went 
on a surveying trip up the Milwaukee river. When he got to the 
point mentioned, he saw that here Nature had provided all the es- 
sentials for the start of a village, maybe a city. Every rushing wave 
in the river seemed to coax him: "Here is an excellent water power; 
harness me, and I will make things hum for you!" 

Before Barton dropped himself tired in the fat grass of the river 
bank, he knew one thing: on this very spot he would build his next 
shanty. Thus arose in the fall of 1845, on the right bank of the 
river, opposite the roller mills of today, the first log house, and with 
it the village of Barton was founded. His wife and children he had 
sent back to her parents in Ohio to remain until the place would be 
a little populated. She had remonstrated against again moving into 
the wilderness, having had plenty of that sort of life. Her husband 
succeeded in attracting within a few months a considerable colony 
of settlers, and in June of the following year his wife returned with 
the children. 

He now went at the erection of a flouring mill for which he had 
won two settlers, the Caldwell brothers, as partners. His brother, a 
millwright, whom he had come from Ohio, was entrusted with the 
management of the enterprise. Barton also built the first sawmill 
of the place. 

But his mission as a founder did not end here. In the winter of 
1847-48 he made arrangements to found a village farther down- 
stream. To a place, exactly marked by him, he sent a man to build 
a log house. It was the first house that went up on the site of the 
present village of Newburg. A sawmill, a flouring mill, an ashery, 
where pearlash was extracted of the potash gained from the ashes 
of the burned brush and useless wood of the clearings, a dwelling 
house for himself, and other buildings followed. He was the leading 
spirit of the new place. 


In the fall of 1849, Barton Salisbury was engaged in building a 
hotel at Newburg. He had entrusted two young men, relatives of his, 
with the work. But fearing that they were too inexperienced in 
carpentry, he himself took a hold of the band saw and the adze. 
So he met his fate. A rotten timber on which he stood, broke, and 
he fell from the roof of the building down into the cellar. Bleeding 
and unconscious he was picked up, and seven hours later he breathed 
his last, without having regained consciousness. He was but thirty- 
six years old. 

It may seem odd, but let me draw a little parallel between this 
"Alexander of the Wilds" and the great Macedonian of historic fame. 
He, too, started out to conquer, but with an ax, and not with a 
phalanx. With it he cut his way through the wilderness. He, too, 
founded communities when he found conditions favorable to their 
life and growth. The pioneers who trusted his star, followed him. 
He, too, planted a higher civilization beside the crude totem mounds. 
He, too, died young; it was, however, no death amidst triumph and 
revels at Babylon, but a sober, tragic death amidst strenuous work 
and great plans for the future. Of the places which he founded, none 
has attained to importance, else his figure would be cut in marble, or 
his name emblazoned in bronze. Unsculptured he sleeps in some 
forgotten grave. He is not forgotten altogether, though, for a 
village bears his given name. His is the fate of innumerable heroes 
that went down into obscurity. Once in a great while fate places such 
a man in a larger field of activity, and he develops into an Alexander, 
a Napoleon, a Lincoln, or a Bismarck. 

An Operetta Revolt 

Bent over a fifty-year-old newspaper file, an amiable old gentleman 
holding a high office in Washington, D. C, sat in the sanctum of the 
"West Bend News." The tawny sheets with their faded and blurred 
print brought memories of boyhood to his mind; they furnished the 
keys to unlock secret drawers of the memory, and things that happened 
long ago lay before him in the bright colors of the nonce. Then he 
would pass remarks to one of the editors on this or that item which 
he found true to his recollection. Thus he came to speak of Wm. 
A. Pors, a member of the "Latin Settlement" in the town of Farm- 
ington, and his experiences at the draft in Port Washington in 1862. 
The occurrences at that draft have a bearing on similar occurrences, 


though on a much smaller scale, in West Bend. They were the 
signal for a little riot on this side of the border line. 

"And when they could not find him at home, they chopped off the 
heads of all the chickens in the yard, and not even did they spare the 
canary bird. Thus they quenched their bloodthirst," the gentleman 
corroborated with a chuckle. 

Before the listeners rose pictures of turbulent times. It was on the 
lOth of November, 1862, and the Civil War had been raging for a 
year and a half. Over at Port Washington was to be a draft to 
get recruits for the Wisconsin regiments. In the Court House sat the 
draft commissioner, W^m. A. Pors, and the examining physician, Dr. 
S. Hartwig, of Cedarburg. 

To the Luxemburgers, good-natured and loyal otherwise, who 
were the majority of the population, the draft was an odd thing — 
part of a conundrum, and part of a foul play. In the first place, they 
could not understand why there should be war, since no enemy was 
attacking the country. Then the question arose: When the North 
and the South fight each other, who is right? Then they could under- 
stand but little or no English, and their German papers — I am sorry 
to say — decried the draft and covertly or openly encouraged resist- 
ance. Finally, they had suspicion that there was no fair play at the 
draft, and that a fellow with a pull or money back of him could get 
away easily. 

These were the reasons why on the morning of the draft day a 
mob of nearly a thousand heads and armed with many kinds of 
weapons appeared before the Court House, and, without any parley, 
stormed it. To do this, it did not take much bravery, for the build- 
ing was in an utterly defenseless condition. And if there was any- 
body who felt a lack of courage, he readily filled it up from his bottle. 
The leader seized the draft lists and tore them up to shreds. They 
shoved Commissioner Pors through the door and threw him down the 
steps. Under a shower of stones he fled, bruised and battered, to the 
postoffice and hid in the cellar, the rabble after him. They had to 
give up the chase when they found the cellar door locked and bar- 
ricaded, their victim safely behind it. But now they turned to his 
residence. The erstwhile "Latin Farmer" who had studied law and 
built up quite a lucrative practice owned a neat home. But when the 
infuriated mob left it, the furniture was reduced to kindling wood. 
Nothing that was not nailed down, was spared. They wanted to see 
blood, and so they slew the canary bird and the chickens. Several 
other houses, the owners of which were suspected to have a hand in 


the draft, shared the same fate. With a flag on which a painter was 
made to paint the words "No Draft," the rabble marched through 
town. It was now conceived to hunt down all the Freemasons who 
had pledged for peace and order. This turn was the psychological 
moment for those with more cool reason and intelligence left to sep- 
arate from their blinded brethren. 

These kept up tearing up and down the streets. In the saloons they 
gulped whisky in enormous quantities. Outside they shouted : "No 
draft! Bum up the Court House!" They caught hold of a poor 
barrister and clubbed him, and would have killed him, had a saloon- 
keeper in his pity not jerked him into his house. They compelled the 
editor of the English paper to print a sign reading "No Draft, No 
Destruction of Property." This compulsory piece of job work nearly 
cost him two months' imprisonment at Madison, but, as he put it, "when 
a man's life is at stake, he is willing to take chances on the law." A 
little four-pound cannon that in times of peace had added to the 
glamour of Fourth-of-July celebrations was loaded with the only 
ball that could be found, and dragged to a pier at the harbor, clear for 
action. Woe to the warship that should dare an attack from the 

Meanwhile Commissioner Pors had crawled out of his hiding place, 
and in a closed carriage had started on his flight to Milwaukee. On 
his report of the riot, eight companies of soldiers who were camping 
in Milwaukee were sent on a steamer to the place of the trouble. 
They reached Ulao, four miles south of Port Washington, at mid- 
night, where a portion of the troops were landed. These marched 
toward the village and enclosed it, while the others steamed on and 
layed by at the pier with its threatening Fourth-of-July cannon. There 
was no bombardment, for the heroes of the riot had come to the 
conclusion that to take to their heels was the better part of courage. 
About one hundred and twenty of them were caught and for some 
months kept prisoners at Camp Randall near Madison. 

Governor Salomon in a proclamation warned the citizens of Ozau- 
kee county of the danger and folly of further resistance. And now 
the change came over their minds, and the county and its seat vied 
with the other parts of the State in the patriotic endeavor to support 
the cause of the Union. 

Commissioner Pors returned. The past was buried. For a long 
time afterwards he served his fellow-citizens in a very honorable posi- 
tion, on the very scene of the operetta revolt. 



It was in the forties of the last century when the maefstrom of 
German immigration sent one of its branches into Washington county. 
Close up to the southern and southeastern borders German colonists 
had already settled, as in the colony of the Lutherans at Freistadt. 
This attracted their countrymen who, backed by the settlers, pushed 
into the country across the border, buying whatever Government land 
was left or inducing the Yankees to sell their farms at what was in 
those days considered a fair margin of profit. 

They came from many parts of Germany, from the north, south, 
east, and west, not to forget the Saxons of the middle. They did not 
shirk a long, wearisome, and sometimes even fatal sea voyage, to 
build a new home in a country with more room and liberty, on a soil 
that in its natural wealth and hidden vim was craving for man to 
empty on him its cornucopia. They were mostly common people, 
sons and daughters of the soil, men with callous hands and women 
trained in the severe side of life, who in spite of hard labor had little 
chance at material independence in their native land. But it was just 
such people that their new home needed. After the pioneers had hewn 
their clearings in the vast forests, and the virgin soil had produced 
its first rich harvests, the custodians of higher culture could gain a 
footing. It is true, there were exceptions. Occasionally the settlers 
were accompanied by their pastor, or young men of an academic edu- 
cation were among them, wrestling with the wilds, a treatise in one 
hand and the ax in the other. 

They must have been energetic, enduring and frugal, and the product 
of generations of toilers, these sturdy Germans in incipient Washing- 
ton county. It was an immense change to drop from tlie high state 
of development of the fatherland into the beginnings of a civilization. 
Most of them, certainly, were in the same fix the soldiers of Cortez 
had been : their ships had been burnt behind their backs, that is, they 
would not have been able to return, had they wanted to, for their 



means were all but exhausted. So it was a case of fighting or dying. 
They fought and were victorious, most of them anyway. 

When the first and hardest part of pioneering was done, the achieve- 
ments of civilization came in its wake. Highways and railroads, 
schools and churches were built. Sawmills and gristmills arose where 
a rivulent or river offered a waterpower, and around this nucleus 
hamlets and villages and cities grew. Many are the communities 
that trace their origin to a sawmill, and should name as their founder 
some enterprising sawyer. Some of the places, at the outset extremely 
promising, have fallen into decay, or had their cannily planned sites 
returned to the plow. It had to be taken into the deal. 

The old German settlers remained as true to their descent as was 
possible far away from the source of German culture. This essence 
their children inherited to a great degree. But it must be considered 
that the first owners of the soil, the Anglo-Americans, nicknamed 
Yankees, exacted a great and lasting influence, and that things foreign 
to its culture have, strange enough, so often seemed imposing to the 
German mind. The Yankees spoke the language of the country and 
lived up to its customs, and the country had welcomed the newcomers 
on an equal footing with them. And the newcomers did not 
want to be ingrates. They put themselves a double task: to 
preserve their mother tongue and customs, and at the same time adapt 
themselves to the new conditions, to the American citizenship, and 
learn as much of the country's language as possible. Because of their 
sequestered life in the country, aside from their love for the home 
with its narrow bounds, they easily managed to stay German in their 
core and manners. But not everywhere in the county did public life 
show a distinct German stamp. There have always been places where 
the American predominated. Take for example the two cities of the 
county. Hartford always was more of an American community than 
West Bend. Taken as a whole, and considering the degree of their 
education, the German settlers have played their part honorably and 

Instances of the self-centered mind of these settlers furnish the 
German names given to many localities in the county. Although 
they were mostly surnames, they were better known than their English 
originals. A locality between Schleisingerville and Cedar creek was 
named "Hunsrueck;" the town of Germantown furnished names like 
"Goldenthal," "Teufelseck," "Scholleklopper," and "Schnappsberg." 
Richfield contributed the weird name of "Blutgericht ;" St. Lawrence 
was called "Buckel." Addison contributed "Gansburg" and "Froesch- 


loch." Barton was well known by the name of "Salzburg," a corrup- 
tion of Salisbury, the name of the founder of that village. St. 
Mathias's surname was "Vielnoethig;" Mayfield, named after Maien- 
felden, the home of its Swiss founder, is up to this day well known 
by the name of "Katzbach." Some of the names are obviously nick- 
names bred by the stern humor of the privation-ridden settlers, but 
they were generally accepted. 

Generally speaking, the different German tribes lived mingled, with- 
out any attempt to separate. In some places, however, larger numbers 
from the same parts of Germany congregated, like the Bavarians at 
St. Lawrence, the Saxons at Fillmore, the Hessians in the towns of 
Germantown and Polk, and the Rhenish-Prussians from the banks of 
the River Moselle west of Big Cedar lake. 

The most noteworthy, although very short-lived, German settle- 
ment in the county was the so-called "Latin Settlement" in the town 
of Farmington. It received that name because its founders were uni- 
versity students, who understood Latin. The settlement will be the 
subject of the following chapter. 

To the old settlers of the county the preservation of their German 
tongue seemed vital. For years this was tended to in the family and 
in the church. Later most every place had a German turners' or a 
shooting society. But these have all but one disappeared. The ex- 
ception is the "Farmington Turnverein" of Fillmore. Singing so- 
cieties have flourished and withered; there is not one of any im- 
portance left. Some of these societies possessed quite large German 
libraries. In passing, the benevolent societies and lodges who used, 
and those who still use, the German language in their meetings may 
be mentioned. 

After the oral word, the written word is the most effective means 
to bind a race together. So we get to the German press of tlie county. 
Whoever stops to think over the predicament of that press needs to 
be no pessimist to have his misgivings as to a bright future of it. There 
appear two German weeklies as against five English ones. The first 
German weekly, "Der Phoenix," was started in West Bend in 1858 
by Gustav Grahl. It appeared for about a year and that was all. In 
1861 the experiment was repeated by F. Orthwein. He bought the 
printing outfit of the defunct Port Washington "Adler." The name 
of the paper was "West Bend Democrat." Whether the publisher 
did not find enough support, or whether he felt an irrepressible desire 
to exchange his pen for the sword is hard to say at this late hour. 
After the paper had come out a few times, he locked up the shop and 


enlisted in a regiment to help squelch the rebellion. Later it was tried 
to publish a German weekly in connection with the English "West 
Bend Post." But before two years were over, it was abandoned for 
want of support. The next attempt in this line was made in 1888, 
when the Washington County Publishing Association, the president 
of which, Mr. Ernst Franckenberg, was always an ardent advocate 
of the preservation of the German tongue, bought the "Beobachter," 
a weekly which since 1880 had appeared in Fond du Lac and had 
numerous subscribers in Washington county, and made West Bend 
the place of publication. This venture proved more successful, and 
the paper up to now has managed to hold its own. In 1895 another 
German weekly, "Das Echo," was launched in West Bend, but as 
there was apparently no demand for it, the publication was discon- 
tinued six months afterwards. In 1897 a German weekly of smaller 
compass, "Der Botschafter," was started in Schleisingerville. 

A most potent factor in the preservation of German, one that is 
often overlooked or little credit given, were the parochial schools of 
the Catholics and the Lutherans, as well as the Sunday schools of the 
Reformed, the Methodist and the Evangelical congregations. With 
very few exceptions, German is not taught in the public schools. 

But the phenomenon that is witnessed in every other part of the 
country with a foreign-born population is also evident here. The 
young generation is drifting into the ranks of English-speaking Amer- 
ica. It must be regarded as an exception when a boy or girl, besides 
speaking it, is so versed in German as to enjoy its literature, or 
write a good style. This latter would be considered almost a marvel. 
There are plenty of the second generation, who are classed among 
Germans and who could not read a German paper or book. An im- 
pure German, reminding of the Pennsylvania Dutch, is still widely 
spoken among the old folks, while the children's range, construction 
and accent of the language does not differ much from that of their 
Anglo-American playmates. I have known Irishmen who could talk 
German fully as well as some of the second-generation Germans. 
Even the best German spoken is deteriorated to some extent. Their 
best writers — few as there are left — find it almost impossible to evade 
the Americanizing influence in their diction. On the other hand, most 
everybody now-a-days understands common English. 

It is small wonder that all this should be. Most people are far 
from being linguists who master several tongues ; all they want in that 
line is to know enough of one to fetch them through life. The exi- 
gencies of the country are that English should have the first place. 


It is actually a business proposition with Americans. And what httle 
German is learned, is done so mainly for business' sake. It may be 
too that, contrary to the Gennan, the average American does not believe 
in the widening of the mental horizon, that is claimed to follow the 
study of more than one language, which claim is still open for dis- 
cussion in spite of a German emperor's saying that "as many languages 
he learned, as many lives he lived." But, after all, it seems a pity that 
a tongue which in point of perfection is considered second only to 
Latin should be wantonly thrown away, while it could be cultivated 
with little effort in a county peopled almost entirely by Gemians and 
their offspring. 

It is conceded by Germans of high standing that the third genera- 
tion is lost to the German cause. The country has assimilated them, 
the Americanizing process is complete, the melting pot has done its 
duty. Yet they show a reverence for German things that is touching. 
It strikes one like the reverence for a dear departed family member. If 
there is a library in the house, one may still find Schiller's works be- 
side those of Shakespeare. 

While the old settlers with their fondled recollections of Gennany 
and its advanced civilization very often were seized by a kind of mild 
homesickness in spite of the American freedom and abundance, their 
children learned to love the new country as well as anybody can love 
his native land, for America is their home country. They could 
but respect their parents' love for the fatherland, and try to understand 
it by means of analogy. 

There is no doubt that the higher American culture has a great fas- 
cination for the progeny of the immigrants of German and other 
nationalities. Its influence is as strong in the country as in the cities, 
and the means by which it is exercised are the public schools, the ideals 
of which are the same all over. Whoever did not come in touch with 
the higher German culture will surrender unconditionally. Because 
the immigrated parents were, rare cases excepted, not in a position 
or educated enough to disclose to their children the priceless treas- 
ures of German literature, there was for the brighter ones who felt 
a desire for a better education but one way to walk on, and this led 
to the intellectual life of cultured America. 

The fact that the county became overwhelmingly settled by Ger- 
mans or their descendants did not change things. The old folks 
stayed in the old ruts, they piled up material wealth, but did not 
rise a modicum intellectually to counteract the leaven left by the 
original Yankee settlers and to increase their influence in order to 


at least retard the English-speaking tide and the estrangement of 
the young generation to the notions and ideals of the elders. 

But this is, as already said, no localism. It may be noticed in this 
country wherever foreigners have settled. That invisible Ameri- 
canizing power is at work everywhere. It seems to be aided by 
Nature. And in point of amalgamation the Germans are at the head 
of all other nationalities. Attempts have been made of late to 
band them together to arouse their racial pride, to get them to voice 
their views in the political arena, warning them not to give up their 
characteristics unreservedly, pointing to the valuable help Gennan 
leaders and soldiers have rendered this country in the Revolutionary 
War and in the War of the Rebellion. It seems uncouth to think 
that a race who has given to the world writers and poets like Goethe 
and Schiller, philosophers like Kant and Schopenhauer, composers 
like Beethoven and Wagner, and painters like Duerer and Holbein, 
should be just good enough to clear the wilderness, live a little 
longer in a Cindarella-like lowliness, and disappear without a trace 
in the great crucible. But the attempts to prod them into activities 
are little short of failures. They come rather late. The old gen- 
eration who fully could comprehend the movement is rapidly dying 
out; the second generation is half estranged to it; and the third 
generation is American pure and simple. The immigration from 
Germany, which alone could infuse new life blood to such a move- 
ment, is reduced to an insignificant figure, and there is little prospect 
that it will be increased. 

That the Germans in this country have a Culturanfgabe is the 
contention of their best and ablest men. They do not try the foolish 
thing of dominating the country. But they do try to stay true to 
their ideals of life as long as possible, to impregnate the American 
mind with them. They wish to lay down their best qualities on the 
altar of our American civilization, hoping that they may be taken 
up into the woof of this nation's fabric. For instance, their love of 
the home, of thrift, of Nature, of arts and sciences, and last, though 
not least, their idealism which is worth considering in a country that 
often so glaringly illustrates Gretchen's complaint in Goethe's 
"Faust:" "Nach Golde drdngt, am Golde hdngt dock alles, wir 

"Those seventeen million German- Americans (in the United 
States)," says Prof. Hugo Miinsterberg of Harvard, "know that 
the blood of their ancestors was offered for the unity of this nation; 
that the brawn and the brain of their fathers helped to build its 


prosperity; that their education and their character have given 
tremendous momentum to the glorious work of the nation, and that 
they themselves are just as good American citizens as the Anglo- 
Americans. Those Germans who sought their homes in Pennsyl- 
vania in the seventeenth century are to the millions of modern Ger- 
man-Americans what the Pilgrim Fathers are to those descended 
from English stock. The time has passed when the children felt 
ashamed that their parents were not of English but Teuton origin. 
* * * The one man who is the idol of the nation has never lost 
a chance to tell how Dutch and Scotch and Irish and French bloods 
are mixed in his veins. This new feeling and attitude of the ma- 
jority necessarily demand a fundamental revision of the antiquated 
national theory. The American people are not an English people, 
nor a Dutch, nor a French, nor a German, nor an Irish. The Ameri- 
can nation is an entirely new people, which, like all the other great 
nations of the world, has arisen from a mixture of races and from a 
blending of nationalities. The ties of kinship do not connect it with 
England more than with Ireland or Holland or Germany or Sweden. 
All these races are united and assimilated here — not by a common racial 
origin, but by a common national task. They must work out in 
unity the destiny of a nation to which all the leading countries of 
Europe have contributed their most enterprising elements as bearers 
of their particular traits and ideals." 

Even broad-minded, intellectual Americans — those who always 
have been friendly to German culture since their great writers have 
pointed to it — deplore the altogether too early passing of the Ger- 
man influence on the American mind, the neglect of the language, 
and the shedding of time-honored notions, and ask where that 
faithfulness is of which Tacitus has written. These being rigid 
facts, it is evidently nothing left to do but to treat them as such. 
But, happily, Nature strives to preserve and develop those qualities 
in man as well as in nations, which are most useful to her purpose. 
She cannot ignore the large strain of German blood in the American 
nation and any good that springs from it and aids her will certainly 
be used. Blood will always assert itself. It is asserting itself al- 
ready. This will be a nation in which all of the best and most 
available qualities of each of the elements that helped in its making 
are blended. This ought to be satisfactory to all. 



Whoever has read Dr. G. A. Zimmermann's historical work 
titled "Vierhundert Jahre amerikanischer Geschichte" ("Four Hun- 
dred Years of American History") has come across a passage where 
the author says, in translation: 

"Mention should be made of the 'Latin Settlement' of the town 
of Farmington, Washington county, which was founded in the mid- 
dle of the '40s by the Jacobson brothers, Wermuth, Wm. A. Pors 
and Eghardt." 

In truth, there existed in Washington county, though for a short 
time only, a "Latin Settlement," as the colonies of the highly cul- 
tured fugitives of the German revolution of 1848 were named. 
The influence of this creme de la creme of the German immigration 
can perhaps up to this day be traced in the "Farmington Turn- 

It happened in 1849 and on board of an emigrant sail that a num- 
ber of young men learned to know each other. An ocean voyage 
in the days of our granddaddies was a protracted affair — it lasted 
as many weeks as it does now days — and the travelers had much 
more chance and leisure than nowadays to study and fathom each 
other. They were Germans and German-Austrians. As university 
students they had more or less, if not in deed, at least morally sup- 
ported the German revolution of 1848, which extended into Austria. 
The rise of the people ended in a failure, the thrones of the poten- 
tates proved to be too firm to topple, freedom, the dream of the 
masses, was interpreted with "insolence," and many who had helped 
along, open-handed or under cover, preferred to get out of reach of 
the ruling powers, or to emigrate to the country of the free across 
the great pond, where they could better live up to their standards of 
life. They were academically educated people, and for this reason 
alone it was a matter of course that they should segregate from 
the bulk of the emigrants and find each other. Thus a double cord 



held them together: that of lost hopes, and that of intellectual no- 
bility. It did not take long before they had vowed eternal friend- 

The young men who had thus drifted together were: Wilhelm 
A. Pors, Adolf and Gustav Jacobson, Leopold Eghardt, Otto and 
Karl Wermuth, Herman Schlueter, Hans Balatka, and Friedrich 
Bude. Their time aboard was for the greater part occupied with 
thoughts of the future and planning. They had heard that in Amer- 
ica people would get rich in a single night, and that vast tracts of 
land could be gotten almost for a song. The European press so 
often delighted in grotesque exaggerations of American conditions, 
and numberless readers have taken them for the truth. No wonder 
that our former students were building air-castles, as though they 
possessed Alladin's wonderful lamp. In their visions each one saw 
himself the owner of large domains with fine mansions, beautiful 
woodlands, fertile fields — in short, in an independent and happy 
state of life, and as free as any of the sovereigns of the many petty 
states of Germany. 

They had agreed to continue their trip to the West at once after 
their landing in New York. In those days Wisconsin lay way out 
in the Wild West. So it came that the East with its industrious 
cities was hardly deemed worthy of any scrutinous look, and it was 
not until in Milwaukee that the travelers began to examine the 
surroundings closer. Their resolutions were not shaken. They 
wanted to go on the fann, to do farming on a big scale, to bring 
about a revolution in agriculture, to create models for the entire 
West, that should be astounding. The heaven-storming enthusiasm 
of the German ex-revolutionists of '48 knew no boundaries. "Arms 
interlocked with thee, I challenge fearlessly my century," they could 
apostrophize from Schiller's "Don Carlos." In the first few years 
there would be hardships, surely, but then: Domains which could 
arouse the envy of any German country-gentleman. 

Action followed thought. They chose the town of Farmington 
in Washington county, where they bought 360 acres of land from 
Charles W. Detmering. It was divided into equal parts, and the 
chopping down of the primeval forest began. Hans Balatka sac- 
rificed the freedom of his bachelorhood and took to himself a neat 
German girl as a wife. She did the cooking and housekeeping for 
the men, and brought changes into the monotony of their meals and 
life in general. A hut was built of logs and rough boards, wherein 
a space was partitioned off for Balatka and his spouse. The intimate 


relations of married life shun the eyes of even the best friends. 
Owing to the unwieldy material, the work of the carpenters was, 
however, far from perfection. The roof especially had its short- 
comings. On rainy days Balatka had to open an umbrella in bed 
to prevent himself and his wife from getting drenched. The dif- 
ficulties grew, grew worse, took on towering proportions, and in the 
very same ratio, inversely, sank the courage of the settlers. Never- 
dreamed-of difficulties blocked their way. Harder than Hercules's 
work in the Augean stable appeared this wresting of a piece of 
arable land from a thousand-year-old wilderness. The beautiful 
dreams of country-seats faded, dissolved into nothing, like mental 

At the end of the second month they all, with the exception of the 
Jacobson brothers and Wermuth had quit battling with the wilds. 
These did stick to the ground and turned out as well-to-do farmers. 
Hans Balatka removed to Milwaukee and became one of the fore- 
most musicians and directors of America; he also directed singing 
societies in St. Louis and Chicago. Herman Schlueter settled down 
in Chicago and gained the green twig in business enterprises. Wm. 
A. Pors went to Port Washington, studied law, and became an im- 
portant factor in local politics. Leopold Eghardt also settled in Port 
Washington and reached the top-notch of local honors by being 
elected county judge. Of all these broad-minded and highly intel- 
ligent men Friedrich Bude alone returned to Germany where he 
drifted into such miserable straits that he chose to die by his own 

Meteor-like was the appearance of these Germans in Washington 
county, but the bright line which they drew in the heavens of our 
prosy every-day life has up to this day not entirely disappeared, at 
least not with the older generation whose feelings and views to a 
great extent are still rooted in the soil of their native land, from 
which they draw strength, like Antaeus of the Greek fable. 



In an old poem by a local writer this stanza occurs : 

" What land is that where every one 
Expects an 'Iron Horse' to run 
Across his farm, or he's undone? — Wisconsin." 

Now the fact is that many were undone after the "Iron Horse" 
ran across their farm. The old settlers had some sad experience 
with the railroads, those most potent factors in the development of a 
country. Generously and blithe fully they had helped toward build- 
ing the Milwaukee & La Crosse Railroad (now the St. Paul) by 
buying shares of the company and paying for them with mortgages 
on their land. In 1855 the construction of that railroad was com- 
pleted through the county. 

In 1856 the building of the Milwaukee & Lake Superior Railway 
(now a part of the Northwestern System) was begun. It was to be 
an air-line road from Milwaukee to Fond du Lac, running through 
Washington county. Again the farmers put their shoulders to it 
by buying shares and hypothecating their properties to pay for them, 
for the days of fat bank accounts did not yet smile on them. The 
railroad company sold the mortgages to get the funds wherewith to 
build the road. Hardly had the road advanced a few miles into the 
county, just far enough to make the mortgages valid, when the com- 
pany on account of mismanagement went bankrupt, and the fanners 
had worthless shares, while the courts held the mortgages to be valid. 
Their hopes had vanished, their money was gone, only the debt stuck 
to them like a lost dog to a kindly looking gentleman, and they 
had to pay or be driven from their farms. It was hard in those 
days when money was scarce. 

Next came the failure of the Milwaukee & La Crosse Railroad. 
Again the shares held by the farmers were not worth the paper they 
were printed on, and the mortgages on the farms were foreclosed. 
For years the farmers litigated against their creditors. The follow- 


ing resolutions adopted in a meeting in the town of Richfield on 
February 15, 1861, furnish the key to the situation: 

"Whereas a number of farm mortgagors of this county have within 
a short time had suits instituted against them for the foreclosure of 
mortgages given to the Milwaukee & La Crosse Railroad Company, 
which company by fraud and by fraudulent representations made 
to us obtained said mortgages, and 

"Whereas, we are all as unjustly subject to foreclosure at any 
moment, therefore be it 

"Resolved that our Sheriff, Charles A. Cron; Jacob Bertschy, 
Register; George H. Kleffler, Clerk of the Court; Michael Bohan, 
Clerk of the County Board of Supervisors, and their deputies are 
hereby requested by us and our friends to refuse having anything 
to do with such foreclosure, either in serving papers or in filing 
them ; in abstracting titles or in preparing papers for such foreclosure. 

"Resolved that we will remember our friends, and mark our en- 
emies; and that anyone having anything to do with such foreclosure 
will be regarded as our enemy. 

"Resolved, that we are all for peace, but if forced to extremities, 
we prefer defending ourselves to surrendering our homes and the 
homes of our children through such foreclosure." 

In Hartford the "Home League," a paper in the interest of the 
mortgagors, was started. The "Washington County Democrat" also 
took up their cause. Said its editor: "We have received the first 
number of this paper ('The Home League'), published in Hartford 
by A. M. Thomson. It is a regular clipper, sharp as condensed 
lightning, and devoted entirely to the interests of the Railroad Farm 
Mortgages. We notice that this number has caused a tremendous 
fluttering amongst the Wall Street-influenced journals of this State. 
Pitch on 'em, Thomson, we'll hold your bottle and sponge." 

But all of this was of no avail. No matter how hard the blow 
hit, how much misery it brought upon the unfortunate ones, how des- 
perately it was fought in the courts, there was nothing left to do but 
to pay or give up the farm. The demands in the county ran up to 
almost $200,000. But there was one satisfaction after all. The 
construction of the La Crosse Railroad was taken up by another 
company and pushed to a finish, and the county reaped great ad- 
vantages of it. The same may be said of the Lake Superior Railway. 

In the summer of 1862 large numbers of the settlers in this and 
the neighboring counties were seized by what is known as the "In- 


dian Scare" which ahnost precipitated them into a panic. Near the 
border line of Minnesota the Sioux Indians had gone on the war 
path, kiUing the settlers and pillaging the settlements, and in the 
South the war was raging between the States — reason enough to 
create high-pitched excitement. A definite and final explanation of 
that great ''Indian Scare" has never been given. But it soon was 
found to be altogether groundless, and today only humorous anec- 
dotes are left of it. 

According to the story of a contemporary, about a dozen Indians 
had at the time put up their wigwam at Horicon lake, not far from 
Hartford. Nearby some Germans had settled, and one of them had 
shot a pony belonging to the Indians, which had broken into his 
corn field. The redskins thereupon should have sworn to take 
revenge on the German who, frightened to death, ran to his neigh- 
bors and told them of a horrible Indian massacre that was breeding. 
Probably the threat of the vindictive Indian grew the farther it 
spread, as bad news so often does, like the wave rings from a stone 
thrown in the water grow bigger the farther they get away from 
the center. When it reached Hartford in the evening, the dozen of 
harmless Indians had grown to five thousand bloodthirsty savages. 
Even the cooler heads were seized by the excitement. On the fol- 
lowing morning the strong men of the place, provided with all kinds 
of weapons, rode on wagons to the seat of the supposed hostilities, 
while the women busied themselves at home, getting lint and band- 
ages ready for the wounded-to-be. There were touching scenes at 
the departure of those heroes. 

But the bravery of the Hartforders was not to be tried to the 
utmost. When their main force had reached the lake, they only 
found a few Indians who at the sight of the armed men and their 
warlike attitude were at least as frightened as the Whites had been 
before. The rear-guard who was but half way was tnet by a wagon 
full of Mecklenburgers who convinced them of the uselessness of 
their expedition. They were armed with old shotguns, pitchforks 
and scythes. The excitement soon subsided. 

Another dark cloud that cast a gloomy shadow was what is called 
the "De Bar Tragedy." It was an atrocious lynching affair that 
marred the record of an otherwise remarkably law-abiding county. 
George De Bar, a young man who "walked with a somewhat sham- 
bling gait, and altogether had the make-up of a more than ordinarily 
harmless, though rather shiftless young man" worked in the summer 


of 1855 for a farmer named John Muehr in the town of Trenton, 
whose family consisted of himself, his wife and a boy, Paul Winder- 
ling. De Bar left Muehr 's employ some time in July to work in 
Young's sawmill not far away. On the evening of August i he left 
Young's house saying that he would sleep in the barn where it was 
cooler, it being a sultry night. It proved to be a pretense, for he went 
to the house of Muehr to collect a small sum due to him for work, 
as he said afterwards. Muehr intended to treat his visitor to some 
beer, but when he brought it up from the cellar, De Bar standing 
at the head of the stairs dealt him a murderous blow with some hard 
instrument. The victim fell unconscious back into the cellar. The 
assailant then turned upon the woman with a knife, stabbing her and 
inflicting terrible but not fatal gashes on both sides of her neck. 
She fainted away from loss of blood. The cries of the woman 
awakened the boy who had gone to bed. He came to the room, but 
tried to escape when he saw what had happened. De Bar followed 
him into a corn-field, caught him and cut his throat from ear to 
ear, dispatching him on the spot. He then dragged his body to the 
house in which he thought were the dead bodies of Muehr and his 
wife, and set fire to it. Muehr, however, recovered from the blow 
and succeeded in saving himself and his wife from the burning 
building. De Bar fled to Milwaukee, but was discovered the next 
day and brought back to the county jail for his trial. 

As the news of the shocking butchery, apparently done without 
any provocation, spread over the county, many voices were raised 
that the murderer should not escape the biblical penalty for such 
a crime. A few months before a perpetrator of a similar deed had 
been hanged in Janesville by a mob of infuriated lumbermen, and 
the lynchers went free. Besides, capital punishment had only re- 
cently been abolished in the state. Thus circumstances were grouped 
in a way to incite people to take the law in their own hands. 

A special court session was held by Judge Larrabee on August 7. 
Because the air was heavy with threats of l3Tiching, the judge ordered 
two companies of militia, one from Milwaukee and one from Port 
Washington. They were present at the trial. An indictment for 
murder was formulated by the grand jury. De Bar was arraigned, 
pleaded not guilty, and was being brought back to the jail by the 
sheriff and his guards when a frenzied mob overpowered them on 
the courthouse steps and seized the prisoner. He was knocked down, 
and a heavy stump and stones thrown upon him rendered him un- 
conscious. They then seized him by the legs and dragged him down 


the street, the closely following crowd kicking him on the head and 
pelting his body with stones. It was at one point proposed to draw 
and quarter him, but this medieval method did not find enough sup- 
porters. On he was dragged with ropes tied to his feet to a maple 
tree in front of the old gristmill and hung head downward, to a 
branch. He had been dangling there for a little while when he was 
cut off by some citizen who had not taken part in the execution. 
But the mob who wanted to make sure of his death again seized 
the rope and dragged him across the bridge to the eastern river bank 
where they again hung him to a tree, this time by the neck. When he 
was cut down an hour later, there was no doubt that he was stark 
dead. Fifteen of the lynchers were indicted and tried for murder, 
but they were set free because "the testimony did not sustain the 
allegation that he came to his death by hanging, there being a rea- 
sonable doubt as to his being alive when hung the last time." 

Barring this shocking and deplorable incident the county, as said 
before, always has been remarkably free from crimes, and the poet 
quoted at the beginning of this chapter was right when he wrote: 

" What part is that where crimes are few. 
Misdeeds the same and lawsuits too, 
And juries don't have much to do? — Washington County." 



In some newspaper offices the files are, if not the most valuable, 
at any rate the most interesting assets. They become more so with 
age, and if they reach the half-century mark, there is the editor's 
chance of getting up a compilation of "Things That Happened Fifty 
\^ears Ago," that may run all the year around and may be almost 
certain of being read and appreciated. I have found a mine of special 
features in the files of the "West Bend News." Among many things, 
I have dug out an almost complete account of the Twelfth Wisconsin 
Regiment of the Civil War, very interestingly narrated in sixty odd 
letters by boys from West Bend and vicinity. In the oldest of the 
files, the "Washington County Democrat" of the year i860, a dusty 
volume bound in half -leather with marbled paper over the paste- 
board covers, I found a precious vein of humor running through the 
local columns. In idle hours I have deciphered the blurred lines 
on the time-stained rag paper of this old tome and have collected 
the wittiest items in a little book that was published privately in a 
very small edition, and apparently has made a hit. The writer's 
name was Josiah T. Farrar. If anybody would ask me where to 
find traces of the spirit of pioneer days in Washington county, I 
would confidently guide him to these items. It is in this chapter 
proposed to give an ample number of them so that the reader may 
grasp a little of that spirit, and also enjoy the unique waggishness 
of this country editor of ante-bellum days. 

The weather is the most common, and also the most natural, topic 
of a country weekly. Few are the issues in which it is not treated in 
at least a few lines. Here is an item of March 19: 

"Won't the fine, warm weather start the buds on fruit trees? 
And then, during the next month, won't there come a 'sa^erageous' cold 
snap and kill them all dead as a door nail?" 

The excessive drought of the year 1859-60 evoked the follow- 

"No rain. — We haven't had a real good, soaking rain in this 

Vol. 1—7 



vicinity for almost a year — 'twill be a year the last of next month. 
Rain is very much needed. The wells are almost all dry, cisterns 
more so, and water powers in some parts of the county are not 
what they might be. Water is scarce — distressingly so. It is kept 
almost exclusively for washing, irrigating and grinding purposes, 
very little is drank. Beer, in a great measure, has taken the place of 
Adam's ale as an imbibatory fluid. Don't we need rain? — say!" 
A graphic description of November weather is this : 

"The weather is decidedly, deucedly and confoundedly moist. — 
" 'The cold and scanty rain comes dripping down 
From sullen, overcharged, unwilling clouds.' 

"Not so very 'scanty,' either, judging from the mortar-like mud 
which plasters the carpets of every man who has a marriageable 
'fraulein,' and which adheres so tenaciously to the unclean soles and 
chameleon coats of the corps of electioneering candidates whose 
number is legion — for none but beaus and ticket-venders patronize 
our bottomless sidewalks during this abominable weather. 

"The week has been nothing but a continuous interminable drizzle, 
and as we stick this indictment in type, the spiteful diminutive rain- 
drops hurl themselves with the force of bullets against our window, 
as if angry at our indignant protest. 

"The clouds, like Queen Victoria and the Rev. A. B. Jackson, seem 
determined never to 'dry up.' They drop their vapor curtain now 
and then, just far enough to let Old Sol peep over and tantalize us 
with visions of firm footing and bright Indian summer days; and 
then rear their leaden battlements again, open their batteries, and 
pelt our long-drawn faces with their tiny missiles. 

"The markets are dull, but Crinoline has risen, and Brilliant is 
higher; boots and shoes are fluctuating, and live stock is unsteady; 
dry hides are scarce, and in good demand. 

"Bah! but this is enervating weather. — It takes all the starch out 
of one's spine and shirt collar — -all the vim out of one's muscles 
and soul — all the gloss off one's wits and boots. A fellow's spirits 
collapse like a wet dish-cloth, or a boiled cabbage-leaf, and he feels 
as glum and blue as the dolorous shanghai who is visible from our 
window, with drooped and dripping tail, balancing himself on three 
toes, while his half-closed eyes are as lustreless as those of a dead 
mackerel — a fit representative of the party^to which he has lent his 
beautiful name. 

"Oh dread old November! can't you give us something better 


than this blustering, chilly, nasty, sticky, misty, slippery, shabby 
greeting ? 

"Later. — Jack Frost has taken pity on us. He has crystallized the 
rain drops and laid his embargo on the clouds. The mud is mud 
no longer in his cohesive grasp. — The leaden sky is darker, the 
wind whistles instead of sighing; and in place of the driving, drench- 
ing rain of the past week, we have the first baby snow-flakes of the 
season, tiny and scattering, sifting scantly down on the grater-like 
surface of the earth. Numb fingers will fill the ballot box tomorrow ; 
but don't, on any account, take anything hot inside to neutralize the 
outward chill!" 

If the town needed some improvement, and the sentiment in favor 
of it was strong enough, the editor would help it along either in 
a fulminating paragraph, or in a mild suggestion, as in this case : 

"Sidewalks. — This is about time for the citizens of our village to 
commence their annual talk about building sidewalks. We don't 
expect that any will be built, but it is a great pleasure to talk the 
matter over every spring." 

The condition of the streets in the pioneer village was far from 
being ideal, as the following item tells : 

"Mud! Mud! Mud! It has been very muddy for the past two 
weeks, and the 'wussedest' kind of mud too, a kind that every town 
ain't got. It is a kind that will jerk a man's boot off every time. 
On Friday night we were favored with a nice little shower, and it 
made it still 'wusser,' but on Saturday the wind blew a perfect hur- 
ricane. We could look from our window down-street and see sticks, 
cord-wood, shavings, hats, hoops, and everything else imaginable 
flying in all directions. A good day for 'sail crafts;' you could see 
'em skudding before the wind with main-jib-sail hard on to port. 
The sun is shining bright and warm, the mud is drying up very 
fast, and we are in hopes to see pleasant weather once more." 

The necessity of a new schoolhouse was emphasized thus: 

"Schools. — Together with a professional chum of ours, whom 
we took along to give an air of respectability and gallantry to the 
expedition, we (a brace of journeymen printers and ex-ofiicio locals 
in the absence of the editor) elected ourselves pro tempore a School 
Committee last Wednesday afternoon, and called in at the respective 
places where Misses Fanny Wightman and Ella McHenry are en- 
gaged in the performance of that 

'Delightful task — to rear the tender thought, 
And teach the young idea how to shoot.' 


"The Committee think that they are tolerable judges of schools, 
a majority of them having served a pretty good apprenticeship in 
this exceedingly up-hill method of serving one's country, and would 
report that the teachers reflect altogether more credit upon the com- 
munity than the schoolhouses. The schools are both well governed 
and systematically and thoroughly taught — much better, we think, 
than the average of country and village schools throughout the state, 
but we do think that this town can afford a good schoolhouse, in 
which all departments can be united, and the scholars more accurately 
and definitely graded. Besides, there are other considerations in favor 
of a good schoolhouse and grounds — considerations of mental, moral 
and physical health. The best teacher is shorn of half his efficiency 
when placed in a room which cannot but be connected with disagreeable 
associations in the minds of his pupils — a room with nothing pleas- 
ant in its internal or external aspect. We know how it operates on 
an ordinary teacher, for we have taught school in a house with white- 
washed walls and uncurtained windows through which the sun's 
rays streamed all through the long summer day upon blistered necks 
and sweating faces and aching spines, because the soil was too nig- 
gardly to nourish a tree to mitigate with its shade the suffocating, 
blinding heat; with seats so high from the floor that the feet of the 
tallest might not hope to reach them for years — seats with backs 
made by a plumb line, and confronted by horizontal desks, hacked 
with jackknives of no-one-knows-how-many generations, and be- 
smeared with enough logwood ink to cover with pot-hooks every sheet 
of foolscap in Wisconsin ; a house whose builders must have thought 
that the young intellect could not grow without water as well as 
air, and so with wonderful sagacity placed the ventilating machinery 
in the roof; a house whose play-ground was a wilderness of sand 
and whose 'apparatus' consisted of an oaken ferule and Walker's 
Dictionary; and this was in a neighborhood where every farmer had 
a bam that cost five times as much as that schoolhouse; and we 
said: 'Never was economy so misdirected — never was it so penny- 
wise and pound-foolish !' The above is a type of very many of our 
Wisconsin schoolhouses, and though West Bend may not be quite 
so bad as this, it needs a new schoolhouse — it can afiford it, and — 
let it be built !" 

In little places the local items of interest are sometimes despair- 
ingly scarce. It was in such a week that these lines appeared : 

"Local items is mighty skeerce now-a-days here. All we hear is 
quarreling about politics. Why don't somebody get up a horse-race 


— a dog fight — somebody lick somebody — accidents of some kind 
— an elopement — a marriage — an affair of some kind, we don't care 
what, something, anything to get up an excitement. And you men 
that sit there in the house as though you were afraid some one will 
see you, come out and see what's going on, don't stay shut up in the 
house like a sick kitten, and when you do get out, you're as ferocious 
as a lion, but come out, and walk about, air yourselves, be cheerful, 
and try to make all around you happy, and rest assured, you will 
be happier men." 

The editor of pioneer days had as a rule a hard scramble to keep 
the wolf from the door. The clamor to pay the subscription echoes 
through the years. This is a sample: 

"Wish somebody would come in and fork over a little money, 
as it would do us good, and make us feel cheerful and life-like. 
Will some of our delinquents drop in and 'pony over some of the 
ready?' " 

Necessaries of life were welcome in place of money which was 
scarce. Wrote he on one occasion: 

"Wanted. — Won't some of our numerous friends bring us some 
butter? We have been without so long that the hinges of our 
jaws squeak like a dry grind-stone. We also want any quantity of 
good maple sugar, for which the highest price will be paid." 
Here is another call for butter: 

"Butter — butter ! — Will some of our country friends bring us some 
butter? We are butter-less. Bread creaks and squeaks, as it goes 
down our throats, like a rusty hinge. There is but one advantage in 
going without butter: when our bread drops, it doesn't fall buttered 
side undermost. Bring us some butter — do!" 
Oats, too, were taken for subscription : 

"Oats. — Our big 'boss' Prince likes oats, and we haven't any. 
Bring some along, delinquent subscribers, otherwise 'Prince' will 
strain himself. — Washington Co. Dem. 

" ' Would Farrar have us understand that he, an editor, has a 
horse? If so, the case is unparalleled. — Mil. Wisconsin.' 

"Horse? guess we have, and the biggest kind of a horse, at that. 

He is particularly partial as to oats. Subscribers, bring 'em along. 

"(Potter, you must be green — it's nothing but a saw-horse — we 

only take this method to induce our subscribers to pay up.) Bring 

along the oats." 

Often the pioneer editor would receive presents from admiring 


readers. The next issue would have the acknowledgment. Two 
of these have been picked out: 

"Them Pumpkins. — We have long neglected to say that F. Everly, 
Esq., of this village, and A. Young, Esq., of Trenton, presented us 
with a couple of 'pumpins.' We won't attempt to give a descrip- 
tion of them; 'suffice it to say,' that we use one-half of it for a hog 
pen, and calculate it will serve this purpose and furnish feed for the 
hogs till spring. The other one we managed to cut with a hay-knife, 
and now use one-half of it for a cistern. This may be slightly ex- 
aggerated; but them pumpkins were whoppers." 

"Garden Sass. — M. A. T. Farmer, Esq., sent us up a pail of nice 
new potatoes and cucumbers, the other day. They were gratefully 
received, because, you see, during our recent absence, somebody's 
infernal swine got into our garden and dug up all the early potatoes. — 

"O, that we had ten thousand does, 
To fence our garden 'round. 
And keep the neighbor's cussed hogs 
From rooting up the ground!" 

The people of West Bend are very fond of dancing, and as the 
character of the man is already present in the child, so the character 
of a city is traceable when yet in the swaddling clothes of the village. 
Said he: 

" "No sleep till morn, when youth and pleasure meet, to chase the 
glowing hours with flying feet,' — nor then either if a fellow has 
to work next day. But no matter — Morpheus the god must suc- 
cumb to Terpsichore the muse; dancing is one of the necessaries of 
life to a West Bender; and in our town rosin and cat gut are the 
staples of commerce — after lager beer, of course — after foaming, 
healthful lager, without which we should descend to the level of 
villages wherein no Christian beverage is sold, but where Death deals 
out his genuine forty-rod strychnine gut-rot ; without which we should 
degenerate into a town abounding in bloated, blear-eyed, blood- 
beet-nosed gentry." 

Ye editor was a politician of the old type — fierce and relentless 
to the opposing party. The county from its beginning had been a 
bulwark of the Democratic party. After Douglas had been nom- 
inated for the Presidency by the Democrats, he thus described the 
local reception of the news : 

"Great Douglas Demonstration. — Last Monday evening after 
the arrival of the mail confirming the nomination of Douglas, the 


greatest enthusiasm was felt amongst the Democrats of this village. 
As we have no cannon, four anvils were made to do shooting duty, 
and the firing was kept up incessantly for about three-quarters of 
an hour. Bonfires were lighted, fireworks let off, and cheers and 
shouts for Douglas rent the air. The few Republicans to be seen 
had faces as long as a rail, and with the corners of their mouths 
drawn down like a bullfrog's. Like the man in Noah's time, they 
didn't think it would be much of a shower, after all." 

Another specimen in the same strain is this : 

"On Wednesday evening last, A. Scott Sloan made a speech in the 
Court House, in this village. The audience was not large, yet fully 
as large as could be expected, considering the unfavorable appear- 
ance of the weather, and the shortness of the notice. 

" 'Popular Sovereignty' was the great mountain that stood in 
the speaker's way. — He sought in every way to climb over it, to go 
around it, to get through it or crawl under it ; but every attempt was 
a sublime failure. He climbed tolerably well until he touched upon 
the slippery ground of the incapability and incompetency of the 
people to regulate their own affairs, then his feet slipped from under 
him, and he came rapidly back, in rather an ungraceful position, to 
the place of starting. In attempting to go around it, he got be- 
fogged and bewildered, and unconsciously wandered back to the 
place of beginning. His success in getting through it was no better, 
he got in as far as he could go, 'wriggled' awhile like Gov. Randall's 
snake, then took himself by the seat of his pants, and pulled himself 

"He said this was the very last effort of the Republican party — 
that, if they did not succeed this hitch, they were 'gone in' for all 
time to come — that it was their last gasp, dying kick and struggle 
if they were beaten, an eminently wise remark of his, but it took 
poorly with his Republican listeners. They think his two last defeats 
have soured his temper, spoiled his disposition, and about discour- 
aged him." 

But the doom was approaching: 

"According to the telegraphic reports, the state elections held in 
Pennsylvania, Indiana and Ohio last Tuesday resulted in favor of 
the Republicans, generally. The Republicans hereabouts have all 
swelled prodigiously, since hearing the news. Some of them have 
patronized the cooper shops, and been re-hooped to prevent their 
'busting.' Their heads have swollen so that they can't wear hats, 
and they go around with 'cabasas,' wrapped up in woolen comforters, 


asking everybody if they have heard the news from Pennsylvania." 
And when it struck, he hid behind "the rest of the Democrat of- 
fice," and published this: 

"Lincoln Elected. — Special notice to our friend W. P. Barnes, 
and about a dozen others. 

"Gentlemen : — 

" 'The spider's most attenuated web 
Is cord, is cable to our tender tie' 

to each single one of the numerous hats, boots, cigars, breeches, dic- 
tionaries, etc., etc., etc., out of which we so confidently — so fondly 
hoped to scoop you. Gentleman, we talked big before election, but 
now we have got to talk small; we betted our five-dollar trifles very 
'brashly,' but now we have got to fork over. Gentlemen, we are like 
the boy of whom you have all heard — 'we have nothing to say.' 
We have emerged from the most frightfully little end of the most 
tremendously large horn we ever entered, and we feel dimimutive 
and delicate. It is unnecessary to enlarge on a topic so painful to 
us; you know how we bragged, and you know how utterly we are 
squelched; you don't need to be told that fusion wasn't a safety fuse 
for us; nor that the Quakers did vote, this time, with a vengeance; 
nor that the hosts of Egypt have gone down into the Red Sea of 
Republicanism, and been overwhelmed; nor how the stump ticket 
stumped us for a game of bluff, and skunked us blind; nor how My 
Dear Brother came over Our Gallant Little Joker. Knowing these 
things as you do, you can appreciate our 'pheelinks' without any ap- 
peal from us. But one more word is necessary in this connection: 
— When we put our hands in our collapsed and empty pockets and 
anxiously ask 'where, Oh, where is the spelter which we shall be 
called upon to shell out?' the dolefulest of echoes answers 'where?' 
Now we ain't going to repudiate. No! — The Dutch dictionary, the 
hat, the breeches are all yours, Oh, most elongated student at law; 
the half-a-thousand weeds a thine. Oh, mine host of the American 
House, and our fallen chops must suck short-stemmed clay pipes ; the 
hats and the books are yours, Barnes, even the ones we spouted on 
Breckinridge ; the hats and the boots are yours, Oh. man of the stave 
machine ! 

" 'Oh, truly wise, the moral Muse hath sung. 
That suasive Hope hath but a Syren tongue !' 

"Yes, gentlemen, we propose to pay our lost wagers — we haven't 


got anything left but honor, and we must take precious care of that. 
There are one or two reasons, however, why we can't do this just 
now : In the first place, we didn't expect to have to pay those bets 
when we made 'em, and so we spent all our loose change in helping 
boss run for the Legislature; in the next place we expected that if 
we should happen to loose, the Republicans would owe us enough 
for 'lection tickets to make it square ; but we have lost every bet and 
the Republicans owe us nary red; consequently, we are down. 

"Considering that Mr. Lincoln is down on the Fugitive Slave Law, 
we have had serious thoughts of running away, but have finally con- 
cluded that 

"Tis nobler in the mind to suffer 
The stings and arrows of outrageous fortune, 

'To take arms against a sea of troubles,' 
By bidding adieu, between two days, to the 

'ills we have, 
To fly to others that we know not of.' 

"So, gentlemen, we shall stay, and face the music as soon as we 
can raise the wind; and in the meantime if we don't raise our hats 
when we meet you it will be because we haven't any to raise, (hang 
it, yes, we have — a half a dozen of 'em,) and if we dodge around 
comers when we see you coming, it will be because we don't like 
to look you in the face. 

Yours respectfully, 

Not the Editor, 

But the rest of the Democrat Office." 

But he was a gentleman and was ready to pay his election bets, 
for in the next issue this announcement appeared : 

"Walk Up. — We have made arrangements to pay up our nu- 
merous bets lost on the recent election, on Wednesday morning, the 
31st inst., at 10 o'clock, at B. S. Potter's store. The crowd will march 
in at the front entrance, single file, receive their hats, boots, etc., etc., 
from the counter, and march out the back way, where a big nigger 
will be stationed with a club to prevent all hurrahing for Old Abe, 
and also to see that none of the crowd smuggle themselves in at the 
front entrance again. — Those winning oyster suppers of us, will be 
duly notified of the time and place of payment." 

In the issue of July 23 appeared a reproduction of a letter to the 


editor of the "Milwaukee News" signed by "Sioux," from which the 
following vivid descriptions of life and country in and around West 
Bend at that time are taken : 

"While you are pent up in your seven by nine office, enclosed by 
the huge. walls of your much admired brick, your occasional corres- 
pondent is rioting amidst the suniptuous hospitalities of our mutual 
friend, ex-Senator Weil, here on the banks of this beautiful lake 
(Cedar lake). This lake is about five miles in length, and nearly three- 
fourths of a mile wide at this point, with hard gravel banks, and 
surrounded by the prettiest scenery that our Creator has ever ex- 
hibited to man. 

"Senator Weil has a small farm of about 800 acres, bordering on 
this lake, upon which there are between two and three hundred 
acres of grain, mostly ready for the cradle. The new-made hay is 
now being gathered and sheds a perfume around the borders of this 
lake, that would cause both Jew and Gentile to forget their friends, 
their oldest creditors, or their unpaid notes. 

"Fish of nearly every description abound in this lake, and nearly 
everybody goes a-fishing on their 'own hook.' * * * 

"Yesterday afternoon we attended a Douglas ratification meeting 
at West Bend. * * * i,-, tj^g evening a grand ball was held in the 
open air in the grove upon the opposite side of the river. This was 
the best affair of the kind that I have ever witnessed. A foot bridge 
is built over the river, well lighted the whole length of it, which leads 
you into the thick woods where a splendid dancing floor, staging, 
etc., has for some time, by appearance, been kept in good working 
order. Around it upon each side were well regulated seats — the floor 
well lighted with a reasonable number of candles set in Nature's 
chandeliers. In front is an elevated stand for the music, and in the 
rear is a similar one for furnishing all kinds of refreshments, includ- 
ing a very little lager beer. 

"Here a company consisting of some forty or fifty couple 'tipped 
the light fantastic toe' until the petit hours informed them that the 
Sabbath was approaching. Among the crowd were the first ladies 
and gentlemen of the place, both married and single — Americans and 
Germans all mingling together, apparently determined to excel each 
other in the enjoyments of the evening. 

"This is my first appearance in this part of the state for some fifteen 
years, and I find all of the old trails and landmarks totally obliterated. 
What was then a wild forest, is now richly cultivated and laden with 
a bounteous supply of all kinds of grain. The farms are generally 


small, but mostly well fenced and under a good state of cultivation. 
Such fields of rye and wheat I never saw growing. The former is 
now being harvested, and the latter will soon be ready. The fences 
are all made of oak rails. * * * 

"The village of West Bend contains about five hundred inhabitants. 
The buildings are mostly built of wood and painted white, giving them 
a new and neat appearance. It contains quite a number of stores 
and groceries, and by what I have seen, I should judge that they 
were all doing a lively business. * * * " 

To wind up this chapter in good fashion, just one more account is 
offered, that of the Fourth-of-JuIy doings : 

"The Glorious Fourth. — Last week we promised our readers a more 
extended account than our limits then permitted of the way in which 
we celebrated our country's 84th birthday. 

"At 9 o'clock the Invincible, Unconquerable, Unquenchable, Unter- 
rified, Never-say-die Brigade assembled at their rendezvous, becom- 
ingly masked and arrayed in full uniform, fell into line, and marched 
into town, preceded by a drum and fife and an enormous hoop skirt 
by way of flag, made of hickory poles, and appropriately ornamented 
with garlands of 'pig-weed' and 'tickle-grass.' They were received by 
the largest concourse of spectators ever assembled in West Bend, 
who vociferously manifested their appreciation of the ridiculous. 
The Brigade marched to Barton and Young America at which latter 
place they were regaled by two or three kegs of beer, imbibed 
through conduits of wooden and clay pipe stems. Mr. Coe has the 
thanks of the entire Brigade — maugre the Good Templars — for his 
liberality. On returning to the Bend, they found an immense crowd 
gathered around our wood pile which had been announced as the 
speaker's platform. Here an impudent fellow who styled himself 
John E. Mann read a ridiculous jumble in imitation of the Declaration, 
which contained some things which we fear he would hardly have 
wished to read unmasked ; and the orator who was announced as H.' L. 
Palmer, read a speech sixteen rods long, which was unrolled from an 
enormous windlass by Fred Douglass. After testing the quality of 
the Sharp Comer lager, the Brigade disbanded in time for dinner and 
dancing at Ewe's Park. 

"Mr. Ewe prepared a splendid dinner for those who had time to 
attend to the demands of their animal nature, though we got around 
in time only to partake of the 'seven baskets full' that remained. 
He had a brass band from Milwaukee, and dancing continued unin- 


lerruptedly from two o'clock p. m. until the morning of the fifth. 
In the meantime they were having a good time on the 'Island.' 

"At ten o'clock, the Turners proceeded with music and accompani- 
ments to the 'Island' which was presided over by Messrs. Goetter 
& Vieth. They performed in good style for about two hours, when 
they were followed by the reading of the Declaration in German, by 
Charley Miller, and orations — in Gemian, by Prof. Regenfuss, and 
in English, by F. O. Thorp, Esq. Another dinner was in readiness 
there, and was duly honored, after which a German couple named 
Bingenheimer celebrated the Golden Hochzeit or Golden Wedding, 
a national ceremony which is performed on the 50th anniversary of 
the wedding day. Then came dancing until dark, when the company 
formed a torchlight procession and marched to the village, where they 
joined in the festivities of the night. 

"The foot race which was announced for 8 o'clock in the morning 
was postponed tmtil 4 in the afternoon, on account of the absence 
of some who were expected to compete for the purse. At the appointed 
time, a crowd assembled at the brewery, the distance — forty rods — 
was measured off, a shake purse made up, and the runners 'buckled 
in.' — Mr. D. St. John came in first, a young man named Perry sec- 
ond, and Mr. Levi Bunce third. The purse was divided propor- 
tionately between them, after which Mr. Farrar offered a gold pencil 
worth about $5 to the winner of a second race, free to all who chose 
to run, except Mr. St. John, with whom no one present could com- 
pete. Five or six entered for this prize, of whom Sol. Tuttle and Levi 
Bunce took the lead, Tuttle keeping a little in advance until near the 
end, when, mistaking the terminus, he slacked up, and Bunce passed 
him and came in first, winning the pencil. 

"The races, as a whole, were very creditable. Mr. St. John's run- 
ning was particularly fine. He carries himself beautifully, runs with- 
out apparent exertion, and gets over the ground at a rate that will 
win any man'smoney who stakes it on his speed. 

"The day was cloudless and cool, and nothing occurred to make the 
day other than it should be, one of gaiety and jubilant joy. Fire- 
works — on a small scale, we must confess — were exhibited in the 
evening. On the fifth, as a climax to the celebration, Messrs. Goetter 
& Vieth got up a successful balloon ascension, and the young folks 
had their dance out at the hall and park. — Our people have too much 
money and patriotism to expend all in one day. Altogether, we are 
not ashamed to hold up our heads with our neighbors when they 
speak of Fourth-of-July 'Splurges.' " 



A heavy April shower was pattering on the shingled roof of the 
West Bend courthouse and splashing against its wooden walls of 
old colonial design. Within, a throng of people had assembled to 
take the first steps in a matter of nation-wide import. In the same 
hall a year previous, in i860, Carl Schurz had spoken in favor of 
Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for the presidency. Lin- 
coln had been elected, and under his administration the volcano of 
Southern rebellion which had been grumbling for a long time burst 
forth in deadly eruption, and its first missiles struck Fort Sumpter. 
The North wanted to have a word in the slavery question, but the 
hot-blooded Southerners stomached it. Thus it came about that, 
following the victories of the North, slavery, instead of being re- 
stricted as was originally proposed, was abolished altogether. 

It was in the afternoon of April 23, 1861, when this first war 
meeting was held in the county "to consider the state of the country 
and make response to the call of the President for the maintenance 
of the government against the aggressions of traitors in arms," as 
it was said in the call. Before the meeting which consisted of citi- 
zens from West Bend, Barton and the surrounding country was 
called to order, the Stars and Stripes were unfurled from the dome of 
the courthouse and greeted with three cheers. Daniel McHenry 
was chosen president. A committee was appointed to draw up reso- 
lutions expressing the sentiment of the meeting. Meanwhile some 
speakers gave short, firm and patriotic addresses, and Parker's band 
played the "Star Spangled Banner," "Yankee Doodle," and other 
national airs. The committee presented the following resolutions : 

"Whereas, Our Government has been attacked by rebels and 
traitors, and the Union thereby endangered, therefore 

"Resolved, that our sentiments are 'The Union Fore\er,' and, if 
necessary, our blood and treasure to sustain it." 

They were adopted unanimously, and after three more cheers for 



the flag and three for the Union, the patriots dispersed. The Presi- 
dent's call for a militia of 75,000 men had found a hearty response in 
the county. 

Young men from many parts of the county began to enlist in the 
Wisconsin regiments. Among the first ones were several lads from 
Barton. They joined Company K of the Second Infantry and fought 
in the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. One of them, Wm. H. 
Goodenough, in a letter to his sister gives blood-curdling details of 
that battle which like the second one of the same place ended disas- 
trous for the Union forces, and tells of some rather unwholesome 
experiences after it. He wrote : 

"Arlington Heights, Va., Fort Corcoran, July 28, '61. 

"Dear Sister: — I was highly gratified to receive yours of the 
2 1 St. On the day I got it there were four or five letters received in 
our tent, and they were all dated on the day we were having one of 
the bloodiest and most desperate battles ever fought in the United 
States. It was remarked that had it been known we were in such 
danger, the hands that traced those lines would hardly have been 
thus engaged. It was well that they could not know it. I suppose 
that while you were sitting under the 'droppings of the sanctuary,' 
you did not think that we 'poor d — Is' (as the boys style us) were 
being peppered on all sides by cannon balls, shell, grape and cannister, 
to say nothing of the 'smaller fry' that were almost thick enough to 
cut with a knife, and all over there were scattered men and horses, 
some dying, some dead, and some only wounded ; and how they were 
cut up ; one had his breast taken clean out, and was lying doubled up ; 
another had a ball pass directly from one shoulder to the other, tak- 
ing off both arms ; another had both arms taken off below the elbow ; 
another both legs ; others had their faces or parts of their heads shot 
away, while others, still, were shot with musket or rifle balls. They 
were to be seen under every tree, in every fence comer, behind every 
rock, and in fact, all over the ground, friend and foe were laid. It is 
all very well to read of 'wars, and rumors of wars,' but the reality is 
inconceivable. The dead with open mouths and glassy eyes, in un- 
natural positions; the wounded, some gasping, others crying and 
groaning, others swearing or praying, and all begging of friend or foe 
for aid and water. It was indeed awful ! awful ! ! 

"From the papers I have seen, I should infer that our regiment was 
not very lightly spoken of, and I think they acted very brave. They 


stood under the galling fire of the enemy five or six hours, pouring 
in a hot fire on the rebels. They were left without a leader, and 
went and came just as they pleased, consequently got broken up badly, 
which made them look rather unmilitary, but that, I think, was the 
fault of the officers. But the most disgraceful proceeding was the 
order to retreat clear back to Washington, when we could just as well 
have maintained our position at Centerville as not; and then to push 
us clear through (35 miles) as if the d — 1 was after us, in one night, 
showed that the officers were the ones who were 'panic-stricken.' 

"I presume I was as anxious for a fight as any who were afraid they 
would not have a chance to empty their old shotguns at the enemy, 
and prepared to show my belligerent feelings in action rather than 
words. You may not like our having to do much on Sunday, but 
it has grown proverbial with us that if we have any extra duty to 
do, it must be done on the Sabbath. 

"I have been out blackberrying several times since my return, and 
did not get 'catched,' but I shall be careful in the future, as the en- 
emy's lines extend within a few miles of our camp. Almost every 
day two or three out of our tent go out and pick from ten to twelve 
quarts of berries, and by mixing with them plenty of coffee-sugar they 
are made very palatable. You may think now that I am going to tell 
you just for 'greens' a thing or two of what I have seen in camp life. 
After our defeat on Sunday eve, we marched here in the night, and 
as springs, or even creeks, were not to be found very often, I drank, 
as did all the soldiers, out of mud puddles that a civilized hog would 
hardly have wallowed in. When we arrived here, we were ordered 
by our 'frightened commandant' to the fort, where we were left to 
find a shelter the best way we could. Some got into a barn, others 
into barrels, dry goods boxes, stables, (for you know it rained all 
day and night,) and I saw several rolled up in their blankets, lying on 
a brush-heap, which kept them out of the mud, but they got well 
soaked before morning. I, with several others, got into a pig pen 
which, however, had not been in use for some time, and was dry. 
I took possession of the trough, rolled myself up in my blanket and 
snoozed till morning. The next day we got up a tent, and laid down 
among the gravelstones and slop. 

"How was the news of our battle received in Wisconsin, and what 
was said of our regiment? Send as many papers as 3^ou please, they 
will all be read gladly. 

"Yours affectionately, 

"Wm. H. Goodenough." 


The first full company which the county furnished for the war 
was gotten up in West Bend during September, 1861. Persons who 
enlisted were promised $100 in gold and 160 acres of land, besides 
their regular monthly pay. At the same time Hartford was endeavor- 
ing to form a company. There was an attempt made by the latter 
to unite the two, to which the "West Bend Post" of September 28, 
1861, replied: "The Union Guards of this place now number 57 
members, 'sworn in,' and in quarters at the Mansion House. They are 
all jolly good fellows, and are bound to make their mark. The propo- 
sition of the Hartford company to unite was respectfully declined for 
the reasoii that the members have too much confidence in their present 
ofificers to admit of a change. If the Hartford company wish to fall 
into the ranks as privates, they will be cordially received. They 
have now a good fifer and drummer, and a flag bearer that measures 
6 foot 3^/2 inches in his stockings." This union was never effected. 

During the following days the Union Guards went on mustering 
expeditions to the surrounding villages. On the morning of October 
3 six or eight two-horse rigs filled with soldiers and the Martial band 
started from the printing ofiice for Newburg. On one of the wagons 
the star-spangled banner streamed in the wind from a thirty-foot pole. 
The company filed out of town to the tune of "Yankee Doodle." 

It was a fine morning with not a trace of a cloud in the sky, and 
the success of the expedition seemed to be warranted. On the way 
they were reinforced by those living along the road, and when 
they reached Newburg the expedition numbered about a dozen teams 
and some. fifty soldiers. The citizens of Newburg were completely 
taken by surprise. The soldiers marched through the streets of the 
village to the county line, were ordered to "right about," marched back 
to the Webster House, and were halted. 

But the cloudless welkin of the morning was foreboding trouble, 
for it now commenced raining quite hard, and when the company 
was drawn up in front of the hotel, the order was welcome to pitch 
tents below its roof. Some of the leading citizens appeared, and each 
one took a troop of soldiers to his home, feeding and entertaining 
them to the best of his ability. It doggedly kept on raining, thus 
preventing the soldiers from showing themselves, and when they re- 
turned in the evening in the rain, their ranks were increased by but 
three new members. 

On Saturday, October 5, the Union Guards and their friends, about 
4.00 in all, followed an invitation of the citizens of Kewaskum to par- 
take of their hospitality. When within a half a mile of the village, 



Ihey were met by the Kewaskuin Home Guards who escorted them 
to their place. Speeches were made, and those wishing to enUst were 
invited to step forward. Strong, husky men came forth, signed the 
roll and took the oath. J. Myers then offered the following preamble 
and resolutions which were unanimously adopted : 

"Whereas our fellow citizens and associates are enlisting under the 
banner of our country for the purpose of maintaining our Govern- 
ment and the honor of our flag, it is therefore 

"Resolved, that we fully appreciate our obligations to them for the 
commendable course they are taking. 

"Resolved that we pledge ourselves to provide for their families 
during their absence, and to faithfully look after the interests of all 
those who go forth for the purpose of maintaining our Government 
and free institutions." 

Thereupon they sat down to a dinner. The tables were laden with 
meats, fruit, cakes, pies, and pastries of all kind. It was the work 
of the ladies, and the quantities which were done away with proved its 
merits. After dinner the company was given a short drill of double- 
quick which they executed smoothly, notwithstanding some of them 
having to march through mud nearly knee-deep, "but as the captain 
took the lead, the soldiers willingly followed." Before they returned 
home, they gave three rousing cheers and a tiger to the good people 
of Kewaskum. 

On Saturday, October 12, the company appeared in Boltonville. 
They had announced their coming, and the villagers were prepared 
for them. Early in the morning they assembled to give them a rous- 
ing welcome. When the roll of the drum was heard in the distance, 
everyone seemed to be thrilled. Amid cheers the company entered 
the village. Speeches were held, and a dinner was served, after which 
the following sentiments were read and approved : 

"The Southern Confederacy — may it be laid upon a mortal bed of 
sickness by our Northern Army; may its grave be dug deep, and may 
there be no resurrection. — E. A. Duncan." 

"May God hear the prayers of all his children for the protection 
of our troops — the success of our army, and the safe return of every 
soldier.— M. W. Smith." 

"The ladies of the town of Farmington, whose patriotism is ex- 
hibited on this occassion do the soldiers recognize as patriots, and see 
in each countenance the welcome which we receive at their hands. 
The love of their country, which was transmitted to them by their 
antecedents is fondly cherished, and may they soon see the Stars and 


Stripes prottdly wave in triumph from the Gulf of Mexico to the 
Northern Lakes, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific coasts. — A Sol- 

The resolutions unanimously adopted were: 

"Whereas we, the citizens of the town of Farmington appreciate 
the position and responsibilities assumed by our fellow citizens in 
volunteering to preserve the principles of our General Government, 

"Resolved that we deem it our imperative duty to attend to the pe- 
cuniary interests of all those families which remain amongst us, when 
their heads have enlisted in this glorious cause. 

"Resolved that it is our duty as good and loyal citizens to con- 
tribute cheerfully our proportion of the funds necessary to preserve 
our country and her institutions as they were transmitted to us by 
our fathers. 

"Resolved that in our opinion all persons that are not actively in 
favor of our country in this her hour of peril are either open or con- 
cealed enemies ; while our citizens go forth to battle, they shall never 
receive a fire in the rear from those left behind." 

The meeting was closed by a national song which was sung by a 

The Union Guards of 112 hearty and rugged men left for Camp 
Randall, Madison, on Thursday, October 31, 1861. On the day pre- 
vious the ladies of West Bend presented them with a beautiful silk 
banner valued at over fifty dollars, and each soldier besides received 
a blue flannel shirt. After the presentation, the company took a solemn 
oath to support their flag and their country under all circumstances, 
and bring back the banner unsullied, or die in its defense. In the 
evening they were treated to a supper and a dance. 

The trip to the nearest railroad station at Schleisingerville was 
made with forty-five teams. They arrived at noon, intending to take 
the one o'clock train, but being late, it made no stop. Until five p. m. 
they sat on the side-track, and instead of the dinner which they in- 
tended to take in Milwaukee, they fed on crackers and cheese. When at 
five o'clock the freight train pulled in, which was to take them up, the 
several hundred people witnessed the most touching departing scenes. 
It was a farewell to sons, brothers and lovers, and no one was sure 
but that it might be the last one. Many a strong heart tried in vain 
to suppress its feelings, many were the heaving breasts and the silent 
tears at the sight of so many young and brave men who were ready 
to lay down their lives for the preservation of the Union. 


They arrived in Milwaukee at half past seven in the evening and 
were marched to the Phelps House where they took supper. At nine 
they were again aboard the cars, bound for Madison. In camp they 
were assigned as Company D to the Twelfth Wisconsin Regiment. 
On January i8, 1862, the regiment left for the war and took part in 
the campaigns in Kansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, in the 
siege of Vicksburg, the battles around Atlanta, and Sherman's march 
to the sea. In point of bravery it was inferior to none. The captain 
of Company D was John Martin Price. 

One of the members of the company, Second Orderly Sergeant 
Charles D. Waldo, an editor of the "West Bend Post," wrote many 
interesting letters from the headquarters of his regiment to his paper, 
which were devoured rapaciously by the readers at home. One of 
them, telling of the siege of Vicksburg, is reproduced in the following: 

"Headquarters Co. D, 12th Reg. Wis. Vol., Camp near Vicksburg, 

June 14, 1863. 

"Dear 'Post."— We left Grand Gulf about eight o'clock on the 
evening of the 8th inst., and arrived at Warrenton at daylight on 
the morning of the loth. It rained very hard all day, which ren- 
dered it very slow and tiresome work unloading our boat. At night 
we bivouacked on the levee, and at seven o'clock Thursday we struck 
out to rejoin our division which formed the extreme left of Grant's 
army. Gen. Lauman's headquarters are not over five miles from War- 
renton, yet we had to march at least ten miles to reach it. We ar- 
rived here about noon, and went into camp in a deep ravine about one 
mile back from the rebel works. At five p. m. companies D, E, F, G 
and H, of our regiment, were sent to the front on picket duty. Our 
line of pickets are stationed on a high bluff, from one to five hundred 
yards from the enemy's works, and as we approached our pickets to 
relieve them we were compelled to expose ourselves somewhat to 
the enemy's fire and were so warmly greeted with shot and shell that 
we had to get on in a hurry. We were soon under cover of our 
breastworks, without a single man receiving a scratch, although the 
hair stood up on many a head. A pretty brisk fire was kept up on 
both sides till after dark, when the 'rebs' ceased firing entirely, but our 
men kept it up at intervals during the night. 

"At early dawn on Friday the entire line of our works was a con- 
tinual blaze of fire, from infantry and artillery, but the rebels very 
seldom returned the fire, only when too many of our men exposed 


themselves at a time. We peppered away all day at them, but with 
what result I am unable to say, as the enemy kept pretty close, and 
busied themselves strengthening their fortifications. The line of 
works that we now occupy is the same that our division charged 
upon, and took, a few days previous to our arrival, and we expect 
soon to make another charge. 

"Our line is about seventeen miles in length, and is a complete net- 
work of rifle pits, bastions, forts, and ditches. In this way we advance 
slowly, but charges are seldom made, for the reason that about two 
miles intervene between our forces and the city, and in that space 
there are, in all probability, more than fifty gullies — depths that ap- 
pear to have been mostly washed out by rains. These are often fifty 
feet deep, perpendicular, and perhaps as many wide. Their rifle 
pits are upon these, so you may form some idea of what an under- 
taking it would be to charge them. We might as well try to scale 
a shot tower. Our men frequently get into these gullies in the night- 
time, with a day's rations, and woe be to the 'rebs' who show them- 
selves during the day upon their earthworks. 

"It is impossible to imagine a more difificult country to fight in than 
this. — In going a distance of one mile, one will have to cross perhaps 
twenty hills, short and steep as the roof of a house. To draw a 
twenty-four pounder up these hills, it requires a team of twenty or 
thirty horses, or mules. One siege gun is being mounted on the left 
of us, that took sixty yoke of cattle to draw it. In order to descend 
these hills, all the wheels have to be locked, and then they will slide 
down like a sled. Gen. McPherson has one of these heavy siege 
guns planted a few miles to the right of us, with which he is battering 
away at the enemy's key fort, and is knocking it all to pieces. 

"Our men are confident of success, and you need not be surprised 
if you hear of the capture of the city at any day; and yet you must 
not be impatient if it is not done for a month, for there is a 'heap' 
of digging and mining to be done before it can be accomplished, 
unless they run short of rations or ammunition. The stories given by 
deserters are so vastly different that it is impossible to tell how well 
supplied they are, but it is generally believed that they are very hard 
up for both. One of their deserters who came into our lines a day 
or two since complains bitterly of the way in which they are fed. 
He says they subsist mostly on pea bread which operates in about the 
same manner the clown's dried apples did, which was : He ate some 
for breakfast, drank water for dinner, and they sv^^elled for supper. 


All the difference there is, the deserter says, the pea bread will last 
a week in this way. 

"The skirmishers converse freely from their breastworks and 
bushes. They often lay down their guns, where they were in ambush, 
and meet each other with as much sang froid as though at perfect 
peace, have a good chat or smoke together, and then return to their 
duty and pelt away at each other in dead earnest. 

"The health of the regiment is not quite as good as when I last 
wrote, as many are having the chill fever. One man belonging to 
Company K was shot in the side soon after our arrival here, as he 
was venturing too high upon the bluffs, in the range of the rebel 
sharpshooters; his wound is not considered dangerous, however. 

"Dr. Carey, of our regiment, started for Wisconsin this morning, 
where he will enter upon the duties of inspector general of one of the 
districts of this state. Dr. E. M. Rogers is now the only surgeon we 
have, and in all probability will have his hands full while we remain 
here. He is a first rate fellow, knows his 'biz' to perfection, and at- 
tends to it right up to the mark. May he never part from us, so long 
as we are 'sojers.' * * * 


On the battlefield before Atlanta Corporal George T. Wescott, of 
the same company and regiment, wrote to his parents in Boltonville : 

" * * * I will attempt to write you a few lines to let you know 
that I am yet alive and in pretty good health. You will undoubtedly 
know all about the battles and our movements here, long ere this 
reaches you. When I wrote last, we were around to the right, but 
since then have marched five days to get around to the left, or east. 
On the 20th (of July, 1864,) we came to the front, south of Decatur, 
where we formed in line of battle with skirmishers thrown out in 
advance, and drove in the rebel pickets. It was then dark, so we had 
to stop and throw up a few rails to protect us through the night. On 
the morning of the 21st our regiment was ordered to make a charge 
on the rebel lines, which we did, with the balance of our brigade for 
support. We advanced in good line till the rebel skirmishers fired on 
us, when we started on a double quick, and were soon close upon them. 
So sudden was the movement that many of the rebels did not have 
time to leave their rifle pits and were taken prisoners. We were so 
anxious to catch all of them that we did not stop here, but kept on, 
and drove them into their second line of works. — The Fourth Di- 
vision could not drive them from this line, and we being far in ad- 


vance, had to fall back to the works we had already taken, and the 
'rebs' following us close upon our heels. When, as we thought, we 
were safely within our works, where the rebels would not molest us, 
we were greeted with a galling fire from all quarters, which com- 
pelled us to leave our works again, and retreat farther back, some- 
what mixed up, and with a sad loss. As for myself, I have not re- 
ceived a scratch, but I received a ball in my hat, which I considered 
a pretty close call. When we were ordered to move to the left, I 
saw that there was a general rush to get inside of the works, so I' 
kept back a little, and saw many of my comrades fall from the deadly 
shower of bullets that was pouring in upon them. I was close to the 
'rebs,' but still kept outside of the works till I had a chance to climb 
over quickly. There was a squad of twenty-five rebels within a few 
rods of me, who ordered me to halt, so I turned and emptied my rifle 
at them, and then jumped inside. But there I found it about as dan- 
gerous as before, and the dead and wounded were lying all around 
me. After awhile we got some rails and stuff which we put up to 
protect us, and I know that one rail which I had just placed, kept a 
ball from me. At last the firing ceased altogether, and we heard 
no more from them, except an occasional shot to remind us of their 
presence. The dead we were obliged to leave out till after dark, when 
all were brought in. I helped to bring them in, and the following is 
a list of our company, which I think is correct : 

"Killed. — Corporal Edwin E. Frisby; Corporal Emery P. Smith; 
William Hockman; Mathias Lampert, Jr., Wellington Stannard. 

"Wounded. — Corporal D. J. Sullivan, hand, light; Corporal Geo. 
R. Holl, leg, flesh. Eugene Callaghan, arm and breast, severely ; Wil- 
liam Ebert, arm and side, severely; P. E. Gilson, leg; J. M. Holt, both 
shoulders and back; William W. Myers, leg, flesh; Christopher D. 
Smith, breast and leg, severely; J. M. Wheeler, elbow; Charles C. 
Smith, finger; B. F. Marsden, leg, flesh; John Lampert, leg, severely 
— since died. 

"Missing. — Moses Whalen, wounded; Nicholas Harris, probably 
wounded; David M. Waller; Solon Darling. 

"The casualties among the officers were: Maj. Gen. McPherson, 
killed, July 22nd; Brig. Gen. Gresham, wounded, 20th, and died the 
22nd ; Brig. Gen. Force, wounded, 22nd ; Capt. Price, Co. D, wounded, 
22nd; Capt. Stevens, Co. B, wounded, 22nd; Capt. Gillispie, Co. E, 
missing, 21st; Capt. Wilson, Co. C, wounded 21st. 

"The regiment lost on both days, in killed, wounded, and missing, 
184 men; Co. D lost 20. 


■'On the morning of the 22nd the Fourth Division advanced their 
hnes, and occupied the works (without opposition) which we 
had charged on the day before three times, but could not take, which 
gave us more room on the right with no cross-fire. But the worst 
had not yet come, for at noon they commenced a fire on our left and 
rear, when the i6th Corps fell back, and our division came near being 
outflanked. Those on our left changed from one position to another 
several times, and on our right there was quite a stampede. It was a 
fine sight to see, which I cannot fully describe. One regiment of our 
division came on the run, and broke through our lines, but we kept 
quiet, and changed to the rear, where we laid down in a line, and 
were partially protected, but were under a heavy fire all afternoon. 
The 'rebs' charged in three columns, and tried to break our lines, but 
did not succeed. If they had, it would have been a sad disaster. They 
took a part of our line, which gave them the inside of a fort, and 
Co. B of our regiment the outside. The rebels planted three stands 
of colors within one rod of our men, and kept up a fire all night, but 
in the morning they had gone before it was light. From where I 
stood, I counted 48 dead rebels, and I do not know how many more 
there were. It was an awful day, and those who were at the battles of 
Shiloh and Fort Donelson say this beats all yet, and I believe it does. 
We took on this part of the line about 5,000 prisoners. I do not 
know how many our side lost, altogether. — The rebels sent in a flag 
of truce, for two hours, to exchange and bury the dead, but could not 
accomplish all in that time. They say they will fight us here till they 
are all dead. We are strengthening the works here, and Col. Bryant 
is in command of the brigade * * * 

"G. T. Wescott." 

The second company, the Corcoran Guards, consisting of 75 men, 
mostly of Irish descent, left West Bend on January 17, 1862, for Camp 
Randall at Madison. Other parts of the county also furnished more 
volunteers. In Kewaskum $2,000 were collected, and each soldier 
received $100. 

The second war meeting in the Court House at West Bend was 
held on August 13, 1862, and resulted in the organization of the 
Washington County Rifles, a company made up mostly of men of 
German lineage. About 25 enlisted in the meeting, and $475 were 
subscribed for the benefit of the company. A committee was ap- 
pointed to solicit further subscriptions. The number of volunteers 
increased rapidly during the next few days. 


Three days later a war meeting was held in Reisse's Hall at Barton 
in which a number of young men were sworn in and $890 were sub- 
scribed. It was resolved "that each individual present exert their 
influence to procure subscriptions to the bounty fund," and also "that 
each man, woman and child use their influence and urge volunteers to 
enlist in the cause of the Union." 

When the Washington County Rifles left for Camp Sigel at Mil- 
waukee, they numbered 95 fine looking soldiers. Their captain was 
Jacob E. Mann, the other editor of the "West Bend Post." His wife 
took the editorship after her husband and her brother had been en- 
rolled in the army, and published the paper for some time alone and 
under the most trying circumstances. Jacob Heipp was first lieuten- 
ant, and Charles Ottilie second. The company was assigned to the 
26th Wisconsin Regiment as Company G. The regiment, commanded 
by General Franz Sigel, left for Washington, D. C, on October 6, 
1862, and was sent to the front. They fought at Gainesville; went 
into winter quarters at Stafford Courthouse, took part in the battle 
near Chancellorsville, in which Co. G lost twelve men ; also in that of 
Gettysburg, in which many were wounded, some mortally; were en- 
gaged in the campaign around Atlanta; had a hand in the battles of 
Resaca, near Dallas, and of Peach Tree Creek; and marched with 
Sherman to the sea. 

In spite of all this honorable support of the Union cause, the 
county in point of the number of volunteers furnished was behind 
every other county in the state. Reasons have been proffered to ex- 
plain this fact. For example the agricultural pursuits of most of the 
inhabitants who had little liking for the din of war, the end of which, 
by the way, was expected every day; or the population being mostly 
made up of Germans who, among other reasons, left their native 
country to get away from military service. But these explanations 
could not stand, for other counties had under practically the same 
conditions furnished a larger quota. A good reason has never been 
found. Most likely it was a mere accident which could have been 
passed over as such, had it not been for an unpleasant efifect in its 

The call for troops had again been sounded, and all over the state 
a draft was to be held on Monday, November 10, 1862. When it 
became known that Washington county had to furnish nearly 800 
men, or many more than any of the other counties, the population 
grew indignant and believed to be the victims of foul play. It was a 
time of general excitement and little cool thinking, or they would 


have seen that the demand was only just. The draft, performed by 
a Httle girl in the courthouse had the first day run on without a hitch. 
Tuesday the turn of the town of Trenton came. When the last name 
had been drawn, one of the men who had shown considerable un- 
easiness stepped upon a chair and addressed the crowd with inciting 
words, and then demanded the papers from Commissioner E. H. 
Gilson. An attempt by Sherifif Weimar to quell the growing mob 
sentiment failed, but helped the commissioner to make away un- 
noticed with the papers. But before he had reached the post office, 
his absence was noticed, and the men rushed down the hill after him. 
They halted him at the law office of Frisby & Weil, and one threat- 
ened him with a heavy stone if he would not give up the papers. Mr. 
Fisby, himself a drafted man, came out and spoke to them, explain- 
ing matters, and succeeded to quiet them a little. Gilson got into 
the ofifice, disappeared through a back door and reached Milwaukee 
where he notified the authorities. In the afternoon another meet- 
ing was held in the courthouse in which resolutions praying for two 
months' postponement of the draft were adopted and forwarded' to 
Madison. Saturday, November 22, six companies of the 30th Regi- 
ment arrived in West Bend, and on the following Monday the draft 
was under military protection resumed and completed. In all, 758 
men were drawn, mostly Germans. 

Touching upon the occurrence, the "West Bend Post" said in an 
editorial : "We deny that the people of this county are not loyal and 
ready to enlist. * * * We most decidedly deny that this county 
is not loyal, but on the contrary believe if she had been treated with 
half the consideration that other counties have been she would have 
furnished her quota." 

The disturbance, nettling as it was to the patriotic citizens, had 
been instigated by but a few persons who believed themselves a 
prey of some unfair scheme, and did not want to submit to it, and 
it would have been extremely unjust to use it as a trump against the 
loyalty of the county. The day before it happened, a draft riot of 
much larger proportions, but after all only an operetta riot, had oc- 
curred in Port Washington, the waves of which struck the town of 
Trenton and encouraged the disgruntled men to acti\T resistance. 
All other drafts that were held in West Bend in the course of the war 
came off smoothly. 

About two thousand men from Washington county fought on 
the Union side in the war between the states. In many places most 


all of the able-bodied men had enlisted. For war purposes $i8o,- 
577.48 were raised in the county. 

This chapter would be very incomplete indeed if mention was not 
made of the noble help offered by the women. A little of it has already 
been said. They fought at home hardly less desperately than their 
husbands or sons or sweethearts fought in the rank and file. In 
many places societies of women were organized who collected cloth- 
ing, food and mioney, partly for the soldiers, but mostly to support 
their families. It was considered a sacred duty to ward off penury 
from the folks of the brave ones who had offered their service to 
the country in the time of her greatest calamity. The soldiers in turn 
sent home whatever they could spare of their pay, and this, too, helped 
to make conditions at home more bearable. And when in 1865 the 
war came to an end, and many a husband, son, brother, or lover did 
not return because his life blood reddened some battle field, his loved 
ones at home learned to bear this greatest of all sacrifices with sub- 
mission to the will of the Eternal. 

The women assumed the duties of their old, old office, old as wars 
are among men. There were cowardly young men who tried to shirk 
the duty they owed to their country. Cowards can be found any- 
where. And here is where the old custom of the women of our an- 
cestors thousands of years ago, and of the uncivilized tribes of today, 
was again revived. They inspired the men, and if necessary goaded 
them, to fight. Here is an example of the latter kind of influence 
exerted by the sharp pen of a West Bend woman, which appeared in 
the "Post" of August 9, 1862: 

"Mr. Editor: — I cannot refrain from expressing my delight at 
finding that there are some wise men left yet in our state. I allude 
to those young men who were not so attracted by blue uniforms, 
drums and fifes, as to leave their homes in search of glory and renown., 
I hardly know how to express my thanks, and in fact the thanks of 
the girls of this state for their bravery, their patriotism, their noble 
disinterestedness ; for how could there be a surer way to quell the re- 
bellion than for every man to refuse to fight. 

"Some, I hear, would go, did not 'dyspepsia' prevent them. That's 
right, boys, 'a poor excuse is better than none,' any day, and it's easy 
enough to get a certificate from an M. D. releasing you from service. 
Then 'dyspepsia' is not a very dangerous disease. Never mind being 
called 'cowards.' What is the good of your going to be shot? Why 
it is obviously your duty to stay behind the counter to measure silk 


and calico and do up a pound of candy, or a sheet of paper. It's all 
stuff about women taking your place, of course there's no woman on 
earth who is strong enough to fill such an arduous position. 

"What matters it to you that others have gone and returned not; 
that mothers, heart-broken wives, sobbing children, mourning friends, 
call upon you to take their places and avenge their wrongs? — You 
did not make them go ; why should you care ; it is naught to trouble 
you! — That is right, manly, noble, wise. If folks will be such fools 
as to go and be shot, let them do it ; you are not obliged to ; you are 
too valuable to the country to risk your precious life, and besides 
you have the 'dyspepsia.' Spend your time in the noble employment 
of curling your hair and ranting about the standstill policy of the 
Government. Of course, the war can be carried on without men; you 
could do it, and Lincoln should be able. Oh ! can you be men ? Have 
you no ambition, no pride, no manhood? 

"Think of the noble men who are gone, of those who are going, 
of the dead whose blood cries to you from the ground. — Think of our 
wrongs, of our desolate homes, and beware lest there go up a curse 
against you from broken-hearted mourners to whose ranks numbers 
are daily added ; from suffering slaves, from the sad, the bereaved, the 
sorrowing, all over our land, to whose cries you have turned a deaf 
ear. As surely as there is a God above us, so surely, if you do not 
your duty at this time, you will not be held guiltless — God will require 
at your hands an account of those whom your going might have saved. 


"West Bend, Aug. 4th, 1862." 

Another young woman of West Bend, Miss Ada H. Thomas, en- 
listed her poetic talent which certainly was remarkable, to help the 
good cause of the war. The poem appeared in the "Post" of January 
II, 1862, and read thus: 

On to the Southward 

"Hail to the Norsemen ! men of the morning ! 
Hail to the ruddy-cheeked men of the snow ! 
Thor hath awakened, he giveth his warning! 
Hail to the land where the evergreens grow ! 

"Where are the Norsemen, men of the morning? 
Show us the strong-sinewed men of the snow! 


Where is old Thor, as he hurleth his warning? 
Where is the land where the evergreens grow? 

"Where, from Chesuncook, Penobscot down rushes, 
Where, from the mountains, the Merrimac flows, 
Where old Katahdin's grim forehead, in bushes, 
Meets the full flood of the warm sunset glows. 

"Where the swift waves fill the rocky St. Lawrence, 
Where the Great Lakes forge their coppery chains, 
Where wild Missouri comes rushing in torrents 
Down on the borders of Iowa's plains. 

"Where the loud waves push down from the mountains. 
Out to the mighty old Lea of the West, 
Where Minnehaha wreathes mist into fountains. 
Where Fremont's Peak lifts high his bare crest. 

"Where the white snow lies deep on Itaska, 
Where, to the east, open wide the calm bays. 
Where the tall grass waves in lonely Nebraska, 
Where Pilgrims' Rock points out the past days. 

"Where the grape ripens by singing Sciota, 
Where Sacramento her golden gate swings. 
Where the wind sweeps over frosty Dakota, 
Where the Ohio swells grand from his springs. 

"From the East bays to the mighty Pacific, 
From Illinois to the lakes banked in snow; 
Gentlest in love, but in anger terrific ! 
That is the land where the evergreens grow ! 

"Men of the forest, plain, and of the river. 
Men of the mountain, the flood, and the field. 
Men, before whose ever earnest endeavor 
Forests, and mountains, and torrents must yield. 

"These are the Norsemen! men of the morning! 
These are the pure-hearted men of the snow ! 


Hating all wrong with the bitterest scorning, 
Freemen are they where the evergreens grow ! 

"Hail to the Norsemen ! the uncotmted numbers ! 
Hearts framed of iron, and sinews of brass ! 
Hail to the Liberty-tone that out-thunders! 
Hail to the Norsemen, as southward they pass ! 

"Press to the southward, and level the borders ! 
Nations aloft see the war that ye wage ! 
Cure, from the North, for the mad world's disorders. 
Hail to the Norsemen, the first in the age ! 

"Ada H. Thomas." 




We will skip the years of development that followed the war period 
and now look at the county as it presents itself today. Nothing very 
important happened since anyway. In counties devoted overwhelm- 
ingly to agriculture life's stream flows on gently, without many eddies 
or freshets. The flute of Pan does not stir up passions. 

The surface of the county is mostly level, or gently rolling — a 
part of the great Wisconsin plateau. Toward the west several 
ranges of hills run in a south-southwesterly direction like a kind of 
a backbone. They consist of gravel and sand, dumped during the 
glacial period, and with few exceptions rise only to a height of a 
few hundred feet. The soil is a sandy loam mixed with plenty of 
humus; it is very fertile and at the time of the settlements was cov- 
ered by the rich vegetation of the forest primeval. At places many 
boulders were imbedded in it, more than the settlers really liked, 
and which were hidden in the green splendor of the virgin soil. But 
that is a thing of the past. 

The climate is a healthy, temperate one, about midway between 
that of the lake region and the inland. All products of temperate 
America are raised here. Of fruit, apples deserve special mention, 
the trees often producing rich harvests. Cattle raising and dairying 
are carried on extensively and profitably. The country is dotted with 
cheese factories and creameries. In the southwestern corner sheep 
raising is substituted with success. 

One of the features of the county are its many springs, creeks 
and rivers as compared with the area of the land. This wealth of 
water was even greater in former years, which is evinced by the nu- 
merous tumble-down saw-mills on little streamlets which once must 
have been volumned watercourses. The decrease is attributed to the 
cutting down of the forests. But there are still plenty of springs left. 
In places the soil is literally honeycombed with them. Within a small 
radius in the town of West Bend several springs bubble up from the 



ground, the water of each one of different composition. At times 
the owners of such springs have with more or less success recom- 
mended their mineral waters to health-seekers. These springs point 
to extensive subterranean water veins and reservoirs which, to some 
extent at least, originated in the last glacial period, as geologists 
think. The springs feed numerous brooks which wind, placid and 
limpid and silvery, or turbulent and babbling, through meadows and 
fields, or they grow in their course and become rivers. 

It would be no misnomer to call Washington county "The Land of 
the Five Rivers." And if anyone likes comparisons, he may liken it 
to that country in the northwestern part of India which bears that 
surname — the Punjab. Not only do five rivers flow through the 
county, but four of them spring from its soil. The rivers are the 
Rock, the Rubicon, the Oconomowoc, the Menomonee, and the Mil- 
waukee. The former three originate on the west side of the water- 
shed formed by the morainic ridges already mentioned, and the latter 
two on the east side. 

The Rock river has its source in the town of Polk and flows through 
the towns of Addison and Wayne, taking up many creeks on the 
way. It then traverses the counties of Dodge, Jefferson and Rock, 
enters the sj;ate of Illinois and empties into the Mississippi below 
Rock Island. The banks of this river which takes its name from its 
rock-strewn bed are known for their pretty scenery. 

The Rubicon river, named after that river of historic fame in 
upper Italy, which Caesar crossed when he declared war to his own 
country, is a confluent of the Rock river. Its sources are the out- 
let of Pike lake and a spring in the town of Polk. It flows through 
the town of Hartford in a western direction and in Dodge county 
unites with the Rock river. 

The Oconomowoc river originates in the town of Polk, and runs 
in a southeastern direction through the towns of Richfield and Erin, 
widening in several places to little lakes. Soon after entering Wau- 
kesha county the river enters a beautiful chain of lakes named after 
it, which is lined with summer resorts and known all over the coun- 
try. Finally it too empties into the Rock river. 

The springs of the Menomonee river are in the town of German- 
town. It flows through the northeastern corner of Waukesha county, 
through Milwaukee county, and unites with the Milwaukee river a 
short stretch above its mouth. 

The Milwaukee river has its source in Fond du Lac county and 
enters the town of Kewaskum east of the watershed aforesaid, flowing 


through the town of Barton, the city of West Bend which derives its 
name from the horse-shoe bend of the river with a radius of about 
a mile, continuing its course east and northeast through the town 
of Trenton, the northwest corner of the town of Saukville, northwest 
through the town of Farmington, thence turning with a decisive curve 
again toward east, running through the southwest quarter of the 
town of Fredonia, thence draining in a southern course the towns of 
Saukvihe, Grafton and Mequon, and emptying into Lake Michigan at 
Mihvaukee. The river in its course through the county has so many 
windings that its length is almost sixty miles while it advances only 
twenty-four miles toward the south. It has many rapids, and for- 
merly was considered one of the prettiest rivers in the West. This 
opinion, to a large measure, holds good to this day. Many rivulets 
swell its brownish floods, the most important one being the Cedar 
creek, the outlet of the Cedar lakes, which joins after many meanders. 

It may be mentioned as a curiosity that the springs of the Rock 
river and the Cedar creek are only a stone cast apart, but their 
water flows far apart, that of the former into the Gulf of Mexico, 
and that of the latter into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, a distance of 
about two thousand miles. 

The inhabitants, numbering 23,784, according to the census of 1910, 
are mostly (nine out of ten) engaged in agricultural pursuits, or in 
dairy farming, and the farmers as a rule live comfortably on their 
tracts of from forty to one hundred and more acres, and many have 
fat bank accounts, and automobiles, and sons who attend the Col- 
lege of Agriculture, and daughters who attend High School. For 
all of their farm products they find good markets. 

Four-fifths of the population are Germans or their descendants. 
The good German stock is still very noticeable, even in the young 
generation. The old people were a strong, resolute army of colonists 
that left the fatherland to perform a work of cilivization that should 
be of lasting honor to them. The other fifth consists of Irishmen 
who among their hills in the southwestern part have withstood the 
Teutonic tide, and of Yankees who did not sell out and take to the 
backwoods. For decades the population remained almost stationary, 
a phenomenon which, however, cannot be linked with "race suicide," 
for the families are as a rule large. The county is all settled, land 
is high in price, and the farms are increasing in size, a fact which 
accounts for the decrease of the rural population. But that decrease 
is about made up by the increase of the urban population. Many 
young people turn to other parts of the Union where land is still 


plentiful and cheap, or they flock to the big cities to find employment, 
which rejuvenate with the aid of these healthy and rugged farmer 
boys and girls. A vague estimate may place the number who have 
thus left their home at about fifty thousand. They have helped to 
populate other parts of the State and the Union. 

The county also has furnished a number of men who attained high 
honors and distinction in public life, among them being state senators; 
a secretary of state, Wm. H. Froehlich of Jackson; an attorney 
general, Leander F. Frisby; and a judge of the United States Court 
of Claims at Washington, D. C, S. S. Barney of West Bend, the 
"Grand Old Man" of Washington county. 

Three railroads traverse the county, namely the North- Western, the 
St. Paul, and the Soo. An electric line is planned. An extensive 
telephone system spreads over cities and villages and farms. Most 
every farmer has a telephone in his home. Rural routes radiate from 
the postoffices, and every farmer gets his daily mail. He is no longer 
separated from the rest of the world. Churches of the different 
denominations and public schools are plentiful. 

Like a checker-work the county is divided into thirteen townships 
which run their local affairs and are represented in the county board. 
They are: Germantown, Richfield, Erin, Hartford, Polk, Jackson, 
Trenton, West Bend, Addison, Wayne, Barton, Kewaskum and Fami- 
ington. The county is represented in the State Legislature by an 
assemblyman and a senator, and in Congress by a congressman and 
the two senators of Wisconsin. 

The cities and villages in the county are (the number of inhabi- 
tants is according to the census of 1910) : 

JVest Bend. — County seat and city of 2,462 inhabitants, situated 
prettily on a big bend of the Milwaukee river, 34 miles north of 
Milwaukee on the North- Western Line. The county buildings consist 
of the courthouse in the round arch Gothic style, the county jail, the 
insane asylum and the county home. Two fine public school build- 
ings, of which one is used for the high school, and two parochial 
schools, one Catholic and the other Lutheran, serve the purpose of edu- 
cation. Of prominent industries there are the factory of the Enger- 
Kress Pocket Book Co., one of the largest of its kind in the world ; the 
farm machine works of the Gehl Bros. Manufacturing Co. ; the wagon 
factory of Schmidt & Stork; the West Bend Woolen Mills; the large 
creamery and cheese factory of the Wallan Dairy Co. ; an aluminum 
ware factory; and the brewery of the West Bend Brewing Co. Two 
banks, the Bank of West Bend and the First State Bank, tend to the 

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local money interests. The city has a pretty city hall of modern co- 
lonial style, in which are housed a fine public library and the fire de- 
partment. It has municipal water works and sanitary sewer, and an 
electric light and power plant. There are stores of various kinds, 
also hotels, etc. Five churches. Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, and 
English and German Methodist, gather the respective worshippers 
in their folds. Three weekly papers are published, the "West Bend 
News" and the "West Bend Pilot" in English, and the "West Bend 
Beobachter" in German. A number of societies and lodges attend 
to the social and benevolent matters. On a large tract of land set 
apart the annual county fair is held. 

Hartford. — A city of 2,982 inhabitants situated attractively on the 
banks of the Rubicon river, not far from the western county line, on 
the C. M. & St. P. Ry. It has municipal water works and sanitary 
sewers, and a public library. A private plant furnishes electric light. 
There are two graded schools and a high school, besides a Catholic 
and a Lutheran parochial school. The chief industry is the auto- 
mobile factory of the Kissel Motor Car Company with extensive 
shops ; there are also a glove factory ; the knitting mills of the Para- 
mount Knitting Co.; a cannery; the tanneries of Uber Bros., Place & 
Wells, and E. W. Leach; and a brewery. Three banks, the Hartford 
Exchange Bank, the First National Bank, and the First City Bank, do 
business, besides the usual stores, hotels, etc. Four denominations, 
the Catholics, Congregationalists, Lutherans and the Evangelicals, 
have churches. Two English weeklies are published, "The Hartford 
Times" and the "The Hartford Press." 

Schleisingerville. — An incorporated village of 538 inliabitants, sit- 
uated among the outer eastern hills of the morainic ridges, and on 
the Milwaukee and Soo lines. Good markets for the fanners of the 
surrounding country. The village has municipal water works, a bank- 
ing institution, the Schleisingerville State Bank, a brewery operated 
by the Storck Brewing Co., a brickyard, a malt- house, the gasoline 
engine works of the Standard Machinery Co., a public graded school 
with high school classes, and a Catholic, an Evangelical, and a 
Lutheran church. A German weekly, "Der Botschafter," is published 
by Gustav Meister. 

Kewaskum. — An incorporated village of 625 inhabitants, situated 
on both banks of the Milwaukee river, on the North- Western Ry.. 
eight miles north of West Bend. Good markets for farm products. 
The village has electric light, a large malt house owned by the L. 
Rosenheimer Malt & Grain Co., and a bank, the Bank of Kewaskum. 


A public graded school, a high school, and a Catholic parochial school, 
attend to the education of the young. The Catholics, Lutherans, and 
Evangelicals have churches. An English weekly, "The Kewaskum 
Statesman," promulgates the local news. 

Barton. — A village situated on the Milwaukee river, one mile north 
of West Bend on the North- Western Line. It has a public school, 
and a Catholic church and school. At the lakes of the vicinity are 
extensive ice-houses of the Wisconsin Lakes Ice Co. A mill, the 
Barton Roller Mills, is doing a lively business. A mile east of the 
village is the factory of the Hydraulic Brick & Stone Co. 

Jackson. — An incorporated village on the North- Western Line, eight 
miles south of West Bend. It oiifers good markets for farni produce. 
A bank, the Jackson State Bank, is handling the money business. 
A public school with high school classes educates the young. The 
Reformed creed has a church. There are several creameries and 
cheese factories in and around the village. 

Fillmore. — A village in the northwestern part of the county. It 
has a public school with high school classes. Two denominations, 
the Evangelical and the Reformed, have churches. There also exists 
a German turners' society, the Farmington Tumverein, who possess 
their own hall. In the vicinity are a goodly number of cheese 

Newburg. — A village situated eight miles east of West Bend on 
the Milwaukee river. A public school with high school classes and a 
Catholic parochial school are the institutions of education. The 
Catholics and the Lutherans have churches, that of the fonner is one 
of the finest in the county. The Newburg State Bank handles the 
money business. 

RocMeld. — A village in the southern part of the county on the 
North-Westem Line. The cropping out of the silurian lime stone 
at this place gave rise to quite a large lime kiln plant, operated by the 
Mace Lime Co. 

South Germantozvn. — A village on the C. M. & St. P. Ry. The 
industries are : The quarries and kilns of the Cream City Lime Co. ; 
the condensed milk factory of John B. Gehl ; and the brewery of the 
Vogl Independent Brewing Co. The Germantown Farmers' Mutual 
Insurance Co., the oldest and most prosperous fire insurance company 
in the county, owns a fine office building. 

Allenton. — A village on the Wisconsin Central Ry., and on the 
Rock river. Good markets for farm products. A bank, the Allenton 


















State Bank, tends to the money affairs. Frank Weis & Son run a 

RicMeld.—A village on the C. M. & St. P. Ry. The Catholics and 
Evangelicals have churches. The dairy industry is represented by a 
creamery and a cheese factory. The Richfield State Bank tends to 
money matters. Good markets for farm products. A sawmill is 
operated by Charles Mayer. 

Other villages of the county are : Kohlsville, with a planing mill, 
and a saw and gristmill ; Boltonville ; Mayfield ; Cedar creek ; Myra, 
with a small Bohemian settlement in the neighborhood; Salters; 
Keowns; Ackerville; Thompson; St. Hubertus; St. Augustine; St. 
Lawrence; Wayne; Aurora; St. Anthony; Nenno; and Kirchhayn, 
with one of the oldest Lutheran churches in the state. 




Farming has always been the foundation of civilization, whether 
primitive or complex, past or present. If the man with the hoe does 
not exactly rule the world, he is at any rate the governor of the 
social machines, of whatever make they may be. He keeps them 
steady. When the roaming tribes at last settled down to till the soil, 
they did make the first step to build up a social order, a state, a com- 
monwealth. These truths applied to Washington county mean that 
the part it plays in our national life is a most important one, for 
nine-tenths of the population are engaged in agriculture or pursuits 
closely allied to it. 

Most of the settlers came with the intention to do farming. There 
was little demand for others, unless they had to offer services or 
things which the settlers needed. In the sawmills which arose on 
every creek or river they had their logs sawed into lumber, and in the 
gristmills they had their wheat turned into flour. In the first years 
they did their farm work with oxen, and could dispense with horse- 
shoers. Buggies and carriages were not yet in use. Everybody 
relied on his legs, and to walk thirty miles to the next city was nothing 
uncommon. Letter carriers did such feats regularly several times a 
week. The doctors alone rode on horseback to their patients, their 
few medicines and instruments in the saddle bag. The grain and 
hay were cut with the scythe and the cradle, and agriculture in general 
was carried on without the machines that lighten its burdens now- 

The principal crops raised after the land had been cleared were 
wheat and rye. Old newspapers tell marvelous stories of the virgin 
soil's production. "Mr. Reynolds of the town of Jackson," a local 
item of i860 reads, "counted the stalks of rye that grew from one 
kernel this year, and found 57 stalks with heads on. Just think 
of it — ^probably a half a glass of 'Old Rye' from one kernel." Wheat 
growing in this and the neighboring counties was so extensively car- 



ried on that in i860 southeastern Wisconsin was the center of wheat 
production in the West, while today dairying is the principal source 
of income on many farms, and wheat is rarely grown. The grain 
region has since shifted to the northwestern part of the state. 

Where wheat once grew, now barley and corn and oats, especially 
the former, grow, or the luxuriant sward of pastures spreads. The 
county now ranks first among the barley-raising counties of the 
state. The College of Agriculture in Madison makes efforts to im- 
prove the type of seed grain, and numerous barley centers have been 
created in the county to which small amounts of well bred barley seed 
have been sent for growth and distribution to the farmers. The col- 
lege for this purpose has organized the Wisconsin Experiment Asso- 
ciation. Membership in this organization entitles the holder to 
receive a small assignment of the selected and pedigreed grains that 
have been developed at the college. These are grown in increase 
plots for the first year, and by the second season, the grower is in a 
position to market his selected seed at good prices. The introduction 
of this seed improvement work has markedly affected the types 6i seed 
used. Mixed and scrub varieties are now being displaced by these 
selected and pedigreed stocks. 

Just now, the Agronomy Department of the college is taking the 
initial steps to improve the seed com used by the farmers throughout 
the county. They have been invited to bring a number of kernels, 
to be planted separately on a plot of the Asylum farm. The harvest 
from these seeds will be examined by Prof. Norgord with a view of 
dropping the poor kinds and selecting the varieties best suited to 
certain locations, and also instructing farmers in com raising gen- 

Of late years, sugar beet raising has been carried on successfully in 
the southern part of the county in the proximity of the beet sugar 
factory of Menomonee Falls. Around Hartford pea culture has been 
taken up on a large scale. The peas are delivered to the cannery at 
Hartford, and this enterprise is evidently a marked success. 

Horticulture has been fostered ever since housewives took pride 
in a good garden. Not only is there hardly a farm without such a 
department, but also the dwellers in the villages and cities have as a 
rule gardens which often are splendid sights. Fruit raising has 
always been a strong point of the county. Especially the apple crop 
is in some years enormous. They are raising varieties of apples that 
cannot be beaten anywhere, and with a little more extra care this 


division of husbandry should pay very well. Other fruit does also 
well, with proper care, and at places vineyards even are thriving. 

During the last few years poultry raising grew into enormous 
proportions. There are many chicken fanciers who swear to the 
superiority of their respective breed, pigeon fanciers, goose and duck 
fanciers, etc. Some have taken up hog breeding as their specialty, 
while the raising of hogs for the market nets good profits. Of the 
sheep raising mention has been made in a former chapter. 

It has been said before that dairying is one of the main resources 
of the county. It does its share to make Wisconsin the greatest dairy 
state in the Union. In the state the number of dairy cows has from 
1900 to 1910 increased nearly 50 per cent, while butter production 
has increased 70 per cent and cheese 86 per cent. Wisconsin now has 
nearly half of all the cheese factories and about one-sixth of all the 
creameries of the United States. In the production of cheese, Wis- 
consin passed New York some two or three years ago, and is now easily 
in the lead as the greatest cheese producing state of the Union. It is 
worthy of note that the dairy products of this state made each year 
exceed in value by several millions of dollars the entire gold and 
silver output of the combined states of California, Colorado, Nevada 
and Alaska. The mines yield but once their supply of precious 
metals, while the streams of dairy gold in Wisconsin flow perpetually 
and in ever-increasing volume. In proportion all of this holds good 
with Washington county. 

To make dairying profitable, it is necessary to have good cows, and 
good cows mean purebred cows. For many years the breeding of 
high-grade cattle has with more or less zeal been carried on in the 
county. Several breeds enjoy popularity, dainty Jerseys in the shades 
of a well-smoked meerschaum pipe, red Guernseys, and black and white 
Holstein-Friesians. However, it was a member of the latter race 
that was to call the attention of the world to the great achievements 
of the county in the cattle breeding line. In May, 1910, the Holstein^ 
Friesian heifer Cedar Lawn De Kol Johanna 1 13565, owned by C. A. 
Schroeder & Son in the town of West Bend, broke the world's record 
in the butter production of two-year-old heifers. She was born 
February 3, 1908, and dropped her first calf April 23, 19 10. In the 
month of May following it was when she established a new world's 
record for her class by producing 88.802 pounds of butter fat in 30 
days, in the Wisconsin dairy cow competition. She produced 20.697 
pounds of butterfat at an official test held May 6-13, which equals 
25.8 pounds of butter in seven days. After eight months of con- 


tinuous milking she made another official record of 10.182 pounds 
of butterfat in seven days. During the ninth month after calving she 
produced 42.775 pounds of butterfat. From May i, 1910, to March 
I, 191 1, she gave 14,329.9 pounds of milk, or 717.94 pounds of 
butter in the full year. The brilliant result was not easily won. It 
took Mr. Schroeder half a human life time to breed that cow. Over 
thirty years ago he bought two purebred Holstein cows, and soon 
afterwards made a churn test of their milk. It showed that the milk 
from one cow produced more butter than the same amount of milk 
from the other cow. The poorer cow was sold, while the other cow, 
Netherland Bessie No. 35997, became the foundation of his herd. 
At present every cow in his herd has some of the better cow's blood 
in her veins. Gradually, and in spite of the misgivings of his neigh- 
bors, Mr. Schroeder kept on improving his herd. During the past 
twelve years Sir Johanna De Kol 25467 has been at the head of it. 
This great sire of Cedar Lawn De Kol Johanna is the sire of 28 A. R. 
O. daughters, six of which, raised by Mr. Schroeder, have produced 
from 16 to 20 pounds of butterfat in seven days as two-year-old heifers. 
His success he attributes in a great measure to the careful study and 
solution of the feeding and breeding problem offered by his herd, 
good judgment and the courage of his conviction and persistent 
endeavor in the face of discouragement. The fame of De Kol 
Johanna cast an aureola around the dairy industry of the county. 
Heifers of the herd have been sent as far as Japan. In March, 1912, 
the pride of Cedar Lawn Farm died of blood poisoning which set 
in after calving. 

The county is dotted with over fifty cheese factories and cream- 
eries which collect the milk, or the cream, from the fanners to turn 
them into salubrious and nourishing dairy products. If there ever 
was a land where milk and money flows — to make the biblical metaphor 
correct, it should read "honey," but although considerable honey is 
also produced, we will neglect that item — , here it is. A continuous 
stream of milk flows into the dairies, and a continuous stream of 
money flows out of them in the shape of yellow checks. 

Aside from the dairy industry, the malting industry should be 
spoken of, as it also is intimately connected with agriculture. There 
are large malt houses in Hartford, Kewaskum, West Bend, etc., in 
which vast quantities of barley are annually converted into malt. Some 
of these establishments, like the one in West Bend, use the latest and 
most approved methods in malting. The demand for barley gives 
the farmers a good home market. 


Although in point of horse breeding the county does not appear in 
the foremost ranks, it makes a fair showing. There were in 1911 
thirteen licensed full blood stallions in the county, and twelve grade 
stallions. Besides these, a number of scrubs are still used for breed- 
ing purposes. The tendency seems to be to gradually discard the 
latter and use only full blood stallions, or if they cannot be had, 
grade stallions. 

From the first chapter which treats of "The Genesis of the Soil" 
the reader will probably have gained some idea of the soil conditions 
of the county. Outside of the morainic gravel ridges, and in the 
valleys between them, the soil is a clay loam, more or less mixed with 
sand. In some parts the soil is decidedly sandy, as in the towns of 
Barton and Fannington. The sand hills near Barton have caused the 
location of a sand brick factory, while the clay on the other side of the 
ridges gave rise to the clay brick industry, like that at Schleisinger- 
ville. The underlying rock is the silurian limestone which is quarried 
at Rockiield and South Germantown, mostly for lime. The reader 
perhaps will also remember that the last lines of the retreating 
glaciers are marked by a number of marshes on both sides of the 
morainic ridges. 

The ice sheets passing over the region during the last glacial period 
ground up large quantities of the limestone rock and mixed it with 
the surface soil previously existing there, producing a clay subsoil 
highly charged with ground limestone. The marshes and shallow 
lakes left after the melting of the glacial ice are slowly filling up, 
partly with the remains of the plants growing in them, and partly with 
the ground washed in from the surroundings, as has already been 
said. In this way the ground limestone is dissolved and carried into 
the marsh lands by the surface waters and underground seepage, so 
as to largely neutralize the tendency of marsh soils to become acid 
on account of the decomposition of large amounts of organic matter. 
The marsh soils, therefore, are generally not found to be acid. Owing 
to the "sweet" character of these soils, due to the presence of lime 
carbonates, there is no difficulty in securing the necessary decom- 
position of the soil to supply an abundance of nitrogen where good 
drainage is developed. 

Drainage of marshy soils is becoming of greater importance as the 
agricultural possibilities are developed. The lands first occupied were 
those readily broken and with good drainage. The marshy lands 
have so far been used only as pastures or for cutting wild hay when 
they became sufficiently dry. But the more agriculture advances, the 


more a thorough control of all soil conditions is aimed at. The high 
price of farm lands in the county and the rapid progress of agricul- 
ture will soon make it desirable to develop the marsh lands to the 
greatest possible extent. In the northern part of the county and 
reaching into Fond du Lac and Sheboygan counties, a drainage 
project has been started, with the aid of the Soils Department of the 
Wisconsin Experiment Station, which is followed with great interest. 
Gradually the desire to drain the swamps is gaining strength with 
the farmers who have such lands. The drainage service of the Ex- 
periment Station is giving all possible aid to those who contemplate 

Roads do not come under any subdivision of agriculture, yet they 
have been so far the work and the problem of the farmer. Gradually 
the conviction spreads that good roads are of vast advantage for 
everybody who uses them, and the county falls in line with the good- 
roads movement. The county board in their last session elected a 
county highway commissioner in order to have the county partici- 
pate in the benefits of the state highway fund of $350,000 set aside 
annually, according to a law passed by the Legislature in 191 1, who 
also created a state highway commission and provided for a system 
of prospective state highways. Many towns in the last election have 
voted for funds to be expended on the improvement of roads and 
bridges, which entitles them to a share of the state's aid. A system 
of macadamized county highways has been planned, which connects 
with the prospective state highways, and work on them has begun 
under the direction of the county highway commissioner. Bridges 
built of concrete are replacing the old wooden structures. 

Annually, during the winter season, one or two Farmers' Insti- 
tutes are held in the county. Their value cannot be overrated. 
They bring the latest achievements in the various branches of agri- 
culture to the very doors of the farmers. Papers are read by able 
men, followed by discussions. Even the betterment of domestic and 
social conditions on the farm is drawn within the sphere of the 

To plant the love of country life and of everything that grows and 
nourishes man or beast into the hearts of the young generation, a 
Boys' Agricultural Club has been organized, and the Agricultural 
Society as well as the College of Agriculture in Madison ofifer prizes 
for the best exhibits of the members at the county fair. 

In September of every year the county fair is held on a tract of 
land about 25 acres in size, in the northeastern part of the city of 


West Bend. The grounds are elevated and fairly level, and enclosed 
by a high board fence. The entrance is on the south side. The 
buildings are on the eastern half of the grounds. They consist of an 
art gallery, and of buildings for agriculture and horticulture, for 
poultry, and for hogs and sheep. The middle of the grounds is 
reserved for the open air exhibition of farm machinery, vehicles of 
all sorts, etc. Along the south fence, and the west fence almost 
up to the grand stand, open sheds are running in which the horses 
and cattle are exhibited. In the northern part is the baseball dia- 
mond with another grand stand. A dining hall is near the gate. The 
fine race track is just now being extended. The fair lasts for three 
days and is visited by close to ten thousand people. Premiums to the 
amount of about sixteen hundred dollars are awarded. The county 
fair is interesting and instructive as well as entertaining, and the 
management always provides for a number of special attractions, 
like aeronauts, acrobats, etc. The best way to measure the agricul- 
tural progress of the county is to compare the first county fair with 
the fairs of the present day. An account of the first fair held in the 
county appears in the chapter on "Organizations." Here is what I 
published on the fair of 191 1 (it may be an item of curiosity for the 
generation fifty years hence) : 

"It was the county fair again. Finer weather was unthinkable. 
From the northwest a cool wind blew and frustrated all efforts of 
Mr. Sun to make it hot for people. White clouds sailed in the sky, 
and lights and shadows played on the distant hills painted with the 
gaudy colors of fall. 

"Soon after dinner began the exodus to the fair grounds. The 
automobile made it possible that the farmers and villagers now can 
dine leisurely at home and still get to the fair in time. On the street 
automobiles and dust clouds rolled on in unbroken chains. 

"The enormous place was soon filled with people, typical figures 
of farmers, homely farmer women, pretty country girls in the latest 
Parisian fashions, and young gentleman in faultless dress suits. Even 
the link between the two types — that with turned-up pants and glossy 
celluloid collar — was not missing. 

"The noise of the fair, too, reigned supreme again. The owners 
of puppet tents, the venders, and the other knights of the side-show 
barked, the band played, the grind organ whimpered, and the endless 
medley of voices flooded the ear. 

"In the exhibition buildings the visitors jammed and shoved. In 
the art gallery femininity prevailed, also in the exhibits. Here a man 


feels like an intruder. Well represented were the embroidered, 
crocheted, and sewed handiworks, often revealing a high sense of art. 
A crocheted waste basket made us feel almost like "at home." It was 
treated with some chemical fluid which made it as rigid and durable 
as a wicker basket. It looked dainty with its pink ribbons. The 
regular art exhibits consisted of drawings, water color and oil paint- 
ings — some real good work among them — photographs, and other 
works of art. A seven-year-old boy's samples of cabinet work were 
touching indeed. 

"The poultry show was extensive and complete, from little pigeons 
to Embden and Toulouse geese and bronze-colored turkeys. For the 
first time we saw white turkeys, and ducks with crests on their heads. 
The most interesting fowls, however, were a pair of African geese. 
They were white and big and well built, except the bill which was 
black and ugly, with a hump at the root, perhaps to fit to rhinos and 
caffres. And then they let out such weird shrieks. Opposite stood a 
cage with Chinese geese. We looked whether they were slant-eyed, 
but found that they were exactly like their African sisters. 

"The horticultural exhibition was good. Grain, seeds, flowers 
in bouquets and pots, gigantic cucumbers and pumpkins were a 
wonted sight. For a longer period our eyes rested on the beautifully 
curled leaves of a glossy sea green of a mangel-wurzel. With their 
graceful lines they looked like the prototyppe of a Gothic capital. 
The exhibition of apples was great, there were green apples, yellow 
apples, red cheeked apples, all inviting to a bite. We were just con- 
sidering in which tunes we could best sing the praise of such splendid 
fruit, when somebody behind our back remarked : 'Oh, it's no trick 
to have nice apples this year !' Well, we did no longer consider our 
blarney. In a lean-to the Boys' Agricultural Club had their exhibits 
which were quite respectable and promising. 

"Leaves the pigs, the cows and calves, the sheep, and the horses. 
But these exhibitions were as good as in former years and can be 

"The horse races, the acrobats, the balloon ascension, the baseball 
game added their shares to the entertainment, the merry-making, 
and the excitement of the visitors." 

Agriculture will most likely always stay the chief resource of the 
county. So much the better for it; so much more .happiness for 
the population. Wise men of all ages have said that. "Civilization 
is agriculture," says L. H. Kerrick; "agriculture is civilization; civil- 
ization and agriculture are one. There is nothing before, nothing 


higher, nothing beyond agriculture. Agriculture is the original, 
natural, necessary, single and universal business of mankind. Every 
other art, trade, profession or calling whatsoever is secondary and 
dependent and useful only when and in such degree as it may con- 
tribute to the one great and useful business, agriculture. ^Ve must 
teach agriculture; it is the social, political and economic salvation of 
the nations." 



In the town of Erin, in the southwestern quadrangle of the check- 
ered county map, lies Holy Hill, a place of pilgrimage famous among 
Catholics in this and the neighboring states. With the legend of the 
place the reader has become familiar in a preceding chapter. It is 
now intended to give a description of it as it appears today, for it 
would look like a serious omission to let it go at what has so far been 
said about it. Besides it is interesting in other ways. It lies in the 
most romantic region of the county, and it affords a bird's-eye view 
of much of the ground on which this history was made, A clever and 
vivid description of a visit to Holy Hill was written two or three 
years ago by Adalbert Schaller, the late local editor of the "Mil- 
waukee Herold," and published anonymously in that German daily. 
It appealed to me so much that I have translated it into the best 
English I was able to. It follows : 

"Do you know that your horse has taken the wrong road ?" Madame 
P. asked me. "You let him have too much of his will." 

I alighted from the buggy. Nearby stood an oblong building that 
resembled neither a dwelling nor a stable. Upon looking into it, I 
noticed vessels of the kind used in making cheese. Apparently work 
had been finished in the room but shortly before, and the time for 
rest had come. But soniething did stir in some part of the building, 
and at last I found the cause. It was a woman engaged in the most 
painstaking and important work of dairying, the cleaning and scour- 
ing of the cans and utensils. She was so much absorbed in her work 
that she had not heard the arrival of our vehicle. 

"Up Holy Hill you want to go?" she exclaimed upon my ques- 
tioning. "Then you must go back. Around this way you'll never 
get up the hill. The road leads past it. Don't turn off from the 
main road again until you come to a sign — the Carmelites had it put 

It was a hot day, and I really could not blame the horse for 


trying to pull around the hill instead of ascending it. But such 
was the condition set by Madame P. 

"We will drive up as high as possible, and a little farther," had 
she said when the hill that was visible for hours rose broader and 
higher in front of us. 

After a few capers, our animal assented to turn around. The 
road was, after the light rain of the day previous, in an excellent 
condition, and our buggy rolled along so smoothly and silently that 
even the rabbits did not notice its approach and let it come right nigh, 
and the birds in the trees on the road-side did not interrupt their carols. 

The road leading up-hill is narrow and terraced. A steep hill, then 
a stretch down; a second, third, fourth, fifth hill followed by as 
many declivities. The latter, however, are not as long as the rises, 
and one gradually becomes aware of getting into higher regions. 
The trip would be an ideal one for auto-cranks. They could make 
it only with the little regulator on their machine wide open, the 
latter sweeping up and down and puffing like a veritable demon. 
This has happened already, but fearing that the calamities would 
become too many even for this country of wonders, automobiles were 
banished entirely. 

Even for a light-weight vehicle like ours, the climbing was difficult. 
Our horse was warier than we. Upon the arrival on a hill top he 
braced himself against the buggy with his legs, lest the load get ahead 
of him. In his nervousness he did not always keep in a straight line ; 
then the wheels of one side or the other would leave the ruts, and the 
occupants would be shaken up very much against their liking. But 
the wagon road came to an end, and although the stretch before us 
was not much steeper than the one behind, Madame P. had to get 
out, as a second sign warned that vehicles were not allowed to be 
driven farther. 

We passed by a little terraced vegetable garden and came to the 
new building of the Carmelites, the architecture of which reminds 
of a hospice. It stands about a hundred and fifty feet below the 
church on a level piece of ground just large enough to hold it. It 
originally was but one-third its present size. The addition is of 
stone, the old part of wood. I could wish a broader porch for the 
building, and then I could imagine how full of wondrous comfort 
the evenings spent here would be. Away from the turmoil of man 
and his works, alone with one's self and the universe— what an ideal 
place would it be for a meditative mind to once more go through all 
the good and sweet things of life that memory keeps stored up, and 


how soon everything would be drowned in oblivion, that was dis- 
agreeable and galling and vile. 

Madame P. drew a comparison between this and the buildings of 
the Padres in California. She described San Gabriele with its care- 
fully tended flower beds and its humming bees ; Santa Barbara with 
its fountain and colonnade ; San Miguel with its long-stretched build- 
ings; San Diego and San Luis Obispo, San Buenaventura and Del 
Rey — in their plains full of glaring sunshine. But the monastery on 
Holy Hill also has something that is fascinating. When the pro- 
cession of the tourists and the faithful ones comes to an end, and the 
last pilgrim has descended to the plain, and evening has come, the 
hill-top with its little church once more flashes up, resplendent in 
the golden light of the setting sun. The rays fall through the dense 
forest of oak, birch and maple, down to the quiet pathways, until 
gradually everything is lost in darkness, and only the cross on the 
steeple in its lofty height is sparkling like a jewel in the last rays 
of the day. 

In front of the building carpenters were busy dressing beams for 
the basement of a big barn to be built to the right. 

"Does the way to the church lead around the building?" I asked 
one of the men. 

"Yea," he answered in a dry way, as though tired of many questions. 
But seeing that Madame P. was a little selective in putting her feet 
between the stones and sticks that lay profusely on the ground, he 
waxed a little more talkative. 

"There are two ways. Both lead to the top. The one through the 
woods you follow. The other one is rather steep." 

The quietude and coolness of the forest soon surrounded us, and 
Ave took deep breaths after the long ride on the sunny country road. 
The way is pretty level, leading along the hill and later uniting with 
the path meandering up from the north, on which the stations of the 
cross are erected. There is nothing here that could disturb the 
meditation of the visitor. "Dark and silent stands the forest." The 
outer world is lost to the wanderer. The noise of the day is silenced. 
Every day during the milder seasons you can meet quiet people here, 
walking in prayer from one station to the other. To most of them 
the walk is not very easy. The great pilgrimages, however, are con- 
fined to two days of the year. Then thousands of people arrive from 
the adjacent country, the cities, and other states. They make the 
trip from the railroad station in rigs of all kinds, on foot, in auto- 
mobiles, on crutches and wooden legs. Arrived at the foot of the 


hill, they all become equal — none rich, none wise, but all humble and 
pious. For those that cannot make the pilgrimage in one day, taverns 
have risen at the road-side, which are gold mines to their owners dur- 
ing these periods, as are the horses and rigs in the entire neighbor- 

Slowly we climbed the path, past the last stations of the cross. 

"Even a non-Catholic must find the idea pretty," Madame P. 
admitted, "and considering that many thousands came up here, per- 
haps to find mitigation for old sufferings, one hardly can escape 
being touched." 

She took the cap from the head of her boy who looked up to her 
with questioning eyes, and pressed it into his hands. 

From above came an old man, stooping little in spite of his high, 
lank stature, whom I had seen before in the distance talking with one 
of the monks. He seemed to be at home here, and probably belonged 
to those old Irish settlers, many of whom are still to be found in the 
surrounding country. 

When he arrived at the station, he bared his head, held himself 
with one hand on the structure, supporting himself and caressing it 
at the same time, spoke a few words, and walked on. It was a 
devotion ofifered in passing by, as he probably had done innumer- 
able times before. But the picture was so surprising, so full of 
reverence, submission, and child-like faith that it was infinitely touch- 
ing to the strangers. 

He greeted us candidly as he passed, reminding of a custom that 
is wide-spread in European countries. 

"Wasn't that nice?" Madame P. asked, referring to his devotion 
at the picture of the Crucified. "It was worth the ride!" 

The church is larger than it appears from the valley. Catholics 
of the neighborhood raised the funds to build it. But not this alone. 
They made the brick and helped with their own hands in the erection 
of the edifice. Formerly the congregation was in charge of a priest 
from the neighborhood, but after he had gone to Europe and died 
there, a long vacancy occurred until finally a few monks of the Carme- 
lite order settled here. 

That the church has seen thousands of visitors is proven by the 
floor which near the entrance is worn out. In one comer is a wall- 
closet containing crutches and canes which had been left by pilgrims 
who came up invalidated. The altars are covered with the finest 
needle work. Madame P. could not refrain from steppping close 
and admiring the embroideries. They are gifts of thankful Catholics. 


Tokens of gratitude and of the joy of giving are found all over the 
building. The stained glass windows have been donated by Pilgrims 
from Chicago and Milwaukee. 

The view from the summit of the hill is wonderful. The eye meets 
no obstruction in any direction. Below thousands of acres of fanning 
country are spread out. Farther away hamlets and villages are 
visible. In the west Hartford appears, in the southeast, on the fringe 
of the horizon, the metropolis of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. During 
the day you can see the smoke, and at night the light of the big 
city. Here and there, between the farms, a watercourse or lake is 
glittering. Oconomowoc river, drawing out long and narrow, from 
up here almost resembling a silver ribbon; Lake Keesus with its 
picnic ground; North lake with its tranquility, its woods and pretty 
shores; Moose lake with its parks; Pine lake with its superb private 
villas ; Beaver lake with its Hotel Interlaken and its Kiinstlerkneipe ; 
Okauchee lake with its countless sailboats and fishermen; Oconomo- 
woc lake with Fred Pabst's stock farm ; Nemahbin lake with the Epis- 
copal mission house; Lake La Belle with the pretty little city of 
Oconomowoc and its dazzling hotels, especially prepared for wealthy 
automobile parties; Nagawicka and Pewaukee and the Cedar lakes. 
Twenty-seven lakes have been counted from this hill by people versed 
in the topography of the country. My aim was not to see all of 
them; but I found the place where an old man disappeared with a 
pail filled with cherries ; it was a tiny spot in the immense panorama, 
but few saw happier humans. 

On the way home something did happen that I secretly had dreaded 
— a wagon rode up towards us. It was no common wagon, but a 
strong dray with broad wheels, loaded with thick and long timbers, 
and drawn by two heavy Percheron horses. We could neither back 
nor turn, nor could the dray. We tried to halt at a distance, each 
on the top of a hillock, but the horses could not hold the wagon long 
on the slope. The monster rig opposite of us began to push and jerk 
until the animals lost the control of themselves and the wagon, and a 
real stampede followed. To me it seemed as if a whole herd of 
Percherons and a coil of drays had been let loose upon us. With 
maddened efforts they came nearer. 

Our horse also apprehended a collision. He pressed towards the 
road-side, panting and trembling. Every now and then he seemed to 
be ready to leap over fences, hedges and fields, with buggy and all. 
Finally he started on a run. 

The situation soon cleared. On the spot where the collision would 


have had to come, an approach to a field widened the narrow road. 
A jerk to that side, and we had passed the dray. 

"How lucky they may think themselves that we did not run 'em 
over!" the youngster of Madame P. broke the silence. With eyes 
radiant and mien triumphant the wee little hero looked after the co- 
lossal wagon that could have crushed our vehicle like a pasteboard box. 

I cast a look at Madame P. 

"Well, and what have you to say?" I asked. 

"I have not forgotten where we are," she replied calmly. "Let me 
once more look back upon the hill." 

I followed her eyes and saw the cross of the little church high above 
sparkle in the sunlight. 

Then I again seated myself comfortably and let my brave horse 
have the reins. 





The hope of the nation Hes in her schools. As a river never rises 
higher than its source, the intellectual standard of a nation is never 
higher than that of her schools. The early history of the public 
schools in the county is very meagre and fragmentary. Almost every- 
thing that could be gathered has already been said in the preceding 
chapters, especially in that on "The Vanguard of the Pioneers." 
Almost the first thing the old settlers did after they had gained a 
little foothold in the wilderness, but still in the shadow of more 
trials and hardships and privations, was to look for the education of 
their children. The reader will remember that the first schools were 
held in the garret of log houses, and in abandoned shacks and log 
huts. Probably the school very often met in God's great open. As 
teachers were rare, most any one who had a little superior education 
was welcome to transplant it into the young minds. One instance 
is recorded where a teacher wrote out his own certificate, and the 
school board let it go at that. 

As the. town of Germantown was the first town settled in the 
county, the first school district was organized in that town. The 
earliest school report of the district is that of 1842. At that time 
Washington and Ozaukee counties were one county, and the town of 
Germantown comprised school district No. 5. It appears that up to 
that time schools had been established in only three townships of the 
undivided county, to-wit: Grafton, Mequon, and Germantown. That 
oldest report gives the names of 35 heads of families in the town of 
Germantown, who sent 83 children to school. The school clerk was 
Levi Ostrander. The children's age was between four and sixteen. 

Two years later, in 1844, the same town had three school districts. 
The school census and apportionment of school money of April i, 
1844, throws some light on these districts. Fulton District, No. i, 
Township 7, Range 20, had 140 scholars and was to get $93.92 for 
school purposes; the clerk was Levi Ostrander. Franklin District, 


No. 2, Township 9, Range 20, had 68 scholars and was apportioned 
$45.62 for the maintenance of the school, of which J. G. Southwell 
was the clerk. Darmstadt District, No. 4, Township 9, Range 20, 
had 66 scholars, for the education of whom $44.27 was to be con- 
tributed ; the clerk was E. Semler. At the time the town of German- 
town had 274 children who went to school. The apportionment of 
school money seems at the present day ludicrously small, but the 
conditions in those days were altogether different from our own. Of 
one of the first (perhaps the first) school teachers of old Washington 
county, William Wirth, it is said that he taught three months for 
$12 a month, boarding himself. He gave one acre of land on which 
the log schoolhouse was built. He came in 1838 and taught in 1840 
in the vicinity of Thiensville. Of the examination of another early 
teacher, E. H. Janssen, by one of the school commissioners, an old 
settler gives the following humorous account : 

"The first school commissioners were Daniel Strickland, Harry 
V. Bonniwell and Levi Ostrander. Strickland soon after his appoint- 
ment, assumed the responsibility of examining Mr. Janssen who had 
applied for one of the schools. Thinking to be rigid with the peda- 
gogue, Strickland approached him with an air of self-importance, 
and put the following arithmetical problem : 'Now, sir. suppose that I 
were to sell you one hundred bushels of wheat at 75 cents a bushel, 
how much money would you have to pay me?' '$75,' promptly 
answered Janssen. 'Good enough, you are a smart fellow to answer 
a question like that so readily.' Strickland then scratched his head, 
and as he could think of no more difficult problems in mathematics, 
concluded to try some other branch, and, accordingly, switched off 
onto geography. A happy thought struck him; he had, during his 
younger days, experienced considerable of ocean life, and, while 
on one of his extended voyages, had been wrecked on the island of 
Madagascar. Here, then, was where he could comer Janssen. With 
all the assurance imaginable, he approached the anxious candidate, 
for something in his looks warned the aspirant that some question 
was about to be propounded. 'Well, sir,' said Strickland, 'perhaps you 
can tell me where the Island of Madagascar is located ?' This was 
a puzzle, and might have sealed Janssen's doom, but for the kindly 
assistance of a friend who stood near, who had heard Strickland 
relate his adventure on this island. He whispered the location to 
Janssen, who at once replied: 'Off the coast of Africa.' That was 
enough; Strickland grasped him by the hand and exclaimed: 'You 


are the smartest man I ever met, you can have the school right 

So much about the pioneer teachers and the conditions which con- 
fronted them. As to what the old schoolhouses looked like, the 
reader is referred back to the "Fragments of a Chronique of i86o,"' 
in which he will have found a candid description of the average old- 
time schoolhouse. Because sixty years ago the schoolhouse was the 
only public building available, it served more purposes than now. 
Social gatherings, political meetings, "literaries," elections, religious 
meetings, and spelling schools were held in them. If some of the old 
schoolhouses, like that in Barton could tell their story, many odd 
things would be exhumed. Who remembers the old spelling schools ? 
We hear of the few whose memory reaches back to them, that they 
were occasions of great social interest. They must have been, or the 
editor of the "Washington County Democrat" in the issue of January 
1 6, i860, would not have written this: "How it carries one back 
to the days of his boyhood to attend a regular old-fashioned 'Spell- 
ing School.' How it brings up thoughts of boyish flirtations, or sly 
kisses given and taken when the 'master's' back was turned. These 
long winter evenings are being improved by all the school teachers 
in this vicinity, by having numerous 'spells of spelling,' from which 
some benefits, a few sleigh rides, and any quantity of fun are derived." 
The social feeling of a community of pioneers with their buoyant 
vigor was intense, and it centered in the schoolhouse. People who 
came to take up homesteads and making homes were far more inter- 
ested in their neighborhood which they helped to create than are the 
farmers today, who think of deserting their land for the city, or the 
tenant who not even has any more interest in the land he tills but 
what he can get out of it. 

The old schoolhouses were actually as much intended for meetings 
of the grown-ups as for children. The old desks with their high 
seats and their backs made "after the plumb line" were convenient 
enough for men and women, while the invention of the modem 
school desk has made the rural schoolhouse rather impracticable for 
public meetings. Then, too, as villages and cities with their halls 
had sprung up, and many churches had been built, the schoolhouses 
fell into disuse as places for other than school purposes. The "lit- 
erary" only, although modernized, has survived these changes. 

The first teachers' institute in the county of which records are left, 
was held in June, i860, in Hartford. Immediately after the session 
the "Washington County Teachers' Association" was organized. In 


October of the same year another institute was held at West Bend, 
to accommodate a greater number of teachers. Thirty-five were 
present, and the speakers were S. S. Smith and Rev. H. Beckwith 
of Hartford, State Superintendent Pickard, Mr. Gaylord of Oshkosh, 
and Y. N. Frisby of West Bend. In the meeting of the Teachers' 
Association, which followed, W. K. Barney, of Hartford read the 
minutes of the first meeting held in Hartford. The teachers' insti- 
tutes have since become a part of the school system of the county. 
They are held annually during the summer vacation, and they provide 
most of the teachers in the rural schools with their special training. 
A teachers' institute may be defined as a normal school that is held 
for a short tenn with a short course of study. It was originated in 
1839 by Dr. Henry Barnard, secretary of the Connecticut Board of 
Education, to improve the qualifications of common-school teachers, 
by giving them an opportunity to review and extend their knowledge 
of the studies usually pursued in district schools, and of the best 
methods of school arrangements, instruction and government, under 
the recitations and lectures of experienced and well-known teachers and 
educators. This plan has since been followed in its essential points. 
The institutes review academical studies and give professional instruc- 
tion, and, what is not less important, they endeavor to create higher 
ideals of teaching and to stimulate educational enthusiasm. 

In 1861 the county system of school supervision was established, 
and the town system which so far had existed was done away with. 
The first county school superintendent elected in that year, was 
Frederick Regenfuss. He had taught in the county for some years 
prior to his election, and was considered a very good educator. His 
last venture was a German and English select school held in the court- 
house at West Bend. Apropos, in those days when the public schools 
of the county were yet in their infancy, the select schools flourished, 
which were private schools and w^ere intended to give a better edu- 
cation. The old newspaper files mention a number of them. With the 
advent of the county system of school supervision, things in the 
educational line improved materially. Mr. Regenfuss held his position 
for fourteen consecutive years, and brought the schools of the county 
to a high grade of efficiency. 

The public schools of the county form a part of the state public 
school system. The state sets aside as a permanent fund the Federal 
grant of section 16 in each township, with 500,000 acres of land and 
5 per cent of the proceeds of the sale of public lands in the state, 
together with less important items. This school-fund income is sup- 


plemented by a state tax of one mill on the dollar. The combined 
amount is annually apportioned among the counties, towns, villages, 
and cities in proportion to the number of children in each of from 
four to twenty years of age. In their turn the counties must levy 
upon each town, city, and village a tax equal to their proportion of 
the combined school fund and state mill tax. 

There are three four-year high schools in the county, located at 
Hartford, Kewaskum, and West Bend. They are primarily intended 
to give pupils who have completed the work of the elementary schools 
an opportunity to carry on their studies to a higher level, and also to 
take up new studies. Diplomas are awarded to students who complete 
the courses. For these reasons the high schools may be called "people's 
colleges." Another object of these schools is to prepare young men 
and women for the college and university, and thus they become inter- 
mediate or preparatory schools, especially in states where a state 
university is at the head of the educational system. The high schools 
of West Bend and Hartford are accredited at the University of Wis- 
consin. That means that the university accepts the diplomas of 
their graduates instead of entrance examinations. 

Besides the elementary schools of eight grades in the cities of 
Hartford and West Bend, there are in the county one school of four 
grades, one of three grades, seven schools of two grades, and 
eighty-five rural schools. Of the latter fifty-seven belong to the first 
class, that is to say, there has been installed in them a heating and 
ventilating system and other necessary equipment which entitles them 
to a special state aid of $50.00 per year for a period of three years. 
To stimulate the efforts of the pupils in the rural schools, diploma 
examinations have been introduced with gratifying results within 
the last few years. 

The "little school at the cross-road" is of vast importance to a 
county that is overwhelmingly dependent on agriculture as the main- 
stay. Its destiny is shaped within those walls. The improvement 
of the rural schools is an ever recurrent topic of the superintendent's 
annual report. It also has aroused the attention of sociologists. The 
social center movement of our days, is to be extended over the rural 
districts, and the rural schools are again to become centers of social 
life as in the pioneer days. They shall prepare the children for 
country life. Agriculture is already taught as a branch of study. 
The country school of the future, according to the ideas of its regen- 
erators, will be one in which teacher, text books, and course of study 
shall all be correlated to country life. Teachers, children, and parents 


will work together upon the problem of fami life. In the Social Cen- 
ter Conference held at Madison in 191 1, Herbert Quick in an address 
gave this description of this new type of a country school : "When the 
school of which I am speaking is fully developed, no farmer will 
think of planting seeds until they have been examined in the school 
for the purpose of testing their genuineness and their freedom from 
noxious adulterations. Tests of soil will be made in the school labor- 
atory. The examination of farm animals for tuberculosis and other 
disease will be to a considerable extent done in the schools. Tests 
of milk will be made and in the schoolyard will be developed strains 
of poultry of supreme excellence for either egg or meat production. 
The keeping of accounts on the farm is so complex that no farmer 
under ordinary circumstances is able to keep an adequate set of books. 
And in the country school which I have in mind, will be the counting 
room of the neighborhood, in which a complete cost system will be 
kept by teachers and pupils and comparisons made as to relative 
profits of various farms in the neighborhood, which will gradually 
change agriculture from its present status to that of a business con- 
ducted upon the exact lines which characterize the business factory 
methods. The girls will take part in all these things and in addition 
will study domestic science and learn the economical and efficient and 
satisfying management of the home." 

In this way the problem of vocational education in the rural 
schools would easily be solved. It would be much harder to solve 
for the city schools, because of the diversified vocations of the city. 
In the public schools of West Bend an important step in that direction 
was taken in 191 1 by the introduction of manual training. This 
was made possible by the untiring efforts of the local Woman's Club. 
Instruction in domestic science for the girls will be the next thing 
this club aims at. The movement for manual training sprang from 
the conviction that more should be done to fit boys for the practical 
duties of life. This conviction was gained from the success of the 
trade schools of European countries, especially Germany. Now, 
however, the direct pedagogical value of manual training is considered 
of more importance than the effect it may have on the future em- 
ployment of children. 

As another, although transitory, educational step may be mentioned 
the opening of an evening school at Hartford in 1912. To instruct 
the many foreign men working in the extensive automobile works 
in that city in the language and customs of the country, it was deemed 
necessary to open a school of that kind. 


The public schools in the county are taught by 141 teachers. Of 
these, 23 are male teachers, exclusive those in the high schools. The 
total salaries paid to male teachers in 191 1 were $15,083.95; and to 
female teachers $31,542.25. There were 7,877 children of school 
age (from four to twenty years), of which number 3,403 attended 
school. The average daily attendance was 2,249. The total amount 
spent for education in 191 1 was $102,702.81. One of the most able 
school superintendents the county had was Charles F. Leins ; he held 
the office for many years. The present incumbent is George T. Carlin. 



Washington County Agricultural Society 

On November i, 1855, a number of men gathered in the village of 
Hartford and held a meeting in which the first steps toward organ- 
izing an agricultural society were taken. The officers elected were: 
President, Hopewell Coxe of Hartford; Vice-President, John Kessel 
of Richfield ; Treasurer, William Rohn of Jackson ; Recording Secre- 
tary, Geo. C. Williams of Hartford ; Corresponding Secretary, Patrick 
Toland of Erin; Committee on Arrangements, Phillip Dhein of Ger- 
mantown, Thomas Hayes of Richfield, and D. W. Maxon of Polk. 
The president was instructed to draw up the constitution and by-laws 
for consideration and adoption at the next meeting which, as it was 
voted, was to be held at the court house in the village of West Bend, 
on the first Monday of November, 1856. 

In the meeting at West Bend, on November 8, 1856, the consti- 
tution and by-laws were adopted and a full board of officers elected, 
thereby completing the organization of the society. "The Washing- 
ton County Agricultural Society" was the name adopted, and its 
objects, as stated, were: "To promote and improve the condition 
of agriculture, horticulture, and the mechanical, manufacturing and 
household arts within the county of Washington." The treasurer had, 
during the year, received membership fees to the aggregate amount 
of $110. 

The new society must have found difficulties in carrying out its 
mission; maybe there was something lacking, for it led a feeble life 
for almost a year and a half. In 1857 no fair was held, and the 
records show no meeting held till April 18, 1858. at which a new 
board of officers was elected, and a resolution passed requesting the 
treasurer to collect what money may be due to the society, and to 
report in the next meeting, whereupon it was adjourned to the third 



Monday of May, 1858. The adjourned meeting, however, was not 
held, and the society was considered broken up. 

On November 9, 1858, a number of citizens of the county held a 
meeting for the purpose of reorganizing the society, and placing it 
on a more efifective working basis. A new committee, consisting of 
F. O. Thorpe, Silas Wheeler, and William Rohn, was appointed to 
draft a new constitution and by-laws. The committee reported, and 
their report was adopted. The name of the society remained the 
same, a fee of 50 cents was collected from the members, and the 
annual membership dues thereafter were fixed at $1.00. A new 
provision of the constitution, however, at once gave new life to the 
organization and vastly increased the interest taken in it. It read as 
follows : 

"Article VI. — The society shall hold an annual show or fair of 
agricultural and horticultural products; of agricultural and mechan- 
ical implements; of domestic manufactures and of domestic animals 
at such time and place as the Executive Committee shall designate." 

The annual fair evidently was the thing lacking in the former con- 
stitution, for since its introduction the machinery of the society ran 
on without any serious break-down. 

The reorganized society held another meeting in West Bend on 
December 8, 1858, in which the following officers were elected : Pres- 
ident, Densmore W. Maxon of Polk; Vice-President, James Volmar 
of West Bend; Recording Secretary, F. O. Thorpe of West Bend; 
Corresponding Secretary, W. H. McCracken of Barton; Treasurer, 
William Rohn of Jackson; Executive Committee (in addition to the 
above who were also members), Geo. Ramsey, Silas Wheeler, and 
F. W. Nolting. General Committee, John Moran of West Bend, Peter 
Frazer of Barton, James Rix of Polk, Mathias Altenhofen of Ke- 
waskum, Ludwig Joeckel of Jackson, John Graham of Hartford, 
Ulrich Senn of Wayne, Wm. A. Smith of Farmington, John Sell of 
Addison, T. E. Vandercook of Trenton, James Kenealy of Erin, 
Klumb of Germantown, and Peter Schulteis of Richfield. 

In the Courthouse Square at West Bend, in December, 1858, the 
week following the reorganization of the society, the first county fair 
was held. It was a success and it showed that the idea had found a 
fertile soil in the minds of the farmers of the county, although the 
exhibition was rather insignificant and the prizes were very small 
as compared with those of the fairs held nowadays by the society. In 
all there were $81 paid as premiums, "and a prouder set of con- 
testants never bore off the prizes from the Olympian games, than 


those who won them at this first fair held in Washington county." 
The first premiums awarded went to the following exhibitors : 

Class No. I, fruits and vegetables — Apples, David Jenner; Hun- 
garian grass seed, Silas Wheeler; com, Ethan Maxon; beans and 
potatoes, L. B. Root; beets and carrots, Chauncey Gray; peas, Ludwig 
Joeckel; winter wheat, John Moran; turnips, Andrew Werner. 

Class No. 2, swine — Best Lester boar, Silas Wheeler; best Suffolk 
sow, James Geer ; best barrow hog, Arzbacher & Bro. 

Class No. 3, arts and mechanical productions — Pictures, Dinah 
Harrod; printing, Josiah T. Farrar. 

Qass No. 4, domestic manufactures and household arts — Cheese, 
J. E. Geer; butter, Mrs. M. A. T. Farmer; embroidery, Mrs. P. A. 
Weil ; knitting, Mrs. M. A. T. Farmer ; beer, Mayer Bros. ; black-cur- 
rant wine, Ch. Gray; white-currant wine, John Findorf ; currant jelly, 
Mrs. M. A. T. Farmer. 

Class No. 5, cattle and sheep — Durham cow, John Moran; best 
fat ox, Mayer Bros.; native cows, James E. Geer; Durham bull- 
calf, John Moran; heifer-calf, James E. Geer; Merino buck, James 
E. Geer; Leicester buck, W. H. McCracken; Merino ewes, James E. 
Geer; native bucks and ewes, James E. Geer. 

Class No. 6, horses — Stallion, Martin Loos; native stallion, Ludwig 
Joeckel; Black Hawk colt, Paul A. Weil; Morgan colt, Christ. Eck- 
stein; Morgan, six-year-old, John Rix; breeding mares. Messenger, 
seven years old, Ethan Maxon ; Morgan, eight years old, Wm. Rohn ; 
Black Hawk, six years old, Wm. Hamilton; Vermont Morgan, John 
Rix; native, John Findorf; French, Carl Wilke; two-year-old mares, 
French, Christopher Eckstein; Morgan, James Rix; Morgan-Black 
Hawk, John A. Rix; Messenger, Wm. Rohn; Black Hawk, D. W. 
Maxon; matched teams, native, Peter Lars; native, four years old, 
L. B. Root ; Business, eight years old, J. A. Rix ; Duroc, John Moran ; 
best pair of mules, Wm. W. Verbeck. 

At the close of the fair, all bills and premiums paid, there remained 
$24.58 in the treasury, and in the minds the assurance that the miss- 
ing link had been found to connect the society with the community. 
Ever since the county fair proved to be a conspicuous factor in devel- 
oping the main resource of the county, agriculture and its branches 
and dependent industries. With the exception of two years, fairs have 
been held annually since 1858. There is no record of any for i860; 
the following year, October 8, 9, and 10, it was held at Cedar creek. 
In 1862, owing to the perturbation of the war. the fair was post- 


poned. In the following year, and every year since, it was held in 
West Bend. 

The institution of the county fair was firmly established, but as yet 
there were no suitable grounds provided to hold it on. The first 
move in this direction was made in the fall of 1866, when a com- 
mittee was appointed to call for bids for a tract of land for that pur- 
pose. Several offers were made, and after some discussion and 
modification of the terms, it was decided to buy a tract of eighty 
acres from John Findorff. This transaction, however, was annulled, 
as the society did not promptly act its part in the deal. As to this 
matter the records show the following entry : 

"The society having failed to comply with the condition (to build 
a track and otherwise improve the grounds before receiving a deed), 
made by Mr. Findorff, and the agreement made between him and the 
society, Mr. Findorff withdrew his offer, leaving the society, in regard 
to fair grounds, in its former status. Several meetings were after- 
wards held, and, in March, 1867, the society was so fortunate as to 
buy twenty acres of land from H. J. Weil, adjoining the village of 
West Bend. A more beautiful tract of land could not have been 
acquired. The track is made and two buildings are up. It cost 

This tract of ground was conveyed to the society on April 6, 1867. 
It is an elevated and level place on the east side of the Milwaukee river, 
affording a view of the county seat and of the surrounding country 
extending in rural beauty for miles to the hilly horizon. The first 
fair was held here October i, 2, and 3, 1867. Formerly the fairs were 
held in October, later on September was selected. Improvements of 
the grounds have constantly been devised and carried out in propor- 
tion to the funds available. Under the secretariate of Wareham P. Rix 
who held the office for about twelve years more land was purchased 
to the fair grounds, and at present the race track is being rearranged. 
The present officers of the society are : President, C. A. Schroeder; 
Vice-President, John Jansen; Secretary, Jos. F. Ruber; Treasurer, 
B. C. Ziegler. The honorary vice-presidents are: Math. C. Weiss, 
Addison; Peter Jansen, Barton; Michael Lynch, Erin; Wm. H. 
Gruhle, Farmington; Hy. V. Schwalbach, Germantown; Anton 
Mueller, Hartford Township; C. J. Heppe, Hartford City; Herman 
Groth, Jackson; E. C. Backhaus, Kewaskum Township; Lehman 
Rosenheimer, Kewaskum Village ; John Koester, Polk ; Wm. C. Meyer, 
Richfield; August Storck, Schleisingerville ; John B. Ahlers, Tren- 


ton; Ph. Schellinger, Wayne; Carl Vogt, West Bend Town; Jos. 
Ott, West Bend City. 

Washington County Old Settlers' Club. 

In the "Register of the Washington County Old Settlers' Club," 
printed in 1904, the Hon. S. S. Barney gives the following brief his- 
tory of the club: 

"The Washington County Old Settlers' Club is now nearly thirty 
years old, and as many of its early members are gone, and those who 
are left are only waiting a few years to join the great majority, it has 
been thought advisable to have its early history written by one of the 

"Some time in the winter of 1873-4, Maxon Hirsch, then a resident 
of West Bend, and one of the very earliest settlers of this county, gave 
a dinner at the Washington House, in West Bend, to the old settlers 
residing in the vicinity. I was then a recent comer in West Bend, and 
for that reason and perhaps because I was considered too young to be 
called an old settler, was not present on the occasion, but I heard 
much about it from those who were present. 

"My recollection is that Hon. L. F. Frisby made a speech on the 
occasion, and I know from what I heard that a very pleasant time 
was enjoyed by all who were present. 

"It was much talked over for some time after, and gave rise to a 
sentiment that it would be a wise thing to have similar reunions every 
year. This sentiment gradually ripened into a resolution to organize 
an Old Settlers' Club, and accordingly some time late in the year 1874, 
a preliminary meeting for that purpose was held at the Washington 
House, at which time a committee to draft a constitution was ap- 
pointed, and the meeting was adjourned to meet at the same place on 
the i6th day of January, 1875. At this last meeting the committee 
reported, a constitution was adopted, officers elected, and it was 
decided to hold the first annual festival at the Washington House, 
on the 22nd of February following. This is the first meeting of the 
club of which any record was kept, and was in fact the first meeting 
of the Washington County Old Settlers' Club. 

"It is interesting here to note that when the club was organized. 
West Bend, and in fact Washington County, was about as old as the 
club now is. West Bend was first settled in 1845, so that it was then 
thirty years old, and the club is now nearly of the same age, so that 
those who are now left to look backward to the beginning, will recog- 


nize the first meeting of the Old Settlers' Club as the half-way house 
on the road. 

"Grandpa Wightman was the first president, Balthasar Goetter 
the first treasurer, and I was the first secretary. The first two men- 
tioned took a great interest in the club meetings as long as they lived, 
and the old, old settlers will never believe otherwise than that the 
pleasantest reunions the club ever had were those held at the Wash- 
ington House soon after its organization. 

"I well remember that at the first meeting some of the old pioneers 
mildly objected to my being considered an old settler, because the 
only claim I had to the distinction was that I was born in the county 
in the year 1846, and for that reason was only an old settler in name, 
but not a pioneer in fact. 

"My name is third on the list, however, and now, after the lapse 
of thirty years, during which time my head has been covered with 
'frost that never melts,' there are none who dispute my title as an 
'old settler.' 

"This reminiscence leads to the thought that in looking over the 
whole county, we find that there are very few left among us who are 
entitled to be called pioneers by reason of having come here in mature 
years in the 40's. Of the thirty-five members whose names appear on 
the first page of the record book, only ten (10) are now living, and 
they nearly all belong to the same class of old settlers as myself, hav- 
ing either been bom here or having come here in infancy. 

"As a class and a generation the old pioneers of Washington 
county have passed away, and the few who are left are only patiently 
waiting a few days for the 'shadows to a little longer grow,' when 
they will emigrate for the last time, as we trust, to fairer fields than 
even our own beautiful hills and valleys. 

"The poet is right, and 

'Art is long and time is fleeting. 
And our hearts like muffled drums are beating 
Funeral marches to the grave.' " 

The club holds its annual meeting regularly on Washington's birth- 
day, the 22nd of February, in the Washington House at West Bend. 
It is preceded by a banquet, and followed by an entertainment. 
Membership in the club is conferred on any person of good moral 
character, who settled in Washington county prior to January i, 1858, 
or who has lived in the county for twenty-five years, by signing the 
constitution and paying a matriculation fee of one dollar. The pres- 


ent officers are: President, Glenway Maxon; first vice-president, Mrs. 
G. F. Hunt; second vice-president, John Harns; third vice-president, 
Jos. F. Huber; secretary, G. A. Kuechenmeister; treasurer, E. Franck- 

Cedar Lake Yacht Club 

The organization of the Cedar Lake Yacht Club was perfected in 
1898 by the adoption of fixed articles and rules. But the beginning 
of yachting on Big Cedar lake dates two years farther back, and 
sailing is known to have been practiced as far back as 185 1. In that 
year the first sail craft, the Prince Paul, plied the limpid waters of 
the lake. It was the property of B. Schleisinger Weil who at the 
time lived near the southern shore. 

On the eastern shore the Indian chief Mishowa and his tribe had 
their tepees. The wigwam stood on the site of Maxon's farm. They 
may have gazed with astonishment when they saw a craft on the water, 
which looked altogether different from their birch canoes. Maybe 
they thought the great Manitou himself was captaining the boat made 
of oak planks, which without paddles was gliding with its great white 
wings toward the shore clad in the pristine beauty of its vegetation. 
The sail boat as named in honor of Prince Paul of Wuertemberg, 
a scion of the royal house of Wuertemberg, who at the time was on 
his exploring trip through the western states, and happened to be the 
guest of Mr. Weil when the boat was launched. Although the craft 
would not have stood any comparison with the yachts of today, it 
was at the time considered the acme of perfection. Special care 
had been taken to satisfy the critical eye of His Royal Highness who 
together with his private secretary and Mr. Weil were the first crew 
that manned the vessel. 

A long time passed before another yacht cut the waves of the lake. 
In 1896 the Bloomer Girl of ex-Commodore G. A. Kuechenmeister 
and the Hildesia of Adolph Rosenheimer put in their appearance. 
Both were heavy boats of the old keel type with a wooden center 
board, and not unlike a Noah's ark. The Bloomer Girl was a cat 
boat about 21 feet long, and the Hildesia was a sloop of similar size. 
Soon afterwards the Hexe, owned by Capt. Kremer of Chicago, was 
added. It was a combination of a cat boat and a sloop with inside 
ballast and center board. 

One day, when the three yachts were ruffling the pellucid surface, 
it happened that the bows came in a straight line, which would have 
made a good start, if a race had been intended. It also happened that 


this incident aroused the old desire that forever springs from the 
human breast, to get ahead of each other. The sporting instinct 
being astir, the three captains went ashore and arranged the first 

On the following Sunday the three yachts reported at the fixed 
time for the regatta. A stifif breeze blew from the southwest. A few 
kegs had been anchored to serve as buoys. There were no rules, nor 
judges, and the time for the start was indicated by the firing of a gun 
— a double-barreled contrivance from the time of the French revo- 
lution, which Mr. Kuechenmeister had preserved as a relic. One 
of the yachts had been on the way but a few minutes, when a g^st of 
wind dipped her stern below the water, filling the hold half full of it. 
To the skipper this was a novel and quite unpleasant experience, but 
the crew did not loose heart over it. With pails they went for the 
wet intruder, putting the boat back into the right position, and con- 
tinuing on their journey until somebody on the shore to their great 
relief again fired the gun when the first yacht had reached the last buoy. 
The crews were greeted with cheers by the summer guests who had 
assembled on the shore to watch the race. An enthusiastic friend 
of yachting presented to the victor a tin cup as a memento of the first 
regatta on the lake. The recipient was the captain of the Bloomer 
Girl, and ever since he has guarded that impromptu trophy like a 
valuable loving cup. 

The spectacle of a yacht race can be witnessed on Cedar lake most 
every Sunday afternoon during the months of July and August. 
Soon after the earth has passed aphelion, and the sun hurls down his 
rays almost perpendicular on our latitudes, and the season of the 
summer hotels at the lake begins, the dimpled sheet of water becomes 
the scene of real maritime life, though on a small scale. Yachting 
has come into its own. Any of the Wisconsin lakes, that is sufficiently 
frequented, has its yacht club. The yachts are, according to their size 
and mode of building, divided into classes. Class A contains boats 38 
feet long. Those of class B measure 3 1 feet. Both have a main sail, 
and in front of it a jib sail. The old yachts had a center board which 
could be let down into the water through a shaft in the middle of the 
vessel ; it served to prevent it from careening in stiff breezes or squalls. 
The newer yachts have two bilge boards instead of a center board, 
which are on the side. The crew as a rule consists of four or five 
men, each of whom has his special duties to perform. Class C com- 
prises the smaller yachts of the sloop and cat boat types which do 
not conform with the two former classes. Class D consists only of 


cat boats which have a water line of i8 feet. They are the real mod- 
ern yachts. 

The races are governed by the Seawanhaka time tables. The course 
is either a straight line, or a triangle, the points of which are indi- 
cated by buoys. At a given signal, a pistol shot, the race begins. For 
the victors pennants and loving cups are offered by the club, or by in- 
dividual members. 

■Andrezv J. Fullerton Post, G. A. R. 

Andrew J. Fullerton Post, No. 193, Department of Wisconsin, 
Grand Army of the Republic, was organized in West Bend, March 21, 
1885, "to preserve and strengthen the kind and fraternal feelings 
which bind together the soldiers, sailors and marines who united to 
suppress the late rebellion, and to perpetuate the memory and history 
of the dead; to assist such former comrades in arms as need help and 
protection and to extend needful aid to the widows and orphans of 
those who have fallen ; to maintain the allegiance to the United States 
of America, based upon a paramount respect for, and fidelity to the 
National Constitution and Laws, to discountenance whatever tends to 
weaken loyalty, incites to insurrection, treason or rebellion, or in any 
manner impairs the efficiency and permanency of our free institutions ; 
and to encourage the spread of universal liberty, equal rights and 
justice to all men." It is the only organization of civil war veterans 
in the county and practically covers the latter. Their thinned ranks 
only once in a year appear in a body before the public, and that is on 
Memorial Day, the program for its befitting celebration being arranged 
by them, and the graves of dead soldiers and veterans throughout 
the county being decorated by comrades delegated by the commander. 

The charter members were: C. L. Powers, John Thielges, Charles 
Silberzahn, N. N. Emery, Geo. W. Jones, George Emmett, August 
Neimeier, Elias Smith, Albert Story, Joseph Huber, W. P. Rix, 
John Emmett, Richard C. Rohn, J. R. Kohlsdorf, Andrew Schmidt, 
John Koester, and Charles Hantke. The present officers are: Com- 
mander, Geo. W. Jones; Sr. Vice-Corn., Wm. Rau; Jr. Vice-Corn., 
Peter Druecken ; Chaplain, Martin G. Blackmun ; Quartermaster, Lor- 
cnz Guth ; Surgeon, W. W. Cooley ; Officer of Day, Wm. Colvin ; Offi- 
cer of Guard, Al. Story. The members are : Charles Silberzahn, N. N. 
Emery, Geo. Emmett, John Emmett, John P. Gumm, Mathias Regner, 
Franz Hoffmann, Byron Fairbanks, Gottlieb Metzner, Joseph L. 
Brott, Albert Duncan, Michael Johannes, Phil. Heipp, Jacob Wagner, 


John Remmel, Carl Mieritz, Fried. Schoenhard, Jacob Knoebel, 
John Roll, C. L. Powers, Melvin Ostrander, Newton E. Woodford, 
J. N. Perschbacher, Louis KHesse, Chas. Guenther and Geo. Feight. 

Willet R. Wescott Circle, Ladies of the G. A. R. 

Willet R. Wescott Circle, No. 34, Ladies of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, was organized at West Bend, January 13, 19 12. Its 
objects are "to unite in loyalty and practice the precepts of true fra- 
ternity; to honor surviving Union veterans, and to perpetuate and 
keep sacred Memorial Day ; to assist the Grand Army of the Republic, 
to aid, encourage and sympathize with it in its noble work of charity, 
to extend needful aid to its members in sickness and distress; to aid 
old soldiers, sailors or marines, to attend the funerals of veterans and 
place the United States flag upon their silent hearts, to look after sol- 
diers' homes; to watch the schools and see that our children obtain 
proper education in the true history of our country, and in patriotism, 
to keep from almshouses the mothers, wives and widows of perma- 
nently disabled soldiers." Eligible are all mothers, wives, sisters, 
daughters, and granddaughters of soldiers, sailors, or marines who 
served honorably during the War of the Rebellion, ex-army nurses, 
and bloodkin nieces. The present officers are : President, Mary Day ; 
Sr. Vice-President, Alma Hagner; Jr. Vice-President, Christina 
Bauer; Chaplain, Celesta Cooley; Secretary, Laverne Cooley; Treas- 
urer, Clara Rolfs ; Conductor, Dorothy Regner ; Ass't Conductor, Bar- 
bara Thoma; Guard, Margaret Day; Ass't Guard, Ruth Wendelborn; 
Musician, Ada Lemke; Patriotic Instructor, Julia Warnkey. 

Washington County Medical Society 

This society of physicians practicing in the county was organized 
June 24, 1903. It forms together with the medical societies of other 
counties the State Medical Society of Wisconsin, and through it, 
with other state organizations, the American Medical Association. 
The purposes of the society are to bring together the physicians of 
the county, so that "by frequent meetings and full and frank inter- 
change of views they may secure such intelligent unity and harmony 
in every phase of their labor as will elevate and make effective the 
opinions of the profession in all scientific, legislative, public health, 
material and social affairs, to the end that the profession may re- 
ceive that respect and support within its own ranks and from the 


community to which its honorable history and great achievements 
entitle it." Eligible for membership is every legally registered phy- 
sician in the county, who is of good moral and professional standing 
and who does not support or practice, or claim to practice, any ex- 
clusive system of medicine. In the monthly meetings interesting 
papers are read on medical subjects, reports on cases under treatment 
are made, discussions are held, and a good fellowship on a strictly 
noble and ethical basis is cultivated. The present officers are : Presi- 
dent, Dr. W. J. Wehle, West Bend ; Vice-President, Dr. Phil. Kauth, 
Schleisingerville ; Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. S. J. Driessel, Barton; 
Delegate, Dr. H. Pfeifer, Jackson; Alternate, Dr. S. J. Driessel, 
Barton; Board of Censors, Drs. D. W. Lynch and G. A. Heidner, 
West Bend, and N. Ed. Hausmann, Kewaskum. 

Badger Firemen's Association 

An organization of volunteer fire departments was effected in 
West Bend in 1893. Its original name was Washington and Ozaukee 
Counties' Firemen's Association, and for a time the fire department 
of North Milwaukee also belonged to it. A number of years ago the 
name was changed to read as above. In course of the years several 
departments have dropped out, and others have joined. The associa- 
tion now is composed of the fire departments of West Bend, Cedar- 
burg, South Germantown, and Jackson. The object of the organiza- 
tion is to create a fraternal spirit among the different departments, 
to foster the pride in the noble and unselfish work, and to raise the 
efficiency. In the early part of summer of each year a tournament 
is held at one of the places belonging to the association. It consists 
of a number of contests with and without apparatus, followed by a 
picnic and a dance. Cash prizes are distributed among the win- 
ners, but the most coveted prize is a silver trumpet which goes to 
the department making the best time in the hose and the hook and 
ladder contests combined in three tournaments. The present officers of 
the association are: President, Geo. P. Boden, West Bend; Vice- 
President, Frank Schwalbach, South Germantown: Treasurer, John 
Klumb, West Bend; Secretary, John Armbruster, Cedarburg. 

Other Societies 

Many local societies, clubs and lodges exist in the county, but to go 
into detail with them would be passing the scope of this work. The 


Odd Fellows, Woodmen, Eagles, Beavers, Owls, G. U. G. Germania, 
Sons of Herman, Harugari, Royal Neighbors, etc., have lodges in the 
different cities and villages. West Bend has a lodge of Free Masons, 
and also a chapter of the Eastern Star. Hartford and West Bend 
have each a Woman's Club, the one in the latter city deserves special 
mention for its brave and noble efforts toward establishing a good 
public library and introducing manual training and domestic science 
in the public schools of West Bend. 


SHADY LANE MM IK ( 1 D \1 1 \K 



There are about a score and a half of lakes and lakelets in the 
county. It may claim a goodly share of Wisconsin's wealth of lakes. 
These water sheets sometimes stretching between shores that are 
rather flat and prosy, or dipped in the mystic shadow of tamaracks, 
or shimmering through the haze of the morainic ridges, are an ever 
recurring feature of the landscape. There is hardly a part of the 
county without its lake, although they are more plentiful in the south- 
em half. But from all the lakes two stand out in hallowed beauty 
not touched by any other one. They are the two Cedar lakes, Big 
Cedar and Little Cedar. In my career as an editor I had many oc- 
casions to sing of them in jingling verse or write in glowing prose. 
It came to be a kind of monopoly of mine. Of these narrations I 
have picked out the following two, in which some justice is done to 
Nature's prettiest spots in the county. 

A-Picnicking with the Printers 

The red-letter day of the West Bend printers, to which they look 
forward for an entire year, had come again. At five in the morning 
a hay wagon rattled out of the town. On it they all sat, from the 
beacons of local journalism down to the smallest devil. There were 
fifteen of us, the driver, a rather waggish fellow, figured in. 

The provisions, both solid and liquid, lay carefully packed in the 
hay of the wagon box, while we sat around them on the rack. 

We were bound for Little Cedar lake, and wanted to get there 
before the fish had breakfasted, for we had some delicacies for them. 
The rising sun shone on our way. But only for a while could we 
see a slice of his red disk, then it disappeared behind a gray wall of 
clouds. The bright hues of the aurora, foreboding trouble, faded 
away and left us poor knights of the quill and the stick and the 
ink fount in a landscape full of gray tones, in which clouds of mist 
were floating and enveloping bushes and trees. 



We were talking about northern lights that had flashed across 
the sky before dawn the same morning, when some one exclaimed: 
"It's raining!" Nobody looked wise for the next minute, because it 
is impossible to do so and sit on a hay rack like a drenched poodle. 
But it did not rain. The fog had condensed to a few drops which ac- 
cording to the law of gravitation and the sequence in time and space 
had to fall right on one of our most scholarly heads. The longing 
thoughts for that umbrella at home dispersed. 

The ride may have lasted for an hour, when the wagon with its 
load stopped under the tall birches and maples of Thoma's Grove 
on the lake shore. Soon half a dozen boats were gliding through 
the water, the anglers rowing to the best fishing places, and the 
others expecting to get looks at the beautiful scenery along the shores. 
One of the latter even wanted to delve into the Platonic Idea. Shock- 
ing, isn't it? But there was no chance, for the gray mist hung over 
the lake and its surroundings, everything looked gray, gray like all 

Twelve o'clock midday. Near the sweltering hot stove in the 
shanty under the trees the two newspaper proprietors are standing, 
frying fish and potatoes for the hungry crowd. A very pleasant 
smell comes out of the reeking hut, and the smoke from the smoke- 
pipe sticking out of the roof is whirling lustily into the branches. 
Now and then an inquisitive eye looks through the trap-window to 
see the two chefs work in the sweat of their whole body, trying 
their skill at the culinary art. "Today they've got work once; all 
the year around we've got to work for them, but today they've 
got to dig in for us," remarks one. This change of roles has be- 
come an unwritten law. 

The table is set under the trees. Everybody has a pasteboard 
plate, a knife and fork, and a bottle of beer. Suddenly one of the 
chefs comes rushing out of the shanty with a rinsing bowl full of 
fried fish; the other one fetches the fried potatoes. In the next 
moment everybody is busy eating. Fish, potatoes, ham, buttered 
bread, pickles, etc., disappear fast behind the hedges of printer's 
teeth, and are washed down with beer. Hardly anybody takes the 
time to chant the praise of the cooks. But evidently all enjoy the 
meal in the open immensely. 

After dinner everybody whiled the hours away as he liked best. 
Some played cards, others played horseshoe, or took a bath, while I 
lay down in the grass, among the blue bells of Scotland, bee balm, and 
black-eyed Susans, and watched the bright green birch leaves flut- 


tering in a light breeze on the blue background of the sky, for the 
sun had meanwhile come out, and the gray clouds had dissolved 
into little white tatters. 

The lake has a singular charm, one that would be hard to ex- 
plain. Is it the crystal water, or the spicy air, or the delightful shore 
that captivates, or do all these act in unison to ensnare the soul of 
the dreamer who likes to be united with Nature? A passionate 
fishennan is mostly attracted by the fish that populate the water; 
there must be a purpose for his will that figures on a goodly number 
of palatable fish. He thinks little of the agony of the worm, or 
frog, or minnow on the hook, or the dying gasps of the fish in the 
boat. He cares little for the pretty sights around him, and less for 
the chance to be absorbed by them to the point of forgetting his own 
endless willing. He rather stays with his fish. There are several 
ways to enjoy an outing at the lake. 

In the afternoon I found great pleasure in a botanical expedition 
along the southern and western shore. For a collector there is a 
good chance to enrich his herbarium with water-plants. There are 
many kinds of them, from cat-tails, bulrushes and waterlilies down to 
those that cover the bottom and appear through the limpid water like 
an emerald carpet. Well satisfied I rowed back, past summer cottages 
and hotels peeping out of the verdant embrace, while the sound of 
cow bells came from the distance. 

A great spectacle was the sunset. It is one of the sights at the 
lake. It was sublime to see the great glowing ball slip down slowly 
behind the wooded hills of the farther shore, surrounded by purple 
and violet clouds through the chinks of which a dazzling glow broke 
forth, while the reflex of the sun seemed to change the water into 
fluid gold. A sacred quietude lay all over Nature, as though life 
had paused at the wonderful sight. Then a bugle sounded at a dis- 
tance, and the rest of the great disk sank behind the tree tops. 

Meanwhile the return had been prepared, and when the first 
shadows of night fell, the wagon with its jolly passengers bowled 
homeward. The moon was shining and the lindens at the road-side 
and in the hollows were blooming and filling the air with fragrance 
and recalling Heinrich Heine's stanza : 

"This is the fairy-wood of old ; 
The linden-blossoms' scenting 
And silvery moonlight wonderful 
My spirits are enchanting." 


But the ride was a very dusty one. When the horses were trot- 
ting, clouds of dust whirled up, thick and yellow like London fog. 
They settled on the throats and caused a dryness that was unusual, 
even with printers. Happily we had a few bottles of beer left. They 
were passed around, and when the driver's turn to drink came, he 
stopped the horses, put the bottle to his mouth, and gazed at the 
stars for fully a minute. Perhaps he wanted to take revenge for the 
hay-missiles that were hurled at him, and which he could not see 
come flying, because, as Don Quixote would have said, he had no 
eyes on the back of his neck. 

Trailing the Auroras 

There I stood now, in the darkness and in the woods. The search 
for the summer cottage of the Aurora Fishing Club I had to give up. 
With oppressed heart I felt the cruel side of Nature, of the same 
Nature that an hour ago had smiled upon me so ravishingly. 

In the afternoon — it was Saturday and my off-afternoon — I had 
started on the way to walk the four miles from West Bend to Big 
Cedar lake. Being a great friend of walks, it was a pleasure to me 
to thus follow the invitation of some members of the club — among 
them were my brother-in-law and my two sisters — to spend the Sun- 
day with them, who in turn occupied the club house at the time. 

It was very pleasant to wander on that splendid day of August. 
It was not too warm, and lightly my legs carried me past a vegetation 
in the apogee of its growth, past green pastures, billowing grain 
fields with golden ears bent earth-ward, picturesque fann houses, 
over hills and dales. Nowhere was there monotony in the landscape. 

For a short way I rode on a farmer wagon. Just outside of the 
city the wagon caught up to me. On it sat a farmer boy, a picture of 
health and a model of rural suavity — in the country, too, the con- 
trasts of human nature touch each other. I was a stranger to him, 
but he invited me to ride with him. I could not decline the friendly 
invitation, and so I rode to the next cross-road, offered him a cigar, 
and relied on my legs again. 

The way led past more meadows and fields, orchards and snug 
farm houses, and after a leisurely stroll of two hours, I entered the 
woods of Hacker's Summer Resort. Hardly had the branches closed 
above my head, when in a glade the saloon turned up, and farther on 
the sunny lake glistened between the dark tree trunks. At a glass 
of lager that seemed to have doubled its relishing qualities after the 


long walk, I learned that the steamboat would not arrive before six 
o'clock. I had to go athwart the lake, a distance of three miles. 
It was not yet four. Selecting a place that afforded a fine vista of 
the lake, I rested in the grass, and the charm of the scenery was so 
powerful that for hours it did not bore me. It was six o'clock, and it 
was seven, but there was no sign of the boat. The shadows of the 
dusk began to sink down when it halted at tlie little pier. 

With a few passengers the rather rakish-looking vessel continued 
its cruise past charming islands, fine hotels and summer homes, and 
delightful shore lines, now lying with subdued colors in the fading 
light of the day. At one place a crowd of young people with dis- 
tinctly Semitic traits and manners came aboard — summer resorters 
who rode to a dance. When I went ashore at the pier of the Cedar 
Lake Park Hotel, the one closest to my place of destination, the 
lamps were lit in the park which surrounded the big hotel. Evidently 
I had to make haste to get to the club house before night. 

After leaving the park, I followed a path on a terrace, with 
shrubs on one side and the water's edge close to the other. For a 
while I hurried on, pushing branches aside and scanning the path 
in, the dying twilight. But it grew darker and there was no sign 
of the club house to be seen. Scarcely could the path be separated 
now from the rest of the ground. Walking grew dangerous, for at 
places the path skirted the brink within a few inches. A misstep 
would have brought me into the water on which now and then a 
stray beam of light was dancing, while the waves were gently tapping 
the gravelly shore, or sounding a warning gurgle. Then I lost my 
way altogether. 

I had come to a brilliantly lighted summer villa and decided to 
ask for the way. With the flood of light, the place was strangely 
quiet. It stark reminded of an enchanted palace. Repeatedly I 
knocked at the screen door, then appeared a friendly old gentleman 
in a long dressing-gown and a velvet cap in the door opening, a 
black shadow on the floor heralding him. The way to the club house, 
he said, was in the rear of his house, running straight on for a while 
to a fork, then turning to the right. I thanked him for his infonna- 
tion, and plunged into the night. 

Before a boulder wall I stopped and looked for an exit, and not 
finding any, I swung myself over the rocky barrier. One of the 
stones got loose and rolled to the ground behind me. Somewhere a 
dog barked. A few steps brought me to a lane. At the fork I 
kept to the right and soon saw the dark contour of a house ahead of 


me. But it was as quiet as a mausoleum, no gleam of a light was to 
be seen and no sound of a voice to be heard. Certainly this was 
not the place of the Auroras. The good old gentleman in the beau- 
tiful house must have been mistaken. 

Thus had it come about that I stood full of anxiety in the dark- 
ness and the woods. At first I thought of returning to the hotel 
where I had left the little steamboat. But the black night, the dense 
wood, and the dangers of the way stifled the idea in its inception. 
There was nothing left but to spend the night on the spot. The 
ground would afford a pretty soft lair, for grass and herbs grew 
luxuriantly on the rich humus, and low thickets stood around. For 
a moment I thought of wild animals that could sneak up to me under 
the cover of night, for in such a situation fancy works with high 
pressure. But of truculent animals there were none in the vicinity, 
and of attacks of venomous snakes I had never heard anything. I 
hoped that it would not rain. 

I was wellnigh ready to bear the inevitable, when I saw a faint 
light glimmering through the brush. It was a strange, weird light 
that grew more so as it approached. Then I could see between the 
trees two men advancing slowly and carefully. The first one who 
walked with a stoop held a candle in front of himself. 

Instinctively I left my place and approached the phantastic spec- 
tacle. It now dawned upon me that the two men must be summer 
guests, and I asked them for the club house. There they were going 
themselves, they replied. Now I saw that they were known to me. 
They had visited the hotel and stayed longer than they expected. 
By the candle's rays they could trace the path. I most readily joined 
them, and slowly we advanced, the first man holding the light toward 
the ground as if looking for some lost valuable. 

After a while we arrived at the club house. Around a fire built 
in an open place in front of it they all sat, frying potatoes in the 
ashes. I told of my adventure, and they were glad that I had es- 
caped a night's lodging in the woods. The glow of the embers and 
an occasional flame darting up enabled me to study the features of 
my next neighbor, a comely blonde girl, one of the "dangerous" 
l:ind — for me. I wondered whether it was the same case with her. 
She drew a little gold watch from her pocket, and the thought struck 
me that she used it as a talisman to banish an intruder. She could 
not have known how shy her neighbor was in such matters. 

An hour passed with talking, eating, and drinking, whereupon all 
retired to their cots in the roomy club house. 


It was bright daylight when I rose with the others. The women 
prepared breakfast — there evidently was a well-stocked larder — and 
we all sat at the long board. 

Such a week in the country is like a string of holidays to city 
folks. Everything helps to create a festive mood, even the home- 
made furniture, the cracked cooking stove, the unfinished interior of 
the house with the beams decorated with gaudy Japanese fans and 
pictures cut out of magazines. 

The day passed with rowing on the lake and a siesta in the grass. 
1 could not help throwing an occasional surreptitious look on my 
blonde neighbor of the night before. My interest calmed down a 
little, however, when at the table she parted her lips, stuck out her 
little tongue and let it play for a while around the rosy orb. Did I 
show anything, and was it meant to disillusion me, or was she still 
but a child? 

When the parting hour came, they rowed me to the hotel where the 
steamboat lay at the landing, whistling for the last time to call tardy 
passengers. It seemed to me that a tremor ran through the body of 
the blonde, when I held her hand. Or was it the other way? Then 
I ran across the meadow to the boat. For a long time I carried a lit- 
tle photograph of her pretty face between the covers of my watch, 
then I lost it, and the image in my memory faded. 

"The presence is a mighty goddess," Goethe said somewhere in his 
works. Her charm loses its power when she becomes something 
past. Then a new presence comes, and another, and so on, as long 
as the heart is young and the mind cannot decide to grip such a 
goddess at the tip of her garment. 



There are a few men whom Washington county can be especially 
proud of, who have come to a reputation that spread over the state, 
or the nation, or even the world, and whose marble busts should adorn 
the Hall of Fame, if the county ever choses to erect such an edifice. 
Some of these men have been bom within its limits, others have been 
born in another state, or in Europe, but have spent the most plastic 
part of their youth here, and the county, to a considerable extent, has 
a right to bask in the rays of their glory and fame which enveloped 
them in later years, when they had been given to the world at large. 

Dr. James A. Bach 

The birthplace of Dr. James A. Bach, the Milwaukee oculist and 
aurist of a reputation that extends over our entire commonwealth, 
is St. Augustine in the town of Trenton. He was born October 13, 
i860, the son of Mathias and Anna Bach, an old settler couple. After 
he had received an elementary education in the district school of his 
native town, he entered the State Normal school, and later continued 
his studies in the University of Ann Arbor, Michigan. He then 
taught in district schools for two years. His short career as a 
teacher was only a link to a vastly greater career. His ambition 
was to become a physician. For years he had fostered it but as his 
parents were not wealthy, he for a great part had to rely on his own 
resources, working out his own destiny, guided by the star of a noble 
profession, and driven by an ardent desire to become a master in it. 
He had to climb by relays. When he was 21 years old, he began his 
medical studies at Ann Arbor, and in 1884 he graduated from that 
college with distinction. He then settled in Milwaukee, hung out his 
shingle, and practiced medicine with marked success. His special 
attention was directed to diseases of the eye, ear, and throat, and 
because he liked these branches of pathology so very much, he after 
a while made up his mind to specialize in them. 


To gain a wider and deeper knowledge in these special fields, he 
in 1887 went to Europe to study in the clinics of the very best au- 
thorities of the age. At Vienna, known as the seat of famous medi- 
cal institutions, he studied under men like Profs. Manthner, Fuchs, 
Politzer, Gruber, Stoerk, Schroeder, Urbanitsch, and Stellweg. From 
there he went to Berlin, took a course in operations under the di- 
rection of Profs. Frankel and Hartmann, and also did practical 
work in the clinics of Drs. Hirschberg and Schweizer. Next he went 
to Paris, where he stayed for five months, increasing his knowledge 
by attending the clinics of the oculists Drs. De Wecker, Panas, Lan- 
dolt, and Galesowski. His special studies he completed in London, 
where he spent considerable time in the Moorfield Hospital for pa- 
tients afflicted with diseases of the eye and ear, and also in the Mc- 
Kenzie Hospital for patients with throat troubles. 

With his stock of new knowledge and experience gathered in the 
foremost clinics of the world, he journeyed back to America. In 
Milwaukee he set up his office, and soon gained a wide reputation as 
specialist in his branches. In his ways Dr. Bach displays the qual- 
ities of the erudite scholar devoted to his science, and the conscien- 
tious physician of the highest type. Many difificult operations have 
been intrusted to his skillful and sure hand. Although eminently 
successful, he does not think, like mediocre minds, to be at the end 
of his studies. He devotes considerable time to the furtherance of 
knowledge in his special fields of pathology, and he is the author of 
many papers on these subjects. He holds a professorship in the 
Wisconsin College of Physicians and Surgeons, and in the free clinic 
of that college has performed a vast number of operations on pa- 
tients too poor to pay for them. He is connected with several hos- 
pitals as specialist. On June 24, 1896, he was married to Miss Kath- 
arina E. Pick, a daughter of the late John Pick, a very prominent 
merchant of West Bend. Five children are the issue of his mar- 

Hans Balatka 

Hans Balatka was bom March 5, 1826, at Hofifnungsthal, near 
Olmiitz, in Moravia, Austria. His family, being musical through 
generations, instructed him on the piano and the violin and in singing. 
His father played a string quartette with his three sons. In his 
twelfth year young Balatka was sent to the grammar school at 
Olmiitz, where his fine alto voice and remarkable faculty of reading 
music at sight secured for him the position of alto soloist in the ca- 


thedral. About this time he began studying harmony and composi- 
tion with Ritter von Dietrich. In his sixteenth year he commenced 
taking lessons on the violoncello. He entered the University of 
OlmiJtz to study law, and was but eighteen years old when he was 
unanimously elected conductor of the Academical Musical Society, 
which position he held for two years, conducting each season a 
regular series of concerts with marked success. He then removed to 
Vienna to become tutor in the family of a wealthy Hungarian noble- 
man and to complete his studies in that university. Here he studied 
harmony with Sechter, composition with Proch, and voice-culture 
with the famous Gentiluomo. When in 1848 the revolutionary wave 
swept over Germany and Austria, Balatka did not escape its tremen- 
dously agitating influence, and when it fell flat he chose to leave his 
country and look for his adored ideal of liberty in America. We 
now come to the time of his sailing for New York, together with 
several companions, as related in the chapter on "The Latin Settle- 
ment." They left Hamburg April 24, 1849, ^^'^ arrived in New 
York, June 2 following. For his first experiences in this country 
the reader is referred to the chapter aforesaid. After his agricul- 
tural scheme in Washington county proved a failure, he settled in 
Milwaukee and took up the teaching of music. The large German 
population of that city contained elements of the highest culture and 
excellent musical ability. From the start he assumed a prominent 
place in musical life, and in 1851 organized the famous Musical So- 
ciety, a society which up to this day is one of the most prominent 
and flourishing musical organizations of the country. An excellent 
string quartette, the first in Milwaukee and the western states, was 
also organized by him. He produced works of the best composers 
of chamber music, symphonies, overtures, oratories, operas, 
and cantatas. In 1853 he produced "Czar and Carpenter," by 
Lortzing — the first operatic performance in the Northwest. During 
the next few years at least one opera was produced annually. In 
i860 he was intrusted with the performance of Mozart's "Requiem" 
in the cathedral of Chicago. This pleased the music-loving public 
of that city so well that they united their efforts to induce him to 
settle there, in which they were successful. In Chicago he reorgan- 
ized the Philharmonic Society and held the leadership until they 
dissolved in 1868. During the eight years he brought out musical 
masterpieces like the opera "Semiramide," the oratorio "The Mes- 
siah," "The Creation," and others. In 1862 he became leader of 
the Musical Union, and in 1867 director of the Germania Manner- 


chor. In 1868 he conducted the great orchestra of the Sangerfest 
at Chicago, and in 1869 commenced his symphony concerts in which 
he produced music entirely new to the Chicagoans. In 1869 he organ- 
ized the Chicago Oratory Society. After the great Chicago fire he 
went to Milwaukee and in 1871-72 again directed the Musical So- 
ciety of that city. He then returned to Chicago, where, with the 
exception of a short residence in St. Louis, Mo., in 1878, he resided 
until his death. In 1873 he organized the Liederkranz Society, and 
later the Mozart Club and the Chicago Music-Verein. The Sanger- 
fest at Chicago in 188 1 was one of the greatest musical events con- 
ducted by him. In 1879 he founded the Balatka Academy of Mu- 
sical Art. As a composer Balatka was not fertile, but all of his com- 
positions bear the stamp of high artistic feeling, and of mastery of 
technical detail. They include a grand aria for soprano with or- 
chestra accompaniment; a quartetto for the piano, dedicated to his 
son; a sonata to his daughter, and a number of songs. He also com- 
pleted Chopin's "Funeral March," by adding a suitable climax, in- 
stead of the abrupt ending in the usual scores, and arranged many 
pieces for orchestra and choirs. He had a remarkable memory for 
music and operatic parts, and on one occasion, in Milwaukee, when 
the entire score of an opera was stolen, he rewrote it verbatim as 
he recollected it. He wrote on musical matters for several publica- 
tions, and is the author of "A Condensed History of Music," and 
"A History of Orchestra Music in Chicago." On March 5, 1855, 
he was married to Hedwig Constance, daughter of Dr. Christian 
Gottlob Fessel, of Milwaukee, Wis. (This date does not correspond 
with the time given in the chapter on the "Latin Settlement," and, 
moreover, his biographies, as far as the editor has seen them, do not 
tell anything of his experience as a settler. ) They had four sons and 
two daughters, all of whom became thorough musicians. Hans Ba- 
latka died in Chicago, 111., April 17, 1899. 

Samuel S. Barney 

"1 count him a great man who inhabits a higher sphere of thought, 
into which other men rise with labor and difficulty; he has but to 
open his eyes to see things in a true light, and in large relations; 
whilst they must make painful corrections, and keep a vigilant eye 
on many sources of error. His service to us is of like sort. It costs 
a beautiful person no exertion to paint her image on our eyes; yet 
how splendid is that benefit ! It costs no more for a wise soul to con- 


vey his quality to other men. And every one can do his best thing 
easiest — 'Peu de moyens, beaucoup d'eifect.' He is great who is 
what he is from nature, and who never reminds us of others." This 
is Emerson's conception of a great man, and when I compare it with 
the subject of this sketch, I cannot help to find striking similarities. 

Samuel S. Barney was bom in the town of Hartford, two miles 
west of the southern end of Cedar lake, on the 31st of January, 1846, 
a son of John and Adeline A. (Knox) Barney. His parents were 
New Englanders who came to Wisconsin in 1842, locating in Prairie- 
ville, now Waukesha. In October, 1845, they removed to the town 
of Hartford. He was the first white child born in that town. In 
his early youth the boy saw more Indians than white men, and more 
deer than sheep. He knew the forest primeval, in which one could 
hardly see a hundred feet in any direction, teeming with big and 
small game ; he was yet a contemporary of the passenger pigeon, now 
most likely extinct; and he saw Cedar lake in its original beauty, its 
crystal waters yet free from encroaching plants, its shores hemmed 
in by an edge of cedars and over-shadowed by magnificent trees. 
He saw Solomon Juneau stopping at his father's house, who had come 
to persuade the Indians to return to their reservation in Kansas, 
where they were to live after they had sold their land to the Govern- 
ment in 1838, but whence many of them returned to their cherished 
old hunting grounds. And he witnessed the great change in the 
population, when the Yankees sold their land to the incoming Ger- 
mans who willingly paid four times the original price of fifty dol- 
lars for forty acres, and once more moved westward. 

The boy received his elementary education in the public schools of 
his native town, and later in Lombard University at Galesburg, 111. 
After completing his studies in 1867, he took up pedagogy as his oc- 
cupation and taught at Hartford until 1872. In his last year as a 
teacher he began the study of law with the late Attorney General 
Leander F. Frisby at West Bend, pursuing his studies during vaca- 
tion and in leisure hours. He was admitted to the bar in 1872, and 
has ever since resided in West Bend. In 1874 he was admitted to 
pleadings in the Supreme Court, and from that time dates his part- 
nership in the law firm of Frisby, Weil & Barney, which lasted until 
October, 1879, when he withdrew and formed a partnership with 
Y. N. Frisby, under the firm name of Frisby & Barney. In the fall 
of 1880 this partnership was dissolved by mutual consent, and De- 
cember I, 1881, he entered a partnership with G. A. Kuechenmeister 
under the firm name of Barney & Kuechenmeister. In 1872 and 1873 


he edited the Washington County Republican, now the Hartford 
Press, at West Bend. He was superintendent of schools of Wash- 
ington county for four years, beginning January i, 1876. He en- 
tered upon his political career in 1884, when he was an unsuccessful 
Republican candidate for congress against General Bragg, Demo- 
crat, in the old Second district. Ten years intervened before he 
again entered the political arena. In 1894 he was elected congress- 
man for the old Fifth district, receiving 18,681 votes against Henry 
Blank, Democrat, who received 13,057, and Fred C. Runge, Popu- 
list, who received 3,794. In 1896 he was elected to the Fifty-fifth 
congress, receiving 26,613 votes, against 16,492 for George Wi- 
nans. Democrat, and 557 for Henry Mensing, Socialist labor candi- 
date. He was re-elected to congress in 1898, receiving 17,056 votes 
against 13,233 for Charles E. Armin, Democrat; 997 for William 
B. Rubin, People's Party; 1,088 for George Eckelman, Social Demo- 
crat ; 342 for Albert F. Hintz, Social Labor party ; and 228 for Wil- 
liam Nethercut, Prohibitionist. He was elected into the House of 
Representatives for the fourth time in 1900, receiving 23,089 votes, 
against 18,066 votes cast for Charles H. Weisse, Democrat. When 
in 1893 the Legislature redistricted the state and produced what was 
considered a gerrymander by the constituents of Mr. Barney, he 
declined to be a nominee again. 

In congress Mr. Barney proved himself worthy of the confidence 
of the people. Through his ability and integrity he rose in the course 
of the years to a position not often reached by congressmen. He 
guarded the interests of his constituents in a straightforward man- 
ner, but never losing sight of the larger national field. As chairman 
of important committees he filled positions of honor and trust most 

As a lawyer he ranked among the best of the state. His clear in- 
sight into the essential points involved in a legal controversy, his 
ability to clearly and concisely state his arguments to court and jury, 
and above all, his obvious fairness, at all times, toward his opponents 
have earned for him the esteem of all who in the courts came in con- 
tact with him. 

Mr. Barney is perhaps the ablest speaker this county has ever pro- 
duced. It was in the '70s when this natural gift of his first attracted 
attention in state conventions. Without recourse to oratory, he has 
a happy way to express his thoughts, that is both refined and palatable 
to the popular mind. He is an amiable and interesting talker, broad- 
minded and big-hearted. Whenever he spoke — the occasions were 


manifold — he filled the halls, regardless of the political or religious 
creed of his listeners. 

In December, 1905, he was appointed judge of the United States 
Court of Claims in Washington, D. C, by President Theodore Roose- 
velt, in recognition of his eminent services and signal ability. He 
holds that high position ever since. Soon after his appointment he 
dissolved his partnership with Mr. Kuechenmeister, his son succeed- 
ing him in that law firm. 

Judge Barney was married May 18, 1876, at West Bend, to Miss 
Ellen S. McHenry. Four children, John M., Sarah C. (Mrs. Carl 
Rix), Sybil, and Marion, were bom to them, 

Albert J. Earling 

This is the story of a Richfield boy who rose from humble sur- 
roundings to the presidency of one of the greatest railway systems 
of the world. Albert J. Earling was bom in Richfield, January 19, 
1849. His education he received in the common schools of his native 
town, which could furnish him with but a mere foundation of knowl- 
edge. His real school was the world, and he himself was his severest 
school master. He was ambitious and hard working, and fomied a 
predilection for railroading. At the age of eighteen years he entered 
the employ of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway (at that 
time the Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry.) as telegraph operator. After a 
service of nine years as operator and train dispatcher, he was ap- 
pointed assistant division superintendent. In 1882 he was promoted 
to the office of division superintendent, later to that of assistant gen- 
eral superintendent, and in 1888 was made general superintendent. 
In 1890 he became general manager and in 1895, second vice-president. 
In September, 1899, he was elected president. 

The most noteworthy feat Mr. Earling was instrumental in accom- 
plishing as executive officer of the railway was its extension to the 
Pacific coast. It had been his favorite idea for some time, as he 
believed it to be for the best of the road. From the first he foresaw 
that traffic and commercial conditions would inevitably demand for his 
line an independent western outlet. He had seen it grow from a 
"jerkwater" bantling of 105 miles of track in 1863 to a very respect- 
able looking railway system, but he also saw that there still was 
plenty of room for growth, and that it would have to reach the 
great estuary of the Pacific coast, Puget Sound, to insure the greatest 


President Earling was most active in the construction of this ex- 
tension. Years of serious study, and the most exhaustive investiga- 
tion of the country west and northwest preceded the final selection of 
the route. In these preparations no effort or time was spared, so that 
when the final word was spoken for the building of the railroad, no 
false moves were made and no time lost discussing alternatives. Fol- 
lowing such painstaking detail, the actual building of the line stands 
without an equal for rapid and substantial work in the world's history 
of railroad construction; and thus far it is the greatest achievement 
in the records of such construction. Mr. Erling did much personal 
supervising of the work. He made frequent trips over the new line, 
and many visits to the western terminals. By this means, he was 
at all times fully informed of the progress, and while he was on the 
ground he was able to decide important matters of action and policy 
which obviated the necessity of consuming valuable time in preparing 
elaborate reports and their transmission to him for decision. Those 
engaged in the active work have unanimously pronounced this one 
of the greatest factors in the unusually rapid progress made. 

The great work is briefly sketched in the following synopsis : The 
definite location of the line having been completed westward from 
the Missouri river and eastward from the Puget Sound tenninals, 
in the late winter of 1906, the first spade struck ground for its con- 
struction at Glenham, S. D., in April of that year. At about the 
same time work was started near Seattle, and from that time two 
great armies of workmen marched steadily from east and from west 
until they met in successful accomplishment on May 19, 1909, in the 
valley of Hellgate river, Montana. 

In their progress they had conquered in this incredibly short space 
of time the high crest of the Rocky Mountains, the Bitter Root Range, 
and the Cascades; they bridged the Missouri with the heaviest struc- 
ture that had ever been thrown across the "Big Muddy," and the 
Columbia with one equally a monument to bridge engineering, and 
nearly one mile in length ; they built bridges in three places across 
the Yellowstone river in Montana, and spanned many smaller streams 
with substantial steel. In the Musselshell valley, Montana, the course 
of that wandering stream was turned away in many places from the 
line of the railroad and made to flow in new channels in order to 
give the rails right of way in the old river bed. In the mountains 
they crossed countless creeks and deep ravines on steel viaducts, many 
of them close to 200 feet in height, their foundations of masonry 
resting on the bed rock. 


They pierced the mountains with scores of tunnels which they hned 
with concrete wherever the bore did not drive through soHd rock, 
and they completed a substantial, well ballasted roadbed which had 
all to be tested by time and the elements before the line was considered 
ready to throw open to fast passenger traffic. 

Low grades and easy curvatures prevail the entire distance. The 
continental divide is passed at an altitude of 6,322 feet, where a 
tunnel one-half mile in length reduces the climb several hundred feet. 
The elevation at the pass of the Bitter Root Range is 4,125 feet, with 
a tunnel two miles long, 1,000 feet below the summit of the mountain. 

The Cascades are crossed without a tunnel at 3,010 feet above sea 
level, and the low grades are maintained throughout. This fact 
demonstrates the thoroughness of the surveys, as these favorable 
mountain passes were found available at the expense of only slightly 
added mileage, and the line is the shortest by many miles between 
Lake Michigan and Puget Sound. 

President Earling this year (1912) completes his forty-sixth year 
of continuous service with The Milwaukee. He has always been a 
strenuous worker, a close student, and a keen judge of men. He is 
exceptionally popular with the rank and file, and it is said of him that 
the door of his office swings in as readily to the humblest of the com- 
pany's employes whom business may bring to him as it does to those 
holding some office. After he had been promoted to the administra- 
tive offices of the road, he removed to Milwaukee and lived there until 
the offices were removed to Chicago, where he since resides. His 
daughter, Mrs. Lawrence Fitch, lives in Milwaukee. 

The many and varied positions which Mr. Earling has held, coupled 
with his keen insight into the details of railroading, have made him 
thoroughly conversant with the duties of the lowest as well as the 
highest of the employes of The Milwaukee. But his success has 
not been confined to railroad work alone, as he is high in the execu- 
tive circles of several large financial institutions, notably the Con- 
tinental Commercial National Bank and the Central Trust Company 
of Chicago, being a director in each. While his active life has been 
spent in Chicago for the last twenty-two years, he is still very loyal 
to his native state, and was the first president of the Wisconsin 
Society of Chicago and a member whom they delight to honor. 

Mr. Earling has four brothers who all have reached prominent 
stations in life. They are: Herman B. Earling, general superin- 
tendent of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Chicago; 
Jacob Earling, mine owner in Escanaba, Mich. ; Emil J. Earling, 


president of the Central Coal Company, Milwaukee; and Peter R. 
Earling, retired, in Chicago. One trait of the Earlings, which shows 
their character to the best advantage, is their yearly visit to the 
graves of their parents at Rugby, in the town of Richfield, on Me- 
morial Day. On that day they arrive with their wives from different 
parts of the country to decorate with fragrant wreaths the last resting 
places of those who gave them to life. The touching custom has 
been followed for years by these exemplary five brothers. 

Leandcr F. Frisby 

It inspires young men of limited means and opportunities with hope 
and courage to read the life-stories of men who at the outset of their 
existence have been placed in very much the same conditions as the 
readers, and nevertheless have achieved remarkable things. Our dem- 
ocratic country is rich in such instances, but every time they occur, they 
arouse new interest. The desire to know how others have done it is 
always alive, especially in those whom fortune, in their opinion, has 
jilted. The career of Leander F. Frisby began with daily chores on 
the farm. It led him through the wagon maker's shop, school teach- 
ing, the law office, political distinction until he was elected attorney 
general of Wisconsin. He was the most distinguished man of the 
county in his days, a noted jurist, and a very prominent politician 
of the state. His life was a fine illustration of Emerson's saying 
that "out of a pine log a Western man can whittle a judgeship, a seat 
in Congress, and a foreign mission." 

Leander F. Frisby was bom at Mesopotamia, Trumbull Co., Ohio, 
June 19, 1825, the son of Lucius Frisby who, in 1817, moved to Ohio 
from Vermont. His grandfathers on both the paternal and maternal 
sides served as officers in the revolutionary war. Young Frisby 
worked on his father's farm during the summer, laying the founda- 
tion of his education in the winter school. When 18 years old, he left 
home to learn the wagon-maker's trade, pursuing his studies at odd 
times. After he had become a good wheelright, his thirst for more 
knowledge drove him to enter the Farmington Academy, in his native 
county. By working at his trade Saturdays and in vacations, he was 
enabled to save enough money to pay his way until he had completed 
the academical course. In September, 1846, he followed the tide of 
the pioneers to the territory of Wisconsin. In Fond du Lac he fell 
a victim of the ague, so common in parts of Wisconsin at that early 
day. After recovering, he worked in a cooper-shop, to pay the debts 


into which his sickness had brought him. In March, 1847, he started 
afoot for Beaver Dam upon learning that there was an opening in his 
trade. His funds — fifty cents in all — were spent for supper and 
lodging at a country hotel. The next morning, without breakfast, he 
continued his journey, a distance of ten miles. In Beaver Dam he 
worked until July, thence went to Janesville and worked until October, 
and then accepted a position as school teacher in Spring Prairie, 
Walworth Co., holding it till the fall of 1848. In September of that 
year he opened an academical school in Burlington, Racine Co., which 
he conducted until 1850. Meanwhile he had turned to the study of 
law, and during the vacation of his school became a disciple of 
Blackstone in the office of Blair & Lord at Port Washington. In 1850 
he was admitted to the bar and in October of that year removed to 
West Bend, and in connection with his practice, which had not yet 
assumed large proportions, also taught the village school. In politics, 
Mr. Frisby was an outspoken anti-slavery man, and in his first appear- 
ance as a candidate he was defeated in 1852, having been nominated 
for clerk of the court. On the division of the county, he was elected 
the first district attorney of the new county of Washington, which 
office he held for two years. In 1853 he was elected superintendent 
of schools for the town of West Bend, and in the spring of 1854 he 
formed a law partnership with Jacob Mann, which lasted until the 
spring of 1859, when Mr. Mann was elected circuit judge. In the 
first Republican State Convention which assembled in Madison July 
13, 1854, Mr. Frisby was chosen one of the secretaries. In 1856 
he was appointed county judge of Washington county to fill a vacancy, 
which position he held one year, and in i860 was a delegate to the 
Republican National Convention in Chicago, that nominated Abraham 
Lincoln for President. In the fall of the same year he was elected to 
the Legislature in a district that had heretofore gone Democratic, 
by a large majority, and was made chairman of the judiciary commit- 
tee at the special sessions called in 1861 to consider war measures. In 
i860 he formed a law partnership with Mr. Paul A. Weil, which con- 
tinued twenty-one years. In 1868 he was the Republican candidate for 
Congress in the fourth congressional district, and was the only Repub- 
lican candidate in the state who ran ahead of Grant on the ticket. 
In 1872 he was delegate to the Republican National Convention that 
renominated U. S. Grant for President. He was the Republican 
candidate for attorney general in 1873, and, though defeated, like the 
other nominees of the party, he had the satisfaction of leading the 
ticket throughout the state, while in his own county he received a 


majority of 627, when the balance of the Democratic ticket, except 
the attorney general, received a majority of 1,871. Such a home en- 
dorsement at once established Mr. Frisby's popularity, and placed 
him among the leading men of his party in the state. About 1874 
Mr. S. S. Barney was admitted as a partner in the law firm of Frisby 
& Weil, and the finn name was changed to Frisby, Weil & Barney; 
four years later Mr. Barney retired and the former firm name was re- 
sumed. From 1876 to 1879 Mr. Frisby was president of the Wash- 
ington County Agricultural Society, and by judicious management 
brought the affairs of the society into a healthy condition. In 1878 
he was the Republican candidate for member of Congress in the 
Fourth District, and was defeated by only 135 majority in a district 
that had two years before given a Democratic majority of a few 
votes less than 6,000. This result attracted attention throughout the 
country. At the National Republican Convention of 1880, he was 
the first to suggest the name of James A. Garfield as a candidate to the 
Wisconsin delegates. Judge Frisby was, in 1881, elected attorney 
general for the state of Wisconsin, he was re-elected twice, holding the 
office till 1887. The duties of this high office he discharged with 
marked ability, and withal faithful to the trust placed in his hands by 
the people. He was married in 1854 to Miss Frances E. Booker of 
Burlington, Wis. Five children were born to them: Alice F., Almah 
J., Marion C, L. Frank, and Ralph Eugene. Judge Frisby died 
April 19, 1889. 

Williaiii H. Froehlich 

Wisconsin having always been an essentially Republican common- 
wealth and Washington county having always been overwhelmingly 
Democratic, one would rather not expect to find any of her sons in 
some administrative office of the capital of the Badger State. This, 
however, happened twice, the first time when Leander F. Frisby was 
elected attorney general, and again when William H. Froehlich 
landed in the chair of the secretary of state and held it down for 
four years. Everybody in the county, be he a Republican or Demo- 
crat, prides himself of these facts. Two at least succeeded in climbing 
high political pinnacles. 

William H. Froehlich was bom in the village of Jackson, June 22, 
1857. His parents, J. B. and Amalia Froehlich, came from Germany 
and were early settlers of the county. With pride he points out up to 
this day the humble home in which he was bom, and around which 


he spent the happy days of boyhood. He was educated in the pubHc 
school of his town and later visited the very well equipped Lutheran 
parochial school at Kirchhayn, a nearby Lutheran settlement, the 
oldest in the county, and one of the oldest German Lutheran settle- 
ments in the state. His religious life was ever since connected with 
that congregation. His mind trending toward the mercantile career, 
he later took up a business course in the Spencerian Business College 
at Milwaukee. From 1874 to 1877 he was clerking in Milwaukee, 
and from 1878 to 1880 he filled the position of assistant bookkeeper 
in the dry goods house of T. A. Chapman & Co., in the same city. In 
June, 1880, he returned to Jackson and established himself in the 
general merchandise business. In 1902 he organized the Jackson 
Butter and Cheese Company who opened the first separator creamery 
in Washington county. He was made secretary of the company, and 
the venture proved successful. 

Mr. Froehlich's career in public life began when in 1887 he was 
elected justice of the peace. In 1891 he was appointed a member of the 
school board, holding the office till 1907. He was postmaster from 
1 88 1 to 1893. In the latter year he was elected town clerk, and was 
re-elected without opposition until he was compelled to relinquish the 
office in order to be ready for the duties of secretary of state. The 
Republicans of Washington county, in 1892, nominated him for the 
Assembly, but he was defeated by the Democratic candidate. Two 
years later he was again nominated for the Assembly, and this time he 
was successful, receiving 2,310 votes against 2,200 for Herman Cot- 
ton, the candidate of the Democrats. Judge S. S. Barney, running for 
Congress, and William H. Froehlich, running for the Assembly, were 
the only Republicans who received a majority vote at the election 
of 1894 in the county. It was the first time that a Republican had 
been elected to the Assembly from Washington county. Mr. Froehlich 
was re-elected for the Assembly in 1896, receiving 2,845 "^'otes, against 
2,463 for George W. Jones, the Democratic candidate. As Assembly- 
man he held the chairmanship of the Committee on Dairy and Food, 
and here is where he gained a reputation by his advocacy of the Pure 
Food Bill to restrict the sale of impure and adulterated food and 
drugs. He was an early champion of a great movement that is still 
sweeping over the country, and which will not stop until the last food 
or drug faker is driven out of his contemptible business. To the dairy 
industry of Wisconsin Mr. Froehlich with his bill has rendered an in- 
valuable service, as it was freed from its most destructive competitor, 
adulterated or filled cheese. He introduced the bill in the Assmbly, 


championed it all. the way through, and its enactment into a law was 
chiefly due to his untiring efforts in behalf of it. 

The Republican State Convention of 1898 placed Mr. Froehlich's 
name on its ticket as a candidate for secretary of state. He was 
elected by a gratifying majority, receiving 180,548 votes, against 125,- 
636 votes for' Peter Olson Stromme, tlie Democratic candidate ; 7,909 
votes for L. Arven, the candidate of the People's party; 7,664 votes 
for Charles F. Cronk, prohibitionist; 2,540 votes for Thomas C. P. 
Meyers, Social Democrat; and 1,550 votes for Eugene B. Bartell, 
Socialist Labor candidate. He was re-elected by a larger plurality. 
His most notable actions as secretary of state were his refusal to 
make a tax levy when the Legislature appropriated $700,00 more than 
it had funds to meet, and his refusal to pay out the funds on the 
Portage Levee Bill, amounting to $25,000. He stood by what he 
thought to be the best interests of the taxpayers, unmoved by threats 
of political decapitation and civil suits. 

After completing his second term as secretary of state, he retired 
from public life and embarked again in the mercantile business. He 
organized The Wm. H. Froehlich Co. of Jackson, of which firm he 
is president. They are conducting a general merchandise and grain 
business, and are among the leaders in their lines in the county. He 
also, in 1907, organized the Jackson State Bank, of which institution 
he is one of the principal stockholders and cashier. In 1905 he was 
again appointed postmaster of Jackson, and in 1907 he was elected 
president of the Wisconsin branch of the National League of Post- 
masters of the 3d and 4th Class Offices to which office he has been 
re-elected ever since. He has been very active in improving the con- 
ditions in his home town, and was the leader in the movement to 
incorporate the village of Jackson. The incorporation, after being 
granted by the court, was carried almost unanimously by the vote of 
the electors. 

Mr. Froehlich is the incarnation of the ideal merchant as Shakes- 
peare has drawn him. His business principles, his integrity, his 
assiduity, his conscientiousness he carried with him and applied them 
to every office he held. But they did not always protect him against 
trials, and even shortcomings. No human life is without them. He 
is no man of ostentations, nor vainglory. He has a quiet way to make 
known and assert the principles which he has found to be the right 

There is another thing of moment in Mr. Froehlich's life and suc- 
cess. He is a fine type of German-American citizenship. Although 


bom in this country, he found a chance to get imbued with German 
culture and learning which invariably lead to the respect and even 
love of them. This accounts for his help proffered repeatedly to the 
cause of preserving the German language in this country. He was 
the speaker at a number of German Day celebrations in different places. 
As a memento of one of these speeches he shows a iine cane 
with a golden knob. The German-American citizens of Marinette, 
Wis., invited him to hold the speech at their German Day celebration. 
He consented, but declined to take any pay for it, which had been 
offered to him, as he never cared to speak for remuneration. They 
therefore presented him with a walking cane which bears an inscrip- 
tion in commemoration of the day. 

Mr. Froehlich was married September 21, 1879, to Clara Frank, 
daughter of Hon. J. G. Frank, a former member of the Wisconsin 
Legislature. They have eight children — six boys and two girls — John 
A., aged 30 years; Alfred B., aged 28 years; Paul E., aged 26 years; 
Amalia, aged 2^ years; William L., aged 21 years; Robert C, aged 
19 years; Minnie, aged 16 years; and George, aged 11 years. 

Dr. Nicholas Senn 

Among the famous sons of the county Dr. Nicholas Senn should be 
mentioned. Although his home lay across the line, it may well be 
said that the center of his activities in his younger years lay in this 
county. He was largely interested in property in the county, and his 
brother Ulrich was a very respected farmer of the town of Wayne. 

In 1852 the Senns settled on a farm in the town of Ashford, Fond 
du Lac county, near the line of the town of Wayne. They came 
from Buchs, Canton St. Gall, Switzerland. One of the three children 
of the family was Nicholas. His parents were poor, like most of the 
settlers, and nothing in his surroundings pointed to the brilliant career 
which awaited him. But within himself the boy very soon felt the 
glow of the divine spark, and he knew that his lot was not that of the 
farmer. Biding his time, he visited the rural school of the neighbor- 
hood and helped his parents on the farm. Often, however, when 
he was supposed to be working in the fields, he was discovered in some 
shady nook, reading a book which he had borrowed somewhere. The 
schools of those days were in a rather primitive condition, but the 
boy, indefatigable and burning for knowledge, succeeded in acquir- 
ing an excellent knowledge of the English, German and Latin lan- 
guages. He also made considerable progress in the Greek tongue. 


and in his later life learned to read French without the aid of a 
teacher, and made such inroads into Spanish and Italian that he was 
also able to read medical works in these languages without much 
trouble. After he had gone through the little country school, he 
entered the grammar school at Fond du Lac. He was a bright boy, 
and meanwhile his parents had been convinced that he never would do 
for a tiller of the soil, whom the books lured and held even at such 
pressing occasions as haying or hoeing times. He was eighteen years 
old when he graduated from high school and became a teacher. Two 
years later he made the first decisive step toward his future career. 
His preference had always been for the medical profession, and it 
finally had grown into an irrepressible desire. His parents being poor 
and unable to pay for his studies, he had to earn money and become an 
apprentice in a Fond du Lac drug store. It was a stepping stone to 
his fame. He did not stay there long, for he soon had mastered 
pharmaceutics in his own way. He had become acquainted with a 
physician, and left the drug store to study medicine in his ofifice. In 
1866 he entered the Chicago Medical College and graduated from 
that institution in the spring of 1868, becoming a physician in the 
Cook County Hospital. A year and a half later he established his 
own practice in Ashford, Wis., and was married to Miss Aurelia Mill- 
houser, a descendant of a German family who had settled in Pennsyl- 
vania. Although he was successful as a physician, the goal of his 
ambition had by this time become surgery. He still had many obstacles 
to overcome, which the prejudice of his older colleagues put in his 
way. But with him, too, nothing was more successful than success; 
it cleared the road for him. In 1874 he took a position as surgeon 
in the Passavant Hospital at Milwaukee, which had been offered to 
him, and moved to that city. His rise now became more rapid. In 
1878 he went abroad to continue his studies of surgery, and entered 
the university of Munich, Bavaria, from which he graduated with the 
predicate "magna cum laude." He returned to Milwaukee, but in 
1892 moved to Chicago where in 1885 he had been appointed pro- 
fessor of surgery in the College of Physicians and Surgeons. In 1887 
he became professor of the principles of surgery and surgical path- 
ology in the Rush Medical College of Chicago, and of practical and 
clinical surgery in 1890; also professor of surgery in the Chicago 
Polyclinic. He was a member of many medical societies, and was 
appointed surgeon-general of Wisconsin by Gov. Peck in 1890, and 
later to the same position in Illinois by Gov. Altgeld. 

His bodily vigor and endurance, and his almost phenomenal mem- 


ory were gifts of Nature, which helped him to gain a position in 
surgery never before reached by anybody else in this country. It 
was a trait of his genius to study the nature of such diseases that 
would baffle most physicians. In this special field he was untiring and 
undaunted. In spite of his extensive practice, he found the time to 
render invaluable services to pathology by his microscopical investi- 
gations. Without swerving he followed up his aims until he had 
reached them, despising partial knowledge. Great and valuable are his 
contributions to the literature of surgery, having written some twenty 
extensive works on the subject. Among his best known publications 
are: "The Surgical Bacteriology," which has been translated into 
French, Italian and Polish; "Intestinal Surgery," translated into Ger- 
man; "Experimental Surgery," treating of his own experience; 
"Principles of Surgery," a text-book for students and practitioners; 
"Tuberculosis of Bones and Joints;" and a "Syllabus of Surgery." 
His clinic was considered the best in the country. His greatest achieve- 
ments which amounted to a revolution, were gained in intestinal sur- 
gery, in which for many years he was truly a pathfinder. 

Dr. Senn, like a true scholar, was devoted to his science. It was 
his work, his joy, his everything. He took little interest in things 
outside of it. He believed in simple life. He was careless about 
his person. Often he would send a student of about his size to buy 
a coat or hat for him — anything would do as long as it was plain and 
unobstrusive. In all his life he visited the theater twice, and every- 
time he left it after the first act. The first time it was an English play, 
and the second time a German play which had been recommended to 
him. He never played cards in his life. Science had entranced 
him to the exclusion of almost everything else. His only recreations 
were hunting and fishing, and his love for the study of Nature was 
the mainspring that moved him to pursue those kinds of sport. While 
ascending a high mountain on a visit to South America, heart trouble 
befell him, and after lingering for a while, he died January 2, 1908, 
at the age of 63 years. 



One of the first things the old settlers did after they had gained 
a foothold on their new land was to form a congregation among those 
of like creed. They were often very slim affairs, those first religious 
meetings, but there were ample prospects for their growth. The 
craving for transcendental consolation was naturally strong in people 
who had to brave so many hardships and privations. The old log 
churches have since disappeared, and in their place numerous steeples 
point toward heaven. Many have developed into really fine edifices. 
Of all the denominations which have adherents in the county the 
Catholics are numerically the strongest, next come the Lutherans and 
the Evangelicals. In the following, the histories of the different 
congregations are given, either condensed, or more detailed if the 
material seemed available to the purpose of this work. 


Addison, Town. — 5". 5". Peter and Paid's Congregation. — The Cath- 
olic settlers of the town of Addison, in the early '40's of the last cen- 
tury, were occasionally visited by missionaries who held service in 
private homes. One of those missionaries was Rev. Michael Heiss, 
who later succeeded to the archbishopric of Milwaukee. In 1848, 
Rev. Schraudenbach organized the congregation, and in the same 
year the first church was built. The first resident priest was Rev. 
Michael Heiss, a nephew of the archbishop. In 1865, under the 
administration of Rev. Mich. Wenker, a new church was built, and 
also a parsonage. The parochial school was established in 1845, three 
years before the congregation was organized. The school is taught by 
Sisters of St. Francis. Two societies exist, one for women and one 
for men. The present priest is Rev. Leo. Gabriels. 

Allentown. — St. Anthony's Congregation. — The first church of this 
congregation was built in 1855. Originally it was a mission of St. 



Lawrence's congregation, later, it was affiliated to S. S. Peter and 
Paul's. In 1873 a new stone church was built. The congregation 
also supports a parish school under the direction of the Sisters of St. 
Francis. The present priest is Rev. A. J. Lauer. St. Mathias's Con- 
gregation in the town of West Bend is a mission of St. Anthony's. 
It was organized in 1848 by Rev. Schraudenbach, and incorporated 
in 1883. The parochial school, established in 1889, is taught by 
Sisters of St. Agnes. 

Barton. — Immaculate Conception Congregation. — The organization 
of this congregation was effected September 12, 1857. For some 
time before this, and for a considerable time after, traveling mission- 
aries, and also resident priests from the neighborhood, administered 
to the congregation. The first priest who said mass in the original 
church was Rev. Kaspar Rehrl. This building has since been razed. 
During the ministry of Rev. Michael Ruckengruber, which lasted for 
almost 19 years, a parochial school with dwelling rooms for the 
teachers who are Sisters of Notre Dame was built, costing $8,400, 
and also a parsonage at an expense of $3,500. The present fine brick- 
church, costing $35,000, was erected during the ministry of Re\». 
August Rossbach. It was consecrated December 5, 1900, by Arch- 
bishop Katzer of Milwaukee. The congregation has two societies. 
The Ladies' Society was founded soon after the organization of the 
congregation and St. Joseph's Society was founded November 18, 
1867. The present priest is Rev. F. Ruhmann. 

Gcrmantown, Tonm. — St. Boniface's Congregation. — The town 
was sparsely settled when in 1845 this congregation was organized. 
The members were poor and could not afford to erect an exjjensive 
church. It was built of logs and divided into two parts, of which one 
part was used as a parsonage. The designer was Rev. Michael Heiss, 
later archbishop of Milwaukee. For some time missionaries read mass 
in this humble place of worship. The first resident priest was Rev. 
Joseph Salzmann who came in 1847. He was instrumental in the erec- 
tion of a frame church which it took almost two years to complete. 
Under the administration of Rev. Foeckler the erection of the present 
stone church of classical design was begun. The building, 100x45 
feet in dimensions, was completed under his successor. Rev. J. Cam- 
ber. He also had a parsonage built. Rev. Karl Grobschmit had the 
interior walls adorned with fresco paintings. The parochial school 
was erected in 1889, during the ministry of Rev. H. Blum. The 
teachers are Sisters of St. Francis from Milwaukee. The congre- 
gation has three societies, the Men's Society, the Ladies' Society, and 


the Society of the Sacred Heart. The present priest is Rev. Jos. 
Wurm. Connected as a mission is St. Mary's Congregation founded 
in the latter part of the '50's. The present church, costing $2,500, 
was built in 1895. 

Hartford. — St. Kilian's Congregation. — This congregation was or- 
ganized in 1863 by Rev. Deisenreiter who at the time was stationed at 
St. Lawrence. In 1867 it numbered 56 German and 40 Irish fam- 
ilies, but it has since been increased by numerous German families. 
The present imposing stone church was erected in 1876 under the 
direction of Rev. Michael Wenker who was stationed here from May, 
1872 to September, 1883. He also otherwise improved the church 
property. His successor, Rev. Nic. M. Zimmer, had a parsonage built 
in 1884, and a parish schoolhouse in 1891. The school was started 
in 1864. Under the ministry of Rev. J. A. Bertram, who succeeded in 
1893 the church received a splendid high altar and also a fine organ 
worth $1,200. The school is taught by Sisters of St. Francis. Five 
societies exist within the congregation. They are the St. Kilian's 
Benevolent Society, a branch of the Catholic Protective Association, 
Branch No. 61 of the Catholic Knights of Wisconsin, St. Elizabeth's 
Society, and St. Rose's Society for young ladies. The congregation 
is the largest in the county. The present priest of St. Kilian's is 
Rev. Jos. C. Hartmann. 

Holy Hill. — St. Mary's Help Congregation. — On the summit of 
Holy Hill, near the spot where the rude chapel of the hermit Franqois 
once stood, and on the site of a former small chapel, a neat brick 
church was completed in 1881. Its dimensions are 42x90 feet, and the 
spire is 80 feet high. On the site of the hermit's cave a parsonage 
has been built. Until the advent of the Carmelite monks in 1906 the 
congregation was in charge of priests from the neighborhood. The 
monks since have enlarged and improved the church property. The 
administering priest is Rev. Kilian Gutmann, O. C. D. St. Patrick's 
Mission in the town of Erin is attended to by the priest of Holy 
Hill. It numbers some 70 Irish families. 

Jackson, Town. — Immaculate Conception Congregation. — This 
parish is a mission in charge of the priest of St. Francis's church 
at Cedarburg, who at present is Rev. Geo. Loughney. There is no 
account of the organization in the records. Among the first members 
were the Riordans, Fagans, and Coughlins. The present church was 
built in i860. 

Keivaskum. — Holy Trinity's Congregation. — Prior to 1861, the 
Catholics of Kewaskum had to go to neighboring churches to fulfill 


their religious duties. In that year they built a medium sized brick 
church on two lots presented to the congregation by Mathias Alten- 
hofen. Until 1869 they were affiliated to the Barton congregation as 
a mission. The first resident priest was Rev. J. Mueller. He also 
said mass in St. Michael's mission in the town of Kewaskum. Rev. 
Grome who came in 1878 and held the ministry for 17 years had an 
addition built to the old church ; he also had a school building and a 
parsonage erected which cost $3,000 each. Originally the parochial 
school was taught by secular teachers who later were supplanted by 
School Sisters of St. Agnes. The societies within the congregation 
are: The St. Francis's Benevolent Society, a branch of the Catholic 
Protective Association, the Ladies' Society, and the Young Ladies' 
Society. In July, 1895, the present priest. Rev. Phil. J. Vogt, took 
charge of the congregation. Under his ministry a fine and spacious 
brick church was erected in 1905. It has four bells in its lofty tower. 
The consecration by Archbishop S. G. Messmer of Milwaukee took 
place March 27, 1906. St. Bridget's in the town of Wayne is a mis- 
sion in the care of the Kewaskimi priest. As far back as 1848 the 
Catholics of that section were visited by Rev. Beittner of St. Law- 
rence, who said mass in private homes. Under his direction they 
built a log church in 1852. In 1856 the congregation was organized, 
and for many years Rev. Kaspar Rehrl of Barton attended to it. The 
parochial school of St. Bridget's is taught by Sisters of St. Agnes. 

Newbiirg. — Holy Trinity's Congregation. — In i860, twelve years 
after the first white settler, that remarkable genius of a founder. Bar- 
ton Salisbury, built his log house among the remnants of the former 
Indian population on the wildly beautiful bank of the swift running 
Milwaukee river, and harnessed its bumptious strength to run a saw- 
mill, the Catholics of the community felt strong enough to start a 
congregation. It was the first German settler of the place, Nicholaus 
Schwinn, a blacksmith, who did the preliminary work of such an 
organization. He came in 1848, In his wretched log cabin, mission- 
aries, who now and then happened to come that way found hos- 
pitality and shelter. In 1854 Bishop Henni of Milwaukee was his 
guest, and he picked out a place for him that in his opinion would be 
best suited for the site of a church. Eventually, on that spot the first 
church was built. In 1858 Dr. Jos. Salzmann of the Catholic Semi- 
nary in St. Francis, on a collection trip, visited this pioneer in the 
wilds, who accompanied him to the Catholic settlers of the neighbor- 
hood and took this chance to interest them in the foundation of a 
congregation. During a number of years services had been held in 




a hall by traveling priests who occasionally visited the settlement. 
The need of a church edifice was felt more with the advance of the 
pioneers and tlieir increasing numbers. In March, 1850, the first 
meeting for the purpose of organizing a congregation was held. 
Trustees were elected and also a building committee ; the former were 
Jacob Barth, Jr., Nicolaus Schwinn, Math. Wierschem, Peter Klein, 
Joseph Uetz and Dr. M. J. Leonard ; the building committee consisted 
of F. Waldkirch, Math. Welskiel, Johann Lauterbeck, George Kaiser, 
Ferd. Moersch, Jacob Spenner and Theodore Weinand. The first 
church was a rather sober-looking brick building, 75x40 feet in dimen- 
sions. Each side had four windows, the front had a rose-window, 
and near the front gable appeared a little turret with a steeple, and a 
cross on top. The building was completed in i860, and the first sen'- 
ice was held in it on Easter Monday by Rev. Kaspar Rehrl and Rev. 
B. Smeddink. The consecration by Bishop Henni took place Decem- 
ber 8, 1 86 1. Until 1861, the congregation was served by priests from 
the Barton and Port Washington parishes. For some time the church 
did not possess such a thing as a bell, and to call the faithful to mass 
or vespers, a steel hoop was used, which was struck with a hammer. 
The first bell was purchased in 1862. At the time of its organization, 
the congregation numbered 25 families, none of whom enjoyed ma- 
terial wealth. The first resident priest was Rev. Wilhelm Engeln. In 
1882, under the administration of Rev. P. J. Stupfel, a parochial 
schoolhouse was built in which School Sisters of Notre Dame are 
teaching. Under the same administration a parsonage was built in 
1887. In 1896 the present priest. Rev. B. Nuttmann, arrived. A 
new and magnificent church was erected during his ministry. It 
was consecrated October 5, 1899, by Archbishop F. X. Katzer of 
Milwaukee. In 1912 a new and commodious parsonage was built. 
The following societies exist within the congregation: St. Joseph's 
Society, Society of Christian Mothers, St. Agnes's Society, St. Alois's 
Society, Society of the Sacred Heart, and a branch of the Catholic 
Knights. St. Augustine's Mission is affiliated to the Newburg parish. 
This mission was founded in 1855, when Messrs. Weiss, Bach and 
Wollner donated 13 acres of land for church purposes. Missionaries 
held the first services in the log house of Mr. Bach. In 1857 a church 
was built. 

Richfield. — St. Hiihertus's Congregation. — This parish was or- 
ganized in 1846, and at once the erection of a log church was begun. 
It was a mission of St. Boniface's until 1854, when Rev. M. Pfeiffer 
took up his residence here. Under the ministry of Rev. Raess who 


came in 1875 the present church was built. A parochial school was 
added during the ministry of Rev. B. Weiher. Rev. P. Pape, who 
succeeded in 1892 had the tower built and the church fitted up in a 
more dignified way. Three societies, the Young Ladies' Society, the 
Ladies' Society, and the Young Men's Society exist within the con- 
gregation. The present priest is Rev. Ph. Wagner. St. Augustine's 
Congregation, also founded in 1846, is a mission of St. Hubertus's. 
The first church was built of logs, and was later replaced by a stone 

St. Lawrence. — 5"^ Laurence's Congregation. — In 1845 the Cath- 
olic pioneers in this section were for the first time visited by a priest ; 
it was Rev. M. Heiss, who afterwards was consecrated archbishop 
of Milwaukee. It was Rev. Michael Obermueller who succeeded in 
having a church built, and Rev. F. X. Schraudenbach, the first resident 
priest, undertook the erection of a parochial school. Rev. Michael 
Deisenreiter who came in 1861 enlarged the church and provided it 
with an organ and two bells. During the administration of Rev. 
Martin Weiss, from 1865 to 1881, the present larger church, and also 
a parsonage, were built. His successor, Rev. N. Thill, had a new 
schoolhouse erected, and also provided the church with three bells. 
The school is taught by Sisters of St. Agnes of Fond du Lac. The 
societies of the congregation are : St. Lawrence's Benevolent Society 
for men, St. Mary's Society for married women, and St. Rose's So- 
ciety for young ladies. The present priest is Rev. P. Burelbach. 

St. Michaels. — St. Michael's Congregation. — This congregation 
was founded in October, 1846, and the first church was erected in the 
year following under the direction of Rev. F. X. Schraudenbach. In 
1853, Rev. M. Beittner had another church built. Around i860 a 
parochial school was established. The present schoolhouse was built 
during the ministry of Rev. Karl Grobschmit who came in 1877. The 
teachers are Sisters of St. Francis. The present church edifice of 
solid brick, 45x100 feet, with a tower 130 feet high, was erected 
at an expense of $12,000 during the pastorate of Rev. Peter H. 
Welbes who succeeded in 1882. At present Rev. Jos. Beyer has charge 
of the congregation. In 1894 an elegant parsonage was built and in 
1896 the interior of the church was decorated with fresco paintings. 
The societies are: St. Michael's Benevolent Society for men, the 
Altar Society for women and St. Rose's Society for young ladies. 
The Congregation of St. John of God in the town of Farmington is 
a mission of St. Michael's. Until 1877 it was visited by priests from 
Barton and Schleisingerville. 


Schleisingerville. — St. Peter's Congregation. — Prior to the organ- 
ization of this congregation the Catholics of Schleisingerville and 
vicinity were occasionally visited by missionaries who happened to 
come their. way. The services were held in different private homes. 
When in 1856 a little log church had been built, the congregation was 
administered to by priests from St. Lawrence and Barton. These 
conditions lasted for nine years, until in 1865 Rev. Deisenreiter be- 
came the first resident priest. Rev. Peter Mutz who came in 1870 
had the log church enlarged and a parsonage built. In 1892 under the 
ministry of Rev. Karl Grobschmit, the present church, a stately brick 
structure, 113x49 feet, was erected at a cost of $19,300. It was con- 
secrated May I, 1893, by the late Archbishop Katzer of Milwaukee. 
The church has three finely carved altars, and fresco paintings. The 
basement contains a chapel. The tower rises to a height of 138 feet 
and has three bells. The schoolhouse was built during the pastorate 
of Rev. Paul Geyer who arrived in 1881 ; the parochial school is 
taught by Sisters of St. Francis. In 1912 an elegant parsonage cost- 
ing over $7,000 was erected. The societies of the congregation are : 
St. Mary's Society, organized in 1894; the Ladies' Society, organized 
in 1892; and St. Peter's Benevolent Society. The present minister is 
Rev. W. B. Bruecker. 

West Bend. — Holy Angel's Congregation. — A remarkable thing 
about this congregation is that although it has been a mission for 
about forty-four years it is today the second largest parish in the 
county. As far back as 1849 the Catholics of West Bend and vicinity 
were visited by missionaries who said mass and administered the 
sacraments in private homes. In that year Rev. Beitter who was sta- 
tioned at St. Lawrence began to attend to the mission at West Bend. 
In 1853 the first church, a frame building, was completed. It was but 
24x34 feet in size, and stood a block south of the present church. 
In 1862 a bell was purchased. It was the first church bell that rang 
in the village, and inspired the editor of the local paper at the time 
to put this in type : "What a seeming change does the first bell give 
a place! Many of our generous citizens recently donated something 
towards paying for a bell for the Catholic church ; and last Saturday 
(Oct. 18) one from St. Louis, which cost $220 and weighs over 600 
pounds, was placed in the belfry. It is rung at 6 in the morning, at 
noon, and at 6 in the evening ..." July 10, 1866, the corner 
stone of the present church was laid. It was completed in the follow- 
ing year, save the steeple. The material is brick, and standing high, 
it is a conspicuous edifice. It was consecrated October 20, 1882. For 


many years the old church was used for a parish school. From 1870 
till 1888, Rev. M. Ruckengruber of St. Mary's in Barton was the 
missionary, and under his direction, in 1880, the present parochial 
schoolhouse with dwelling rooms for the teachers was built. It cost 
$7,000, and has four rooms. The school has eight grades, and four 
teachers who are Sisters of Notre Dame. In 1882 Rev. Ruckengruber 
had the church repaired and a fine steeple added, which is 125 feet 
high. The church cost close to $20,000. When in July, 1893, Rev. 
Peter J. Stupfel who from his charge in Barton had administered to 
the congregation since 1888 became the resident priest, it ceased to be 
a mission. In 1894 a commodious parsonage was built at an expense 
of $6,000. Six societies exist within the congregation, namely: St. 
Peter's Benevolent Society, a branch of the Cath. Aid Society, Holy 
Angel's Court, C. O. F., a Ladies' Court, C. O. F., St. Anne's Society 
for women, and the Young Ladies' Society. The first resident priest, 
Rev. Stupfel, is also the present priest of the congregation, having 
served continually since he took the charge. 

Evangelical Lutheran 

Addison, Town. — .S"^ Peter's Congregation. — The organization took 
place in 1851. Among the first members were the Rosenthal and the 
Kirchner brothers, Roecker, Faber, Fromm, Baumgartner, and Wer- 
nicke. The present church was erected in 1872. The ministers were 
in succession: Revs. Denninger, Hilbert, Thiele, Klauss, Lescow, 
Stephen, and Petri. The present pastor is Rev. Wm. Weber. He 
also has charge of Zion's Congregation in the town of Wayne, also 
founded in 1851. Prominent among the first members of this congre- 
gation were the Pamperin brothers, Bartelt, Wolf, Kerber, Benedum, 
Gruetzmacher, Meyer, and Schleicher. The church was built in 1862. 
The successive ministers were the same as above. 

Hartford. — Peace Congregation. — About the year 1864 the Luth- 
erans of Hartford organized a congregation. Among the charter 
members were : E. Mueller, Albert Hacket, August Werner, L. Evert, 
and Louis Laubenstein. The first trustees were: Christian Haas, 
Fred Lamp, John Voss, Fritz Abert, and Fritz Duehring. Rev. Albert 
Opitz was the first pastor. In 1863 a brick church was built costing 
$1,500, and subsequent improvements were made to the amount of 
$1,000. The present church building, erected in 1897, is the third 
since the organization of the congregation. The enrollment is 180 
families. The pastor is Rev. Adolph von Rohr. 


Jackson. — Christ's Congregation. — Organized August 28, 1899, 
Most active among the first members were Fred Prochnow, Louis 
Bitz, Chas. Eggert, John Froehhcli, and H. Haufschild. The church, 
the first Lutheran place of worship in the village of Jackson, was 
built in 1900, and dedicated October 7, of the same year. The first 
pastor was Rev. R. Grabau. The present minister is Rev. H. F. 

Jackson, Town. — Iiiunamicl's Congregation. — The property of this 
congregation which was organized in 1847 is situated three miles 
southeast of the village of Jackson. It consists of a church, parson- 
age, schoolhouse, cemetery, and of twenty acres of good land, of 
which ten acres are wooded. Among the first members were the Bu- 
blitz, Heckendorf, Groth, Hillmann, Kurth, Fraedrich and Liesner 
families. The church was built in 1874. It is a noble Gothic struc- 
ture of brick, with a spire eighty feet high, and can seat nearly 300 
people. The congregation is a member of the German Lutheran Sy- 
nod of Missouri, Ohio and other states. In the years 1876- 1880 vehe- 
ment controversies broke out among the members of the congregation, 
resulting in a considerable reduction of the enrollment. But it has 
since rallied and gained much of its former vigor. In the first years 
of its existence the congregation was served by pastors from Milwau- 
kee, viz: Revs. Ernest Keil, Friedrich Lochner, and Ottomar Fuer- 
bringer. The first resident pastor was Rev. J. H. Jox (1858-1865) ; 
then came in succession Revs. Alexander Stamm, Hermann Meyer, 
Albert Kaemmerer, and Hermann Schmidt. During the vacancies 
pastors from Kirchhayn and Salters preached and administered the 
sacraments. The present officers are: Elders — Hermann Utech, 
Ernest Hillmann, and Karl Kurth ; trustees — Henry Kurth, Berrihard 
Fraedrich, and Karl Kurth; treasurer — Ferdina,nd Fraedrich. Since 
1901, Rev. Victor Theodor Destinon has charge of the pastorate. He 
was born July 21, 1848, at Ghickstadt, Gemiany, attended German 
universities, and took the examination in philology in the university 
of Greifswalde. He came to America, and in 1884 graduated from 
the Concordia seminary at St. Louis, Mo. 

Ketvaskum. — St. Lucas's Congregation. — It was in 1863 when this 
congregation was founded. Among the first members may be men- 
tioned : John Klein, Sr., C. Meilahn, Sr., Wm. Schaefer, and Ernest 
Wendorf. The church was built in 1870. The membership is 80. 
Rev. F. Greve is the pastor, having had charge of the congregation for 
the past 27 years. 

Kirchhayn. — Congregation to the Star of David. — The founders of 


this congregation belonged to the earliest settlers in the eastern part 
of the town of Jackson. The organization was perfected in 1843. 
Among the first members were: F. Heidtke, Joh. and G. Kressin, 
Rahn, G. Ziemer, Wm. Ehlke, Joh. Woldt, G. Tischer, F. Bublitz, J. 
Eggert, and Rusch. The first church, a log house, was built in 1844, 
and was also used as a schoolhouse. In 1848 the second church was 
built; it was likewise a log house, but larger. The third church, a 
stately edifice of quarry sandstone, 86x41 feet ground space, was 
erected in 1856. The church property covers eighty acres of fine 
land. Another schoolhouse was built of stone in 1866, and in 1900 
a modern brick schoolhouse was erected. The parochial school is at- 
tended by 80 to 100 children, and since 1902 has two teachers. In 
1895 a pipe organ was bought and in the same year the congregation, 
being one of the oldest Lutheran congregations in the state, cele- 
brated the 50th anniversary of its organization. The present member- 
ship is no. The first pastor was Rev. A. Kindermann. The succeed- 
ing pastors were : Revs. L. Habee, F. Eppling, and Z. Stiemke. Since 
1892 Rev. A. W. Keibel is administering to the congregation. 

Newburg. — St. John's Congregation. — The organization took place 
April 9, 1859. Some of the first members were: John Brunns, H. 
Wilkens, H. Yahr, M. Geidel, F. Seidemann, J. Bloecher, F. Zinke, 
J. Schmidt, T. Seidemann, and G. Zinke. The church was built in 
1 861 -1 862. The congregation was a charge of the West Bend pas- 
tors until 1904, when Rev. W. Mahnke, who holds the ministry since, 
became resident pastor. In 1909 a parochial school was established, 
which is taught by a female teacher. The church property com- 
prises also a parsonage. 

Salter. — Trinity Congregation. — This congregation was organized 
February 21, 1866. Prominent among the first members were : Chris- 
tian Hennig, Wilhelm Schroeder, Karl Rathke, Wilhelm Kringel, and 
Friedrich Gaenzer. The church was built in 1879. The congregation 
has a parochial school. The present minister is Rev. Ferd. Otto. 

Schleisingerville. — The "German Evang. Lutheran Congregation of 
Schleisingerville, Wis.," was organized in 1875. The first pastor was 
the Rev. Albert Opitz, now deceased. Some of the first members were 
John Lau, Sr., John Lau, Jr., Martin Bassler, Frank Hoffmann, John 
Klier, G. F. Roth, Jacob Oelhafen, and August Borgmann. Until 
1886, divine services were held in private houses and in a public hall. 
In that year a substantial brick church was erected. Soon after the 
organization, Rev. Opitz was succeeded by Rev. Chr. Probst of Hart- 
ford, who served the congregation in conjunction with his parish in 


Hartford till 1909. In that year a new parsonage was built, and Rev. 

F. Ave-Lallemant became the first resident pastor, the society having 
become independent of the sister-church at Hartford. After the de- 
mise of Rev. Ave-Lallemant in 19 10, Rev. H. Auerswald was called 
to the pastorate. The congregation is in a flourishing condition; it 
supports a parish school, and at present numbers 60 families. 

IVest Bend.— -St. John's Congregation. — Among the first settlers 
of West Bend were Lutherans, and they about 1850 joined with the 
settlers of the same faith in the town of Trenton to organize the Ger- 
man Evangelical Lutheran Society. Some of the first members were 
Carl D. Wilke, Carl, Fritz and Wilhelm Schroeder, Ludwig Ottmer, 
and H. Treviranus. Others who subsequently joined were Carl Kars- 
ten, F. Kahl, W. Schmidt, W. Hildebrand, Joachim Niemann, John 
Althaus, Henry Voss, F. W. Mueller, and F. Kesting. The first pas- 
tor was Rev. Heis. He remained until 1853, when the congregation 
divided, the members in the town of Trenton building for themselves 
a log church on Ottmer's farm. For many years services in West 
Bend were held in the schoolhouse of District No. 2. November 16, 
1858, the congregation was incorporated as the "German Evangelical 
Lutheran St. John's Society, of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession." 
In 1859 the society joined the German Evangelical Lutheran Synod 
of Wisconsin and other states. The first pastor who resided in West 
Bend was Rev. H. Roell. Under the ministry of his successor, Rev. 

G. Vorberg, the present handsome brick church was completed and 
dedicated December 15, 1864. Rev. Vorberg's charge embraced also 
the Emanuel's congregation at Trenton, St. John's at Newburg, and 
a congregation in the town of Farmington. A parochial school was 
established in August, 1872, and in September following the school- 
house was erected. The present pastor, Rev. E. Hoyer, came in 1883. 
Under his ministry an addition to the church was built, and the par- 
sonage remodelled. The present trustees are: Wm. Peters, Edw. 
Hagner, Albert Bloedorn, John Ahlers, and Ludwig Schloemer. Un- 
til 1905 Rev. Hoyer had also charge of St. John's at Newburg. The 
latter congregation since is served by a resident pastor. 


Ackervillc. — St. Paul's Congregation. — The imcomplete records of 
this congregation show that it existed in 1859: it probably was organ- 
ized several years before that date. Of the first members may be 
mentioned: Lorenz Guth, Peter Guenther, Georg Kroehler, Phil. 


Lehiier, John Albrecht, and Phil. Kurtz. The first church, a log house, 
existed in 1862, for the records tell of repairs that became necessary 
in that year. The present church was built in 1874. The pastor is 
Rev. F. W. Krueger. He also administers to the spiritual wants of 
St. John's Congregation in the town of Polk. In 1852 twelve fam- 
ilies joined in founding that congregation. Of the first members 
only two, Geo. Mayer, Sen., and John Schmidt, are still living. In 
1854 the first church was built of logs. The parsonage was put up in 
1862; it is still existing, but is not used. In 1895 the present brick 
church was built. Fifteen pastors have served the congregation up to 
now, and it numbers 35 members. 

Dheinsville. — Christ's Congregation. — As early as 1844 this congre- 
gation was founded. The founders were Ph. Dhein, Sr., William 
Wasmuth and Andrew Wetterau. They came to this country with 
their families in 1842, and for the first few years their chief object was 
to establish a home for themselves and their families. Ph. Dhein was 
the first one in these parts, and he was of great help to those who 
followed after him. He assisted the newcomers in every way, and 
accompanied them together with the land agents to procure land which 
could be had at that time for a dollar an acre, so-called "school land" 
for even less. A rude log schoolhouse was selected for the first meet- 
ing place of the pioneers, where only for three months in the year the 
children were taught, and that, as one of them stated, out of an old 
spelling book. After the three months had elapsed, they were so 
much older, "but no wiser." A Rev. Schmidt, with whom Mr. Dhein 
became acquainted, came out from Milwaukee and served the settlers 
with the word of God at an interval of four weeks. The news of the 
first religious meeting in the old schoolhouse, a mile west of the 
present Christ church, spread over the surrounding country, and ere 
long other settlers came and expressed their desire to join the sturdy 
Germans in their worship. Women came, carrying their babies with 
them, and the schoolhouse soon proved too small. The Weimars and 
the Meyers, and brothers of Ph. Dhein, as well as seven brothers of 
the Klumbs, and a large family of Kraetsches and Dixes were added 
to the faithful band. In the early '50s a church was put up where the 
Christ church now stands. Here the pioneers met to worship their 
God and exchange their experiences during the week. Soon afterward 
the present stone church was built and dedicated in i86r. After Rev. 
Schmidt died. Rev. Fleisher was called, and he served the people for 
several years. He was succeeded in i860 by Rev. Binner. Steadily 
the congregation increased, and January i, 1868, Rev. C. Ruegg of 


Madison, Wis., was selected as their pastor. They had then increased 
to some seventy heads of famihes. He served the people until June 
17, 1895. Since then several pastors were called, and at present the 
Rev. G. Klein has charge of the ministry. 

Erin, Town. — St. Paul's Congregation. — This congregation was 
founded in 1840, when a log church was built. Jacob Loew, Henry 
Loew, John Loew, Jacob Sneider, and George Hoffman were among 
the first members. When in 1880 Jacob Loew gave three acres of land 
for the site of a church and a cemetery, a new edifice was erected. 
The old log church was torn down. 

Fillmore. — St. Martin's Congregation. — In 1861 a number of ad- 
herents of the Protestant creed came together to organize a congre- 
gation. Prominent among them were: Jak. Plaum, Gottl. Schuster, 
C. Bormann, C. Degnitz, E. Klessig, G. Jaehnig, and W. Beger. The 
first church was built in 1862. In 1891 a new substantial church was 
erected. The pastors who served the congregation were : Revs. Vor- 
berg, Gausewitz, Frank, Grunewald, Barth, and Brunn. The first two 
were ministers of the Lutheran Wisconsin Synod; the others, includ- 
ing the present pastor. Rev. H. Erber, belong to the Evangelical Synod 
of North America. St. John's Congregation in Silver Creek, Town 
Farmington, is also a charge of Rev. Erber. It was organized in the 
early days by English and German people as a Free Baptist association, 
but since 1905 it is an Evangelical congregation. Some of the first 
members were: Andreas Kraetsch, Ed. Woog, John Meisner, O. 
Plaum, C. Morgewroth, and Haentze. The year in which the church 
was built is not known. 

Germantown, Town. — St. John's Congregation. — The church, situ- 
ated in Section 35, was built in the early '40s. The charter members 
were Straub, Herboldt, and Gilbert. The congregation is at present in 
a very thriving condition, and numbers between seventy and eighty 
families. Many pastors came and went since it was established. 
The present pastor is Rev. Theodore Schuh. — Zoar's Congregation, 
in the same town, was founded May 21, 1895, when the trustees were 
selected. They were: U. Huber, president; Wm. Meyer, secretary; 
Peter Bast, treasurer; Val. Hoelz, Louis Boecker, and J. Bast, Sr., 
June 16, the place which was donated by Louis Boeker was formally 
dedicated as a site for the church and parsonage, and July 7, the cor- 
ner stone was laid. Sixteen heads of families signed the constitution, 
and upon taking a vote, the name of Zoar was chosen for the church. 
October 20, the church was dedicated. The Rev. C. Ruegg was unani- 


mously selected as pastor, and up to this time has continuously served 
the congregation which enjoys a steady growth. 

Hartford. — St. John's Congregation. — The organization took place 
in January, 1874. Among the first members were : Ch. F. Lohr, John 
Schroeder, Adolph Spaeth, Geo. Laubenstein, Louis Laubenstein, and 
L. Kissel. The first church was bought from the Universalist Congre- 
gation. In 1907 a splendid brick church was built. Two years ago 
the congregation installed a fine pipe organ, half of the costs of which 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie paid. The present pastor is Rev. Dr. E. A. 
Kuhn. — Zion's Congregagtion.- — Organized in 1862. Among the char- 
ter members were : Nick Hosig, Michael Reik, John Steiner, and An- 
ton Fischback. Thefirstchurch was built in 1864. The present church 
edifice dates from 1885. The pastor is Rev. H. H. Brockhaus. 

Jackson, Tozvn. — Peace Congregation. — In 1852 a number of Ger- 
man settlers of the towns of Jackson and Polk founded a congrega- 
tion and named it "Evangelical Protestant United Congregation." A 
constitution was framed and adopted April 20, 1852, and Gottlieb 
Hammel donated the grounds for a cemetery and a church, in the 
northwest corner of Section 18, town of Jackson. A log church was 
built in the same year. The first board of directors consisted of Jacob 
Theurer, Fred Anspach, and Peter Theobald. Among the first mem- 
bers were : F. W. Nolting, Franz Martin, John Hoffmann, John Roll, 
Henry Dannenfelser, Fred Eberly, Dietrich Schmahl, David Jenner, 
Andrew Martin, Andrew Ziegler, Joseph Katz, Philipp Pfeil, Philipp 
Mayer, John Nauth, Peter Faber, Anton Feige, Gottlieb Schatz, Gott- 
lieb Rosenthal, Frederick Kraemer, John Kissinger, Franz Konrad, 
Christ Herman, Peter Becker, Jacob Giunm, George Koenig, Jacob 
Moersfelder, Adam Spuhler, Conrad Bolhalter, Peter Weckmueller, 
Peter Koelsch, Nikolaus Hennann. Heinrich Hembel and Jacob Jung. 
The incorporation took place March 20, 1859. From 1851 to 1867 
the congregation was served by ministers of various denominations, 
Evangelical, Presbyterian, Congregational, and Episcopal, as Protes- 
tant pastors were scarce at the time. Each minister was engaged for 
but one service and received his pay after it was over. Some of the 
ministers were: Schmidt, Biener, Fleischer, Krantz (a carpenter who 
as a side line did some preaching), and Bickel. From 1867 to 1912 
it was served by resident Reformed ministers. In 1878 the present 
church was erected. In 1882 another constitution was adopted in 
which the name was changed to "Evangelical Reformed Congrega- 
tion." The first resident pastor was Rev. Hinske. He was, in 1870, 
succeeded by Rev. F. P. Leich who served for 28 years. In 1904 a 


difference of opinion among the members brought on a heated denom- 
inational controversy which in 191 2 was settled by the State Supreme 
Court, whereupon a number of families togetlier with the pastor, Rc\-. 
Wm. C. Zenk who served since 1907 separated and founded a new 
congregation of the Evangelical Reformed creed. The others were 
again taken into the folds of the Evangelical church, to which the con- 
gregation belonged in the beginning. They have at present no regular 

Kcxi-ashinii. — Peace Congregation. — In 1898 this congregation was 
founded, and in the same year the church was built. The first officers 
were: Karl Doms, president; L. D. Guth, secretary; Christ. Schaefer, 
Sr., treasurer. The pastors who have served were : Revs. R. Grune- 
wald, A. Franke, and H. Erber. The present trustees are: Christ. 
Schaefer, Jr., president; L. D. Guth, secretary; Aug. Schaefer, treas- 
urer: The congregation has an enrollment of 108 families. The pres- 
ent pastor is Rev. F. Mohme. 

Kohlsville. — St. John's Congregation. — This congregation was or- 
ganized in 1855. Some of the early members were Jak. Endlich, Ch. 
Jung, Bormann, and Hose. The first church was built in 1862. The 
present edifice was erected in 1892; it is surmounted by a belfry 
which contains one bell. The pastor is Rev. J. Frank. St. Paul's 
Congregation in the town of West Bend is aflfiliated to the former, and 
also is in the charge of Rev. Frank. It was founded in 1865, and the 
first church was built in the same year. Among the first members may 
be mentioned: Philipp Bauer, H. Wolfrum, and Peter Riesch, Sr. 
The present church dates from the year 1894. 

Richfield. — The "Emanuel's Evangelical Association" was organ- 
ized May 26, 1852, and the old church was built in the same year. 
Among the first members appear the names of Carl Ph. Held, Philipp 
Peter Reichert, and John Straub. In 1898 a new church with modern 
conveniences was erected in the village of Richfield. The present 
trustees are: Peter Reichert, Fred Klumb, and George Straub. The 
pastor is Rev. J. E. Klein. Affiliated to this congregation, and in charge 
of its pastor, is Zion's Congregation in the town of Richfield. It was 
founded in 1846. and Gottfried Motz, Jos. Suson, Jos. Harlacher, 
Phil. Becker, and Isaak Romig were among the first members. The 
first church was built in 185 1, and in 1886 the congregation had a 
new church put up. The present trustees are: Geo. IMotz, Jul. Busse, 
John Siewert, Jac. Becker, M. Siewert, and Walter Motz. 

Richfield, Tozmi. — St. Jacob's Congregation. — In 1852 this Ger- 
man congregation was organized, and in the same year a log church 


and a small parsonage were raised. Some of the original members 
were : Phillip Schneider, Conrad and John Eimermann, Peter Hartleb, 
John Leonhardt, Balthasar Ebling, Gottlieb Griesemer, Ernst 
Schwamb, Daniel Funk, Carl Bender, Jacob Klippel, Jacob Kurtz, 
Adam Held, John Kessel, Jacob Maurer, Jacob Kissling, Carl Lahr, 
John Barchent, Heinrich Gruen, and John Stark. Children of these 
fathers now mostly constitute the body of the congregation. In 1892 
a new handsome frame church and an addition to the parsonage were 
built. The value of the church property is about $4,000. The present 
pastor is Rev. N. Sulzer. He also has charge of the St. Peter's Con- 
gregation in Town Jackson. It was founded in 1858, when a little log 
church was built. The first pastor who preached in it was Rev. Rell. 
The grounds were donated by Phillip Weinheimer and Peter Dauter- 
man. Later, the building was sheathed with siding and crowned 
with a little steeple. Besides the aforenamed, Philip Mann, 
Charles Schuette, and Melchior Reiss constituted the first board of 
trustees. Among the first members may be mentioned: Michael 
Reiss, Peter Schneiss, Casper Weifenbach, Martin Otto, Christian, 
Samuel, Jacob and John Schowalter, Jacob Meisenheimer, George 
Bock, Sr., Louis Weimer, John Berg, Dan. Lauter, and Valentin 
Saber. A new frame church with central heating plant and handsome 
basement for school purposes was built in 1909, and dedicated No- 
vember 14, of the same year. The congregation is in a healthy con- 
dition and numbers about 35 families. 

Schleisingcrville.—St. John's Congregation. — Of the history of 
this congregation very little could be learned. In 1875 the members 
split in two factions, one of which organized a Lutheran congregation. 
During the altercations which preceded the cleft, all the records and 
books were lost. Besides, all the founders who could give some in- 
formation have gone into the great beyond. But it is wellnigh cer- 
tain that the organization took place before 1849. That far the 
present pastor, Rev. H. Mueller, could trace the history back. 

Wayne, Town. — There are three Evangelical congregations in this 
town, St. Paul's in Section 10, with Rev. H. Weichelt as pastor; one in 
Section 6, with Fred Muehlius as director; and one in Section 25, 
with John Blank, Sr., as a charter member. In spite of attempts 
made, no information could be gained from any of these congrega- 
tions, which would indicate that records are either wanting, or that 
the congregations are in a state of disintegration. None of them has 
a resident pastor. 


Evangelical Reformed 

Fillmore. — The Evangelical Reformed Congregation was origin- 
ally organized as "Independent Evangelical Lutheran Congregation 
of Town Farmington, Washington Co., Wis." The organization was 
perfected July 19, 1891, and the church had been built shortly before. 
Some of the first members were : Max Gruhle, Jacob Plaum, H. F. 
Beger, Wm. A. Crass, Carl Degnitz, Wm. Gemer, Justus Klein, H. 
G. Moths, Wm. Bretschneider, Moritz Eisentraut, and Gottl. Meu- 
schke. For some time the congregation is served by Rev. Wm. C. 
Zenk, a pastor of the Evangelical Reformed church, who has also 
charge of the Peace Congregation in the town of Jackson. Their his- 
tory is identical with that of the Evangelical Peace Congregation m 
the same town. After the separation from that congregation, it was 
organized in the summer of 1912 with an enrollment of 28 families. 
A church edifice to cost approximately $3,500, located one-half mile 
west of Jackson, is in course of erection. The comer stone was laid 
August 18, 19 1 2. A parsonage is soon to follow. 

Wayne, Tovm. — German Ev. Reformed Salem's Congregation. — 
The original name of this congregation was "Ev. Luth. St. Jacob's 
Congregation." It was organized in 1857, and the first church was 
built in the same year, during the pastorate of Rev. Rech. Among the 
first members were : Jacob Boos, Geo. Schaub, Anton Schmittel, and 
Geo. Arnet. In 1878 it was reorganized under the name "German Ev. 
Reformed Salem's Congregation." A new church was built in 1879, 
during the ministry of Rev. A. Guenther. Prominent members of the 
reorganized congregation were: L. Schaub, Wm. Petri, F. Menger, 
and Wm. Radke. The present pastor is Rev. J. L. Csatlos. 

West Bend. — The Evangelical Reformed Congregation was 
founded November 26, 1890. The charter members were: Henry 
Krieger, Fred Krieger, Carl Quade, Philipp Heipp, Wm. Fischer, Val. 
Muenk, John Lohr, Wm. Frenk, and John Treviranus. During the 
first year the congregation was served alternately by Rev. C. 
Huecker of Campbellsport, and Rev. F. P. Leich of Jackson. The 
first services were held in the old Baptist church. In the meeting of 
August 16, 1 89 1, it was decided to have a resident pastor. The choice 
fell upon Rev. Friedrich Wagner. During his ministry the site for the 
church and the parsonage was bought of Mr. Haas, and an adequate 
house of worship erected. Rev. Wagner removed in 1893, and he 
died a few years later. His successor was Rev. J. Terborg, a genial 
old gentleman who stayed until in 1898 decreasing bodily vigor and 


other circumstances compelled him to resign and retire from the 
ministry. He removed to Milwaukee. His successor was Rev. C. 
Ruppert who took the charge under very imfavorable, next to hope- 
less, conditions. Some members had drifted away, others were dis- 
couraged, and only about twenty families were left when he entered 
upon his new duties. But he worked with undaunted spirit, with 
self-sacrifices, and with a very modest income. In a short time an 
oppressive debt which rested on the church property was paid, the 
church was renovated, and a few years later, in 1904, the old parson- 
age was replaced by a new one. The number of families rose from 
twenty to one hundred, and the congregation now numbers almost 
three hundred souls. With its sober biblical precepts, and sound 
principles, the congregation bids fair to enjoy continued growth. 

Methodist Episcopal 

West Bend. — "Hardly a scratch of record of the early history of 
West Bend M. E. church can be found, save the roll of membership 
and the records of the Quarterly Conference routine business," says 
Rev. J. R. Noyes, a former pastor of the congregation, in a booklet 
which he published in 1904. It appears from his list of pastors that 
Rev. David Lewis was the first minister, serving in 1854-55. Here is 
an interesting little scrap which Rev. Noyes found : "P. W. Frink, the 
M. E. preacher that travelled from Green Bay to Chicago on horse- 
back; Elisha Springer, Presiding Elder, first on West Bend Circuit; 
H. M. Train, first preacher; P. S. Bennett, Presiding Elder; Isaac 
Sleigh, Presiding Elder ; 600 miles around his district, forded streams 
7 and 8 feet deep." Another item which he found jotted down in 
the records tells that Abraham and Clara Van Epps were charter 
members. The Wisconsin Conference was organized in 1848, and 
West Bend Mission appears in the records with Wauwatosa, A. C. 
Penncock, pastor. From records of baptisms, reception of members, 
etc., it appears that this work was more or less connected at different 
times with Kewaskum, Auburn, Barton, Saukville, Fredonia, Oak 
Creek, Trenton, Myra, Jackson, and other places, but whether preach- 
ing services were held regularly at all is not known. The old church 
stood in the vicinity of the former County Poor Farm in the town of 
Jackson. The congregation later decided to have their place of wor- 
ship in West Bend. The present church was built in 1872, and the 
parsonage in 1892. The congregation has a Sunday school and an 
Epworth League. Since 19 11 Rev. Alfred Hoad is the pastor. 


German Methodist 

West Bend. — Tlie German Methodist Congregation was ushered 
into existence when in 1855, or 1856 — the exact date is lost — Rev. 
Frederick Heinz commenced to preach and hold services in the school- 
house at West Bend. March 19, 1858, a lot was purchased, upon 
which a frame church was built. It stood east of the Court House 
Square. Among the first members and trustees were John Kammer, 
Henry Wiek, George Schneider, and Nikolaus Eifler. The congre- 
gation belonged to the Rock River Mission until in 1864 the Gennan 
congregations were separated from the English. The present church 
was purchased in 1892. It was formerly owned and occupied by a 
Baptist congregation. The congregation also owns a parsonage. 
The present pastor is Rev. Alfred Otto. He also has charge of the 
German Methodist Congregation of Kopp's District in the town of 
Barton. This was organized in 1848. The first minister was Rev. 
A. Kellner, and among the first members were John Vaihinger, F. 
Kopp, John Kopp, Martin Rilling, and Wm. Fenstermacher. The 
first church was built in 1852. After it had burned down, another 
church was erected in 1858. This is still used for services. 


Hartford. — The First Congregational Church was organized De- 
cember 19, 1847, by Rev. Nonnan Miller of Lisbon, Waukesha 
County, Wis., with ten members. They were : Cyrus Bissell, Amanda 
Bissell, Lewis B.Stowe, Laura W. Stowe, Fidelia F. Musgrove, Rus- 
sell S. Kneeland, Electa Kneeland, William R. Coates, George C. 
Williams, and Mary A. Williams. In 1853 the church— a frame 
structure 32x50 feet — was built. The church, was rebuilt in 1874. 
It is now a brick-cased edifice with noble lines and a fine Renaissance 
tower. The present pastor is Rev. J. S. Davis. 


West Bend. — St. James's Congregation. — The parish for a long 
time had been a mission of the Milwaukee diocese. Later it was 
served by resident ministers. The last one of these was Rev. Jo- 
hannes Salinger, a jovial old gentleman. Under his rectorate the 
parsonage was built and other improvements made on the church 
property. The chapel was built in 1870. At present it is again a mis- 
sion church, and its membership is very small. 



Wayne, Toivn. — The Zion's Congregation of German Baptists 
was founded in 1850. Some of the charter members were: Wilh. 
Mollhagen, M. Schwendener, and F. Mueller. The church was 
erected in 1865. The first preacher was Rev. W. E. Grim. The 
congregation at present has no resident minister. The director is 
Chas. L. Jung. — There is another Baptist congregation near Acker- 
ville in the town of Polk, which likewise has no resident preacher. 

Christian Science 

West Bend. — ^The "Christian Science Society of West Bend" was 
informally organized in March, 19 10. It has at present fifteen mem- 
bers who hold service in the home of their reader, Charles F. Doms. 



Before the division, Washington county was the strongest Demo- 
cratic county in tlie state. The pohtical complexion showed itself 
in the first election held, the Presidential election of 1848, after the 
state government had been formed. Cass, the Democratic candidate, 
received 1719 votes. Taylor, the candidate of the Whigs, 358, and 
Van Buren, the candidate of the Free-Soilers, 324. The Whigs op- 
posed the Democrats, and the Free-Soilers advocated the non-ex- 
tension of slavery. Every vote cast in the towns of Erin, Richfield 
and Wayne was Democratic, while on the other hand in the town 
of North Bend, which at that time comprised the town of Kewaskum 
and the northern half of tlie town of Barton, not a single Democratic 
vote was cast. Town Germantown was about three- fourths Demo- 
cratic, and Town Polk almost likewise. About two-thirds of the 
voters in the town of Addison were Democrats, and the same was 
true of the town of West Bend. Town Trenton had 23 Democratic 
votes against 34 for the other parties. The vote of the town of Hart- 
ford was noteworthy, as 93 Free-Soil votes were cast to 32 for the 
Democrats and 23 for the Whigs. 

In the state election in November, 1849, Dewey, the Democratic 
candidate for governor, received 1,610 votes; Collins, the Whig can- 
didate, 208; and Chase, the Free-Soil candidate, 86. For the proposed 
amendment to the constitution, allowing the right of suffrage to 
negroes, 188 votes were cast in the county, and 243 against it. 

After the division of the county, in 1853, the voters stayed true to 
their old love for many years. In 1856 they gave the Democratic 
candidate for President, Buchanan, 2,647 votes, and Fremont, the 
Republican, 813. In i860, Breckenridge received 2,747 votes, against 
Lincoln's 939; and in 1864 Lincoln's vote fell to 664, while his op- 
ponent McClellan received 2,923. A significant change came when 
in 1868, Grant, the Republican candidate for President, got 1,213 votes 



to Seymour's 3,073 ; but in 1872 Grant's vote sank to 947, Greeley, the 
Democratic candidate receiving 2,727 votes. The RepubHcan vote 
again jumped up in 1876 to 1,321 for Hayes, against 3,047 for Til- 
den, and in 1880 it rose to the unprecedented height of 1,906 votes 
for Garfield, to 2,841 for Hancock. Cleveland, the Democratic can- 
didate for President, in 1S84 received 2,972 votes, against Blaine's 
1,583; 2,872 in 1888, against Harrison's 1,869; ^.nd 2,624 in 1892, 
against Harrison's 1,700. 

The first time that the Republicans carried the county was in 1896. 
The people, believing in sound money, stomached Bryan's Free Silver 
idea, and gave McKinley 2,877 votes, against 2,404 for Bryan. The 
Republican plurality was 473. In 1900 the vote for McKinley sank 
to 2,614, and that for Bryan rose to 2,524, still leaving a Republican 
plurality of 90. The biggest Republican plurality, 322 votes, Roose- 
velt received in 1904. 2,565 votes were cast for him, and 2,243 ^o'' 
Parker, the Democrat. All this shows that although the county is 
still intrinsically a Democratic county, an intelligent vote is cast, if 
sound economic principles, or good men are on the other side. The 
voters are no hide-bound Democrats. This statement loses some- 
thing of its strength in view of the last Presidential vote, when Taft, 
the Republican candidate, received 2,588 votes, and Bryan 2,625; 
the Democratic plurality was 37. What the future political com- 
plexion of the county will be, nobody can foretell in these days of 
the disintegration of the old parties. But anybody who knows the 
people will also know that they will stick to democratic principles 
this time spelled with a lower-case "d." 

There have also at times votes been cast for other than Democratic 
or Republican Presidential candidates, but they were so insignificant 
that they may well be passed. In the last few years the Social 
Democrats have tried to gain a foothold in the county. Their efforts 
so far have been rather feeble, and if they did show up some success, 
it was in some of the larger communities. The rural population does 
not readily take to visionary Socialism. At the presidential election 
of 1908, their candidate for President, Debs, polled jj votes in the 

Washington county belongs to the Second Congressional District. 
In 191 1, the Legislature reapportioned the state into eleven congres- 
sional districts, in accordance with provisions of the 62nd Congress. 
Accordingly, the counties of Jefferson, Columbia, Dodge, Washing- 
ton, and Ozaukee now form the Second District. Thus far there 
is but one instance on record, where a man who hailed from Wash- 


ing^on county had a seat in Congress. That man is Judge S. S. 
Barney, and he is a RepubHcan at that. He is very popular in his 
home county, a man of fine quaHties of intellect and heart, a charm- 
ing speaker with a natural flow of speech, and his election may serve 
as another proof that the voters of the county will discard political 
bias and vote for the man whom they think to be the most capable 
and representative. With reference to the election it must also be 
said that fonnerly the county, together with the counties of She- 
boygan, Ozaukee, Waukesha and parts of Milwaukee county, formed 
the Fifth Congressional District. Mr. Barney was elected in 1894 and 
held the office for four terms. When the Legislature in 1903 redis- 
tricted the state, making Washington, Sheboygan and Dodge counties 
the Sixth Congressional District, and virtually gerrymandering him 
out, Mr. Barney declined to be a candidate again. The present repre- 
sentative of the county in Congress is Michael E. Burke of Beaver 
Dam, a Democrat. 

Together with the rest of the state of Wisconsin, Washington 
county is represented in the United States Senate by Robert M. La- 
Follette and Isaac Stephenson. 

The county is represented in the State Senate and in the Assembly. 
It has been apportioned many times for representation in the Legisla- 
ture. At a time it had three, and at other times two assembly districts, 
being at first divided lengthwise, and later crosswise. Before 1884, 
the representatives were elected every year, ever since the assembly- 
men are elected every two years, and the senators every four years. 
The county now forms one assembly district, and elects a senator to- 
gether with Dodge county, according to the apportionment of the Leg- 
islature of 191 1.. Since the division of the county, the following men 
have served the county in either branch of the State Legislature: 

1854 — Senate: Balthus Mantz, Meeker. Assembly: Adam 
Schantz, Addison; Philipp Zimmerman, Germantown. 

1855 — Senate: James Rolf, Jackson. Assembly: Mitchell L. De- 
laney. Barton; Byron Smith, Erin. 

1856 — Senate: Baruch S. Weil, Schleisingerville. Assembly: 
Thomas Hanes, Richfield ; John Sell, Addison. 

1857 — Senate: Baruch S. Weil, Schleisingerville. Assembly: 
Hopewell Coxe, Hartford; James Vollmar, West Bend; James Fagan, 

1858 — Senate: D. W. Maxon, Cedar Creek. Assembly: James 
Kenealy, Erin ; Paul A. Weil, Richfield ; Charles W. Detmering, New- 


1859 — Senate: D. W. Maxon, Cedar Creek. Assembly: Gustav 
Streckewald, Hartford ; James VoUmar, West Bend ; Philipp Zimmer- 
man, Staatsville. 

i860 — Senate: D. W. Maxon, Cedar Creek. Assembly: George 
Kiefer, Nenno; Mathias Altenhofen, Kewaskum; T. E. Van der 
Cook, Newburg. 

1861 — Senate: D. W. Maxon, Cedar Creek. Assembly: Nathan 
Tucker, Hartford ; Leander F. Frisby, West Bend ; Valentine Schaet- 
zel, Menomonee Falls. 

1862 — Senate: Fred O. Thorp, West Bend. Assembly: Thomas 
Barry, Erin; Michael Maloy, Richfield; Robert Salter, Newburg. 

1863 — Senate: Fred O. Thorp, West Bend. Assembly: Adam 
Schantz, Addison; Henry Hildebrand, Station; Martin Schottler, 

1864 — Senate: Fred O. Thorp, West Bend. Assembly: Nicolaus 
Marx, Wayne ; Henry Hildebrandt, Station ; Martin Schottler, Staats- 

1865 — Senate: Fred O. Thorp, W^est Bend. Assembly: George 
C. Williams, Hartford ; Mitchell L. Delaney, Barton ; Ernst Francken- 
berg, Newburg. 

1866 — Senate: Fred O. Thorp, West Bend. Assembly: James 
Kenealy, Erin ; Mitchell L. Delaney, Barton ; Philip Schneider, Barton. 

1867— Senate: Fred O. Thorp, West Bend. Assembly: Charles 
H. Miller, West Bend ; Densmore W. Maxon, Cedar Creek. 

1868 — Senate: Adam Schantz, Addison. Assembly: George H. 
Kleffler, West Bend ; Densmore W. Maxon, Cedar Creek. 

1869 — Senate: Adam Schantz, Addison. Assembly: John Kastler, 
Wayne; Densmore W. Maxon, Cedar Creek. 

1870 — Senate: Adam Schantz, Addison. Assembly: Henry V. 
R. Wilmot, Newburg; Densmore W. Maxon, Cedar Creek. 

1871 — Senate: Adam Schantz, Addison. Assembly: Baruch S. 
Weil, Schleisingerville ; Densmore W. Maxon, Cedar Creek. 

1872 — Senate: Senator from Ozaukee county. Assembly: Dens- 
more W. Maxon, Cedar Creek; Baruch S. Weil, Schleisingerville. 

1873 — Senate: Adam Schantz, Addison. Assembly: Hiram W. 
Sawyer, Hartford; Baruch S. Weil, Schleisingerville. 

1874 — Senate: Adam Schantz, Addison. Assembly: Hiram W. 
Sawyer, Hartford; Jeremiah Riordan, West Bend. 

1875 — Senate : Gilead J. Wilmot, West Bend. Assembly: Andrew 
Martin, Reisville; Philip Schneider, Barton. 


1876 — Senate: Gilead J. Wilmot, West Bend. Assembly: Andrew- 
Martin, Reisville; Philip Schneider, Barton. 

1877 — Senate: Philip Schneider, Barton. Assembly: Frank Fitz- 
gerald, Hartford ; Nicolaus Marx, Kohlsville. 

1878 — Senate: Philip Schneider, Barton. Assembly: Cornelius 
Coughlin, West Bend ; William ScoUard, Hartford. 

1879 — Senate: Senator from Ozaukee county. Assembly: J. H. 
Muckerheide, Kewaskum; John G. Frank, Jackson. 

1880 — Senate: Senator from Ozaukee county. Assembly: Jacob 
C. Place, Hartford; Baruch S. Weil, West Bend. 

1881 — Senate: George F. Hunt, West Bend. Assembly: John 
F. Schwalbach, Germantown ; Joseph W. Holehouse, Barton. 

1882 — Senate: Edward R. Blake, Ozaukee county. Assembly: 
George Noller, Lake Five; Philip Schneider, Barton. 

1884 — Assembly: James Kenealy, Jr., Thompson; F. C. Schuler, 

1886 — Senate: Peter Lochen, Newburg. Assembly: James Ken- 
ealy, Jr., Thompson; F. C. Schuler, Boltonville. 

1888— Assembly: F. C. Schuler, Boltonville. 

1890 — Senate: Fred W. Horn, Cedarburg, Ozaukee county. As- 
sembly : August Konrad, Hartford. 

1892 — Assembly: August Konrad, Hartford. 

1894 — Senate: Stephan F. Mayer, West Bend. Assembly: Wm. 
H. Froehlich, Jackson. 

1896 — Assembly: Wm. H. Froehlich, Jackson. 

1898 — Senate: Alfred M. Jones, Waukesha, Waukesha county. 
Assembly: Louis D. Guth, Kew-askum. 

1900 — Assembly: Phillip G. Duerwaechter, South Germantown. 

1902 — Senate: Ernest Merton, Waukesha, Waukesha county. As- 
sembly: B. S. Potter, West Bend. 

1904 — Assembly : B. S. Potter, West Bend. 

1906 — Senate : Henry Lockney, Waukesha, Waukesha county. As- 
sembly : B. S. Potter, West Bend. 

1908 — Assembly: Henry V. Schwalbach, South Germantown. 

1910 — Senate: Dr. G. E. Hoyt, Menomonee Falls, Waukesha 
county. Assembly : Henry V. Schwalbach, South Germantown. 

The county government lay in the hands of a Board of Supervisors 
until in 1862 the Legislature throughout the state changed it to a 
Board of Commissioners. According to that law, each assembly dis- 
trict, and each ward of each incorporated village and city in the county 
elected a commissioner. Thus the County Board consisted of three 


commissioners and one chairman, who together with the clerk, treas- 
urer, and register of deeds formed the administrative and official body 
of the county. 

This commission government was abolished in 1870, and the old 
form re-adopted, by which each town and village, and each ward in 
the cities was given a representative in the County Board through the 
chairman of the local boards of supervisors and the supervisors of the 
several wards in the cities. Ever since the law has remained un- 

The County Board is elected in the annual spring elections, and the 
county officers are elected every two years in the fall elections. The 
present county officers are : County Clerk, Anton Thielmann ; Sheriff, 
Fred G. Schloemer ; Register of Deeds, John W. Gehl ; County Treas- 
urer, Henry J. Falk; Clerk of the Court, Chas. P. Mooers; District 
Attorney, H. A. Sawyer; Coroner, H. Joseph Kirsch; Superintendent 
of Schools, Geo. T. Carlin; Supervisor of Incomes, L. D. Guth. The 
present County Board is composed of the following members : Jacob 
Wolf, Addison; Wm. Duenkel, Barton; David Mountin, Erin; Theo. 
Berend, Farmington; Frank Salter, Germantown; Anton Mueller, 
Hartford, Town; W. S. Melcher, Hartford, ist Ward; C. L. Friday, 
Hartford, 2nd Ward; Chr. Herman, Jackson; Emil Backhaus, 
Kewaskum, Town. Joseph Schmidt, Kewaskum, Village; Andrew 
Lehner, Polk; Thos. Hayes, Richfield; Aug. Storck, Schleisingerville ; 
Nic. Heindl, Trenton; Phil. Schellinger, Wayne; J. N. Peters, West 
Bend, Town; M. Goeden, West Bend, ist Ward; H. Lemke, West 
Bend, 2nd Ward; F. Eder, West Bend, 3rd Ward. 

The regular sessions of the County Board are held in November 
of each year; and there may be special sessions if important business 
necessitates them. 

As a rule, the county officers have shown themselves worthy 
of the trust the people put in them. Crookedness and graft had little 
chance to thrive in the county. In its history of almost sixty years 
there is only one instance of a faithless officer to be recorded. His 
misdeed is known as the "Great Defalcation." In July, 1876, it was 
discovered that County Treasurer Albert Semler had defrauded the 
county of over $14,000. He had been in office for nearly nine 
years. Suspicion had been aroused several times, and at one time 
a partial investigation of his accounts was made by a special com- 
mittee of the County Board. Semler was a very popular man and 
succeeded in hoodwinking the committee who in their report explained 
away some suspicious circumstances. When the blow came, Semler 


had just returned from the Democratic National Convention in St. 
Louis, to which he had been a delegate, and found the school com- 
missioners anxiously awaiting his return in order to receive their 
apportionment of the school fund, some $4,000, which was in his 
hands, and should have been divided before he left for St. Louis. 
Semler pleaded pressure of business, made profuse apologies, and 
started for Milwaukee where he said he had the funds on deposit, 
promising to return with the required sum on the next day. In 
Milwaukee he made most strenuous efforts to borrow the money, as 
he had done often before. This time he failed to do so, however, 
and in an interview with Joseph Ott, Henry Glantz and Math Alten- 
hofen, who had gone for him, he at last confessed his embezzlement. 
He claimed to have sustained heavy business losses, and had gambled 
to regain the money,, but he had failed to do so. The gentlemen 
returned to West Bend, and a warrant was sworn out by County 
Qerk Ott before District Attorney O'Meara for Semler's arrest. 
Sheriff Miller at once went to Milwaukee to make the arrest, but 
Semler had fled to parts unknown. Miller and his deputy, Peter 
Boden, after a search of two weeks, traced him in Omaha, Neb., 
and brought him back August 6, 1876, a disgraced and ruined man, 
and lodged him in the county jail. The County Board met in special 
session and elected Peter Weimer of Addison to guard the empty 
treasury. A committee found that the deficit was $14,032.05. Owing 
to the belief that the defraudation had been running through several 
years, whereas the bondsmen of the malefactor could not be held 
liable for more than was taken since they became responsible, a 
compromise was made, whereby they were to be released on payment 
of $4,000 in addition to $1,000 to be furnished by Semler or his 
friends. All but $717 were collected of the bondsmen, and finally 
the county authorities settled with them, receiving $4,283. The loss 
of the county was thus reduced to $9,749, not figuring the expenses 
of the prosecution. Semler was, after a number of months in jail, 
released and remained in West Bend for some years after, but unable 
to regain the confidence of his fellow citizens, left for the West. 

The Courthouse, built of stone and brick with terra cotta orna- 
ments, was erected in 1889 on the site of the old wooden structure 
which was removed and is now used as a hardware store. The ar- 
chitecture of the building which cost about $45,000 together with 
the furniture is round-arch Gothic of very pleasing design. A tower, 
from the four comers of which turrets are jutting, rises above the 
middle of the front. The building with its massiveness and its 


red roofs, in the middle of the elevated Courthouse Square, domi- 
nates the city of West Bend. On the lower floor are the county offices 
and vaults, and also the probate room. The circuit court room in 
the upper story is a beautiful hall with stained glass windows. This 
story also contains the jury rooms, the private office of the judge, 
and the office of the school superintendent. One of the jury rooms 
is also used as a meeting place for the A. J. FuUerton Post. The 
building is fitted up in a thoroughly modem way. A short distance 
south of the Courthouse is the County Jail, a brick building erected 
in 1886 at an expense of nearly $10,000. Besides the jail proper 
it contains dwelling rooms for the sheriff. The buildings are sur- 
rounded by well-kept lawns and flower beds, trees and shrubbery, 
fomiing a pleasing setting. 

The Washington County Asylum for the Chronic Insane, near 
the eastern city limits of West Bend, was built in 1898 at a cost of 
over $55,000. In 191 1, two additions costing $15,415 with the 
furniture were added to the side wings of the building. The material 
is brick and stone, and the planning and furnishing was done accord- 
ing to the best methods. The site near the left bank of the Milwaukee 
river is an ideal one. The asylum in 1911 had 127 patients, of whom 
63 were from Washington county, and the rest from other counties 
and the state at large. The total net earnings of the institution in 
191 1 were $5,312.60. The asylum farm contains 300 acres. The 
management of the institution has always been very creditable, and 
the investment of the county proved a paying one. The first super- 
intendent, Peter Lochen, was in 1912 succeeded by John Homrig. 
The trustees are : Joseph Ott, C. F. Leins, and Geo. W. Jones. 

A short distance to the east of the asylum is the County Home for 
the Poor. The poor list of the county has always been small. The 
average number of poor from 1853 to 1865 was 20, in 1880 it was 
34, and in 191 1 it was 26^. In 191 2 the old Poor Farm was sold 
and a County Home for the Poor erected. At the same time a 
central heating, lighting and power plant, half way between the 
asylum and the County Home, was built, which furnishes the two 
institutions with heat, electric light and power. Both buildings which 
together cost $47,341 are substantially built of stone and brick, 
and harmonize with the architecture of the asylum, which is that 
generally used for public institutions. 

The county formerly belonged to the Third Judicial Circuit of 
Wisconsin. The judges in succession were: Charles H. Larabee, A. 
Scott Sloan, John E. Mann, David J. Pulling, Eli C. Lewis, and 


David J. Pulling. In the winter of 1881, the Legislature created 
a new Judicial Circuit, embracing the counties of Dodge, Wash- 
ington and Ozaukee. The three counties since are comprised in the 
Thirteenth Circuit. January i, 1882, A. Scott Sloan entered upon 
his duties as Judge of the new Circuit. His successor in 1895 was 
Warham Parks who in 1906 was succeeded by James J. Dick. After 
the death of Judge Dick in the same year, Martin L. Lueck, the 
present Circuit Judge, was appointed and has since served very ably. 
The Circuit Judge appoints the Soldiers' Relief Commission who 
have for their object the support of poor soldiers or their widows 
living in the county. The funds for the purpose are appropriated 
by the County Board. The present members of the commission are : 
Geo. W. Jones, Math. Regner, Sr., and C. L. Brink. 

The County Judges since the organization of the county have been: 
George C. Williams, Leander F. Frisby, John Shelley, who held the 
office for 24 years, and H. W. Sawyer. In 1901 the present County 
Judge, Patrick O'Meara, succeeded in office, and has proven himself 
a very considerate and capable judge. 





In the chapter on husbandry it has been said that nine-tenths of 
the population are engaged in agricuhure. This leaves only one- 
tenth for the other callings, including the industries. The chief in- 
dustries are divided between the two cities, Hartford and West 
Bend, and they have had the greatest influence upon the life and 
growth of these communities. To them the expansion of the indus- 
tries means the expansion of their urban territory. They are the 
bread and butter for most of their population. Their standing 
is the barometer of local prosperity. 

Enger-Kress Pocket Book Co. 

If the people of West Bend say that they have in their city one 
of the largest pocketbook factories in the world, they cannot be 
accused of braggadocio. The statement, far from being stretched, 
may even be a little short of the facts. And if they are proud of it, 
they should be excused, for the factory would be a credit to a big 
city. It is also an ornament, for the site in a former park, and in 
a locality where the price of real estate is not soaring high, does 
away with the prosy surroundings one is apt to associate with 
factory buildings. 

The approach to the factory of the Enger-Kress Pocket Book Co. 
leads over cement walks, through lawns, past a high flag pole, and 
past flower beds of geraniums. The front is 150 feet long, three 
stories high, with many windows and three entrances, the one in the 
center of stone with a carved key-stone overhead and big ornamental 
flower vases on the sides, relieving the somewhat sober looking 
structure of reinforced concrete with brick filled in between the 
piers. The building is entirely fire-proof and L-shaped, the legs 
being of equal length and 40 feet wide. In the main hall the eye is 



confronted with a tablet on the wall, which bears the inscription: 
Labor omnia vincit. Labor conquers everything! It is the proud 
motto of those that have built the factory, and an inspiration to all 
those who daily pass through that hall. To the right is the general 
office and the private office of the president; the sample room with 
fine cabinets along the walls, which contain samples of the goods 
manufactured in the factory, such as pocketbooks of all conceivable 
shapes and of many kinds of leather, from ordinary cow buck to 
seal, wallets, bill books, brief cases, card- cases, pass cases, cigar cases, 
tobacco cases, pouches, music rolls of many patterns, advertising novel- 
ties, etc., everything neatly arranged in handy tiers of drawers; 
there is also a vault with the correspondence files of the best type. 
To the left of the hall is the riveting room, where workmen with 
deft fingers put the leather and the rivets into the frames of the 
pocketbooks. Back of this room is the shipping room with im- 
mense piles of finished goods. On the second floor are the glacing 
machines which add gloss to the ready-cut leather, the button ma- 
chines, the sewing machines, and the thinning machines which thin 
the leather pieces at the edges for the seam. All the machines are 
driven by electricity. On this floor also is the finishing room. The 
third floor contains the die room where the leather is cut with dies on 
composition wood blocks by hand and machine. Each new shape 
of a pocketbook requires a new die. In the north wing the leather is 
stored. The bales and piles contain many kinds of leather, pig- 
skin, cowhides, juchten, calf, seal, alligator, etc. Some of it is 
split and is as thin as paper. The value of the leather stock which 
is continually replenished is about $200,000. Much of the leather 
comes from the Hartford tanneries. In the basement the paper 
and wooden boxes for the shipment of the goods are stored. Here 
also are the two boilers for the heating of the building, the ma- 
chinery for the electrically driven elevator that runs through all the 
floors, the big switchboard, and another larger vault for books and 

All of the work rooms are bright and airy, the gay sunlight and 
the sweet country air pouring through many windows. The work- 
ers are a cheerful lot of people. There are about 250 of them, men 
and boys and girls, when the factory has put on the full force, the 
sexes working separately. Besides these, about 150 home workers 
find employment. 

The factory was started on a small sale in 1884 in Milwaukee, 
and in 1894, through the initiative and enterprise of local business 


men, notably that of the late Mr. Andrew Pick, that munificent 
patron of West Bend's industries, and Mr. E. Franckenberg, was 
induced to locate in West Bend. At first the industry was housed 
in an old school building; later Moser's Hall, a large dance hall, was 
bought and furnished as a factory. When this had burned down in 
the winter of 1910, the present fire-proof and thoroughly modern 
factory building was erected on the site of the old one. 

The first president of the firm was George Enger a man of fine 
intellectual qualities, who also was the sales manager and did much 
traveling for the firm. The first secretary and treasurer was .Au- 
gust Kress ; he was a happy complement to Mr. Enger by virtue of 
his thorough understanding of the technical end of the enterprise. 
He died in the spring of 191 1. Mr. Enger died September 30, 1912. 
The president now is Mrs. Eva Enger, the widow of the aforesaid; 
the vice-president is Julius Kress, a brother to the late August Kress, 
who for many years held positions of trust for the firm ; and the 
secretary-treasurer is F. G. Lehman, a gentleman thoroughly con- 
versant with the leather trade. 

The growth of the factory since it was located in West Bend has 
been truly wonderful. It is still growing. This is the result of 
earnest and sincere toil, intelligent and effective management, reli- 
ability of the goods, and integrity and honesty in dealing with the 
customers. The firm manufactures most anything that is known in 
their line. Many of the goods are made from original designs, as 
it is the aim to lead the market in novel, attractive and reliable 
goods. The success thus far proves that they are on the right road. 
The goods are shipped all over the United States, and to many foreign 

Gehl Bros. Mfg. Co. 

The plant of this firm is another of West Bend's industries that 
within the last few years have made giant strides toward enlarge- 
ment and expansion. From a jumble of old wooden buildings it has 
developed into a well-planned collection of thoroughly modern and 
fire-proof factory architecture, while the number of employes has 
about tripled. There are now about one hundred people employed 
in the different departments. And the business is still growing. 

The manufacturing departments are housed in the two main build- 
ings. The first one, a brick structure, contains the iron working and 
casting departments. In the front are the machines which bore and 


smoother! and finish the castings that go into the different products. 
Here are the forges and lathes and pneumatic riveting machines — 
a bewildering mass of wheels, pulleys, levers and belts. A 125 horse- 
power steam engine furnishes the motive energy. Back of this de- 
partment is the molding room. For casual visitors this is the most 
interesting place — to watch the molders handle their clay, put the 
pattern in one half of the mold, dump and pound the earth tight in 
the other half, take both halves apart, remove the pattern, put them 
together again, remove the frame, and place the mold on the floor, 
ready for the casting. The bigger molds are prepared right on the 
floor and the frame is not removed, while the smaller ones are 
prepared on stands. Toward evening the casting begins. Then the 
fluid iron runs in a glaring stream from the roaring furnace into 
the large bucket, and from this is emptied into the smaller buckets 
with long handles, which the molders carry away and empty into 
their molds. Then the room looks like the workshop of Vulcan. 
Afterwards, the smoldering molds are torn apart, and the castings, 
still red hot, appear. In the rear of the molding room, is the core 
room, where the cores for the hollow centers of wheels, etc., are made 
of fine sand and linseed or crude oil, which mixture is run through 
something that almost looks like a sausage machine, and then baked 
in a big oven. 

The other main building is constructed of reinforced concrete, 
two stories high. The front and sides are practically all windows. 
On the lower floor are the erecting room, the tin shop, and the wood 
working machines. On the second floor are the display room and the 
paint shop. The power is conveyed from the other building in the 
form of electricity and transformed by motors. 

The shipping department is housed in another large concrete 
building. There are other minor buildings on the grounds. All 
the buildings are lighted by electricity. The company runs its own 
electric light and power plant. 

To start with the history of this industry, one would almost have 
to go back to the beginning of West Bend. Indeed, the industry is 
one of the oldest in the state. In 1879 it was bought by Charles 
Silberzahn, an expert machinist who had worked in various parts of 
the country, sensed as engineer on a gun boat in the War between the 
States, and lastly had been foreman in the machine works of the E. 
P. Allis Company of Milwaukee. In 1890 it was incorporated as the 
Silberzahn Manufacturing Company. In 1906 the Gehl Bros. Mfg. 
Co., succeeded the old firm, Mr. Silberzahn retiring. When in the 




latter year the old frame buildings in a fierce conflagration burned to 
the ground, a new era dawned for the enterprise. In the same year 
the first of the present modern buildings was erected. The otliers 
followed in the course of the years. 

The products of the plant cover a wide range of agricultural and 
other machines and implements. Here are manufactured "The Sil- 
berzahn" ensilage and fodder cutters, horsepowers, circle saw ma- 
chines, anti-friction clothes line reels, "Badger" steel stanchions, ash 
pit and flue doors, farmers' boilers and kettles, pump jacks, water- 
ing basins, galvanized steel tanks, corner mangers, and feed boxes, 
etc., etc. Carloads upon carloads of these products are shipped every 
week to all parts of the Union. All of the products have stood the 
quality test for many years, and are well introduced. The success 
of the industry is the result of honest work, able management, and 
the cooperation of West Bend's progressive citizens. The officers 
of the company are : President, N. N. Gehl, secretary, John W. Gehl ; 
treasurer, M. L. Gehl. 

Wallau Dairy Co. 

In the chapter on "Husbandry" mention has been made of the 
dairy industry of the county as being of vast importance. It is now 
intended to give a little description of the largest creamery in the 
county and one of the largest in the state, that of the Wallau Dairy 
Co., of West Bend. The plant is situated right opposite the depot, 
and the building is of an attractive frame and concrete design. In 
the main room which runs partly through the first and second stories 
are the troughs in which the cream is soured previous to churning. 
Down on the cemented ground floor is the big churn in which 800 
pounds of the finest table butter can be made at one time. The daily 
output of butter in the season is 1,500 to 2,000 pounds. Along the 
north and east sides of the building are the cooling rooms built of 
concrete with an insulation of fibre cells to prevent heat leakage from 
the outside atmosphere. The cooling is done by means of a direct 
expansion and brine system. An ammonia compressor of five tons 
capacity connects with an ammonia tank and brine tank. From the 
ammonia tank pipes run into all rooms where cooling is desired. 
They first, however, pass through the brine tank which contains a 
solution of chloride of calcium and water. The ammonia extracts 
every caloric particle that may be in the brine, giving the tank a coat 
of white glistening ice. This tank performs the function of retaining 


the low temperature during the night, when the plant is not in oper- 
ation. By this means a temperature of 30 degrees may be secured in 
the butter storage room, while in the ice cream hardening room a zero 
temperature may be had if desired. There are also facilities to make 
solid blocks of ice, a ton in from six to eight hours, from the purest 
well water. In another room of the lower floor are the ice cream 
freezers which turn out the finest ice cream at a rate of 100 gallons 
a day. On the intermediate floor are also a small office, the ship- 
ping and receiving departments, and a very snug little private office 
of the president. On the upper floor is the cream testing depart- 
ment. Here the cream of each patron is carefully tested by the 
Babcock test to ascertain the amount of butter fat, according to 
which the patron is paid. The samples are put in little bottles with 
long, graded necks or tubes, and are treated with sulphuric acid of 
certain strength, which separates the butter fat. After a treatment in 
a centrifugal apparatus, the amount of butter fat which collects in 
the graded tubes can easily be read off. On the same floor are the 
main office and the counting room, storage room for shipping sup- 
plies, etc. 

All the machines of the plant are run by electric motors, and the 
most vigorous cleanliness prevails throughout. Everyone of the 
employes is subject to strict sanitary rules, to insure the absolute 
purity of the manufactured products. The creamery has about 350 
patrons who furnish the cream and who live in a radius of many 
miles around West Bend. To them thousands of dollars are paid each 
season. The cream is gathered daily. At some distance from the 
main building are the stables and sheds in which the horses and 
wagons for the cream collection are housed. In the height of the 
butter making season a carload of butter is shipped every week. 

The company also operates cheese factories in Barton, Trenton, 
and Cedar Creek, and produces an enormous amount of American 
cheese and daisies every year. 

The president of the firm, and also its treasurer, Carl H. Wallau, 
a genial gentleman, and one whom any man of culture would be 
delighted to meet, bought the creamery some five years ago. He 
formerly was credit man for A. Landauer & Son in Milwaukee. 
Having decided to turn to the creamery business, a business that is 
yet in its infancy and has a vast future, he took a course in the dairy 
school at Madison, and by conscientious work and able manage- 
ment he has made the business a success far beyond his expectations. 
He keeps himself well posted on all the improvements in his line by 


staying in touch with the state's dairy school, and is eager to in- 
troduce them in tlie business. The vice-president is C. F. Leins, 
and the secretary A. G. Perschbacher. Both of these gentlemen are 
ably supporting Mr. Wallau. 

Kissel Motor Car Co. 

When the father of the Kissels many years ago left his farm near 
the west shore of Cedar lake and came to Hartford to set himself 
up in the machine and plow manufacturing business he would not 
have dreamt in his wildest dreams that his sons did form a million- 
dollar corporation. Here again reality has surpassed fancy and 
dream. The concrete facts are on hand. The Kissel Motor Car Co. 
today represents the largest industry in the county. Its marvellous 
growth within the last few years has caused the population of Hart- 
ford to increase by leaps and bounds. 

The company that grew out of the small enterprises aforenamed 
was organized in June, 1906, with a capital of $50,000. They began 
the manufacture of automobiles in two small buildings and with a 
force of seventy men. Today their modern plant covers a space of 
about sixteen acres, they have upward of one thousand names on 
their pay-roll, and they work with a capital stock of one million 
dollars. They have more than two hundred branches and agencies 
in various parts of the United States. All this reads like a modern- 
ized tale from the Arabian Nights, with the difference that every 
one who visits Hartford can have the tangible proof that it is true. 
It would be impossible to describe in this little sketch every activity 
on those sixteen acres teeming with the bustle of factory life. The 
factory buildings which contain the different departments form a 
little city for themselves. We can only follow the product, the Kissel 
Kar, through some of the more important stages of its making. In 
the foundry and forging departments the motor and the chassis or 
frames are produced. The motor is the simplest that can be designed, 
and it is the most economical in regard to fuel consumption. The 
different castings for the motor are first ground to size, and then 
each part is lapped by a specially designed lapping machine with the 
part with which it goes — the piston into the cylinder, the piston rings 
into the grooves, etc. This process insures an absolutely perfect fit of 
each part. All parts are weighed and carefully balanced, first the 
crank shaft separately, then with flywheel and connecting rods, thus 


securing the perfect balance that means smooth, quiet running and 
fullest utilization of power. 

An interesting part of the works are the heat-treating ovens. Here 
those parts of the car that are most subject to strain or vibration 
— the transmission gears, steering knuckles, arms, shafts, levers, etc. 
■ — and which are made of chrome-vanadium steel, are exposed to a 
great heat which makes them so far as it is possible for steel, crystal- 
iization-proof. The soft, buoyant running is a characteristic of the 
Kissel Kar. The springs in a car must stand the brunt of use, and 
realizing this, the most elaborate tests and best engineering skill 
are employed to make springs of the material, width, and taper to 
provide the utmost resiliency and staunchness, according to the 
weight and capacity of each car model. By minimizing vibration in 
this way, not only the most fatiguing element in motoring is min- 
imized, but also the most destructive agency in an automobile, the 
crystallization of even the finest steel. In the calculated strength of 
every part of the car an extreme allowance is made for strains far 
in excess of what the most strenuous motoring will exert. Other 
departments of the works are the brass and aluminum foundries, 
and the plating, buffing and polishing rooms. 

The same exactness and thoroughness that characterize the me- 
chanical construction of the car are evident in the body-building, 
upholstering and finishing departments. The door frames, for ex- 
ample, instead of being built in four sections, with that many more 
joints to loosen by vibration, are made with one bending. ' All heel 
boards, door mouldings, dash boards, decks, and door strips, and 
mouldings for cushions are made of solid mahogany with piano 
finish. Upholstering is done by experienced, skilled men, and the 
material is the best of leather, genuine gray hair, and piano springs, 
and special care is exercised on each individual car to secure the ut- 
most niceties of matching and workmanship. In the finish of the 
bodies twenty-six operations are employed to secure a glossy, lus- 
trous, durable finish. 

Every department of the extensive works is furnished with all the 
modern appliances for the economical production of the highest type 
of a standardized automobile. In every essential and primary prin- 
ciple the Kissel Kar may be said to be perfected. The year to year 
changes are practically restricted to alterations of design to con- 
form with popular taste. But if any new feature, because of its 
desirability and utility, promises to become standard, the company 


is among the first to adopt it. Anything freakish or experimental, 
however, is vigorously avoided. 

The Kissel Kar is made in semi-touring and semi-racer types of 
thirty, forty and sixty horsepower touring cars, and Limousines of 
fifty horsepower, and Coupes of thirty horsepower. The firm also 
manufactures motor trucks carrying from one and one-half to five 
tons, chemical fire trucks, special delivery, ambulance, and police 
patrol automobiles. 

A noteworthy feat was performed by a Kissel Kar in 191 1, when 
it trimmed three hours, fifty-four minutes and twenty-one seconds 
ofif the Los Angeles-Phoenix record, with a total running time of 
fifteen hours and forty-nine minutes for the four hundred and 
eighty-three miles. It was not a special racing car either, but just 
a stripped Kissel Kar "Fifty" from the sales room floor, and it de- 
feated a big entry of higher priced, representative American cars. 
This record-smashing is wellnigh without a parallel in the history 
of road racing. Nearly half the time the run was made in dark- 
ness. The course of this race is noted for its difficulty, leading 
over mountainous grades in California, and heavy desert roads in 
Arizona. But it was more the reliable, balanced construction of the 
car than the speed that won this flattering victory. 

The use of automobiles is rapidly spreading, not only in the 
cities, but also in the country, among the farmers. And it cannot 
be said that the farmers of Washington county are slow in perceiv- 
ing the factors of happiness and economy that lie in the possession 
of an automobile. There are farmers who have two or three spans 
of good horses in their stable, and still own a car. Hand in hand with 
their changed attitude toward the "devil's wagon" goes their sup- 
port of the good roads movement. What fine perspectives do these 
changes open in the country! They will tend to revolutionize farm 
life. The spins through the country will bring the farming popu- 
lation closer together. The Sunday rides to distant friends will be 
made in a fraction of the former time. The motor car will be the 
joy of every member of the family. It will bring the country closer 
to the city, and the city closer to the country. There are unmeasured 
possibilities in the automobile. And it should at any rate be inter- 
esting to know that there is a great industry of that kind in this 

The officers of the Kissel Motor Car Co. are: president, George 
A. Kissell. vice-presidents, H. K. Butterfield, Otto P. Kissell and A. P. 
Kissel; secretary and treasurer, W. L. Kissel. 



To impart some idea of the wealth and other interesting con- 
ditions of the county, the following data have been taken from the 
United States census of 19 lo, and from the assessors' tables of 

In 1910 Washington county had 2,795 farms in all, as against 
2,873 ii^ 1900. The reason for the decrease in the number of farms 
in the last decade is their increase in size, and this could only be ac- 
complished by buying other farms, and in this way lessening the 
number of farms in the county. It will be seen that this is against 
the teachings of some sociologists who advocate smaller farms and 
intensive farming. 

Of the farmers, 2,095 are born in this country, while 700 are born 
m foreign lands. The number of those born abroad, mostly in 
Cjermany, is noteworthy. It is smaller than may have been conjec- 
tured. In the average only one out of four of our German farmers 
was born in Germany, has rooted in German soil, and came over 
here, more or less imbued with German ideals of life, which he tries 
to bring in accordance with American ideals. This ratio naturally 
grows more one-sided with the years, and the time is not far away 
when the percentage of immigrated farmers will have disappeared. 

In size the farms differ very much. There are 2 farms which 
contain less than 3 acres, 81 contain from 3 to 9 acres, 79 from 
10 to 19 acres, 294 from 20 to 49 acres, 1,172 from 50 to 99 acres, 
1,010 from 100 to 174 acres, 137 from 175 to 259 acres, and 20 
from 260 to 499 acres. The average size of the farms is 94 acres, 
or about twice the average size in the first score of years following 
the settlement. 

The county covers an area of about 275,840 acres. Of these, 262,- 
902 acres are laid out in farms, of which 173.839 acres are im- 
proved farm land. 42,260 acres are woods, and 46,803 acres are un- 
improved land. Of the county's area 95.3 per cent are farms. 



The value of all fami property is $25,933,195, as against $20,- 
060,303 in 1900. In ten years the value has increased 29.3 per cent. 
The land is valued at $16,334,361; the buildings thereon, dwellings, 
barns, etc., are valued at $6,035,040; and the agricultural machines 
and implements at $1,091,437. 

On the farms 39,656 head of cattle have been counted. Among 
them are 24,259 milch cows, 2,906 other cows, 4,593 one-year-old 
heifers, 5,827 calves, 1,161 one-year-old steers and bulls, and 913 
other steers and bulls. The value of all the cattle is $1,037,654. 

The number of horses is 10,304. Of these 9,532 are full grown 
horses, 684 are one-year-old colts, and 88 are younger. The aggre- 
gate value of the horses is $1,089,852. On the farms 48 mules are 
used, which represent a value of $3,065. 

Of hogs there are 28,727, of which 14,448 are full grown hogs, 
and 14,279 are shotes. Their value is $191,833. 

The number of sheep is 10,435 of which 3,367 are lambs. They 
are valued at $41,632. The goats number 71 and are valued at $158. 
The fowls of every description number 175,383, and their value is 
$98,706. There have been counted 2,311 colonies of bees, and their 
value has been placed at $9,457. 

The total value of all these farm animals is $2,472,357, as against 
$1,695,003 in 1900. 

Of the farms 2,472 are worked by the owners themselves, 129 
of whom have rented land besides their own. By exclusive tenants 
284 farms are run. In 92 cases the rent is paid with a part of the 
harvest, in 2 cases it is paid with a share in the harvest and the balance 
in cash, in 179 cases cash alone is paid, and in 11 cases the stipulations 
are not specified. There are 39 farms which are run by managers, 
as against 18 farms ten years ago. 

Of the farms worked by the owners, 1,291 are free of debt, and 
on 1,175 ^^^ mortgages; of 6 no report has been received. Of 
1,092 farmers whose land represents a value of $8,486,115 mort- 
gages to the amount of $2,929,992 have been reported, or 34.5 per 
cent of the value. 

Thus far the figures have been taken from the census of 1910. 
Here is other statistical material taken from the county assessors' 
tables of 191 1 : 

In 191 1 the following crops were raised in the county: Wheat, 
107,388 bushels; corn, 693,412 bushels; oats, 954,049 bushels; bar- 
ley, 535,835 bushels; rye, 73,409 bushels; potatoes, 383,673 bushels; 



clover seed, 24,844 bushels; sugar beets, -',204 Ions; other root 
crops, 7,010 bushels; hay, 33,643 tons. 

The ten creameries in the county in 191 1 received 30,481,285 
pounds of milk which, less 249,280 pounds shipped to Milwaukee, 
were churned into 1,254,943 pounds of butter. For butter sold 
during the year $372,757.85 were received. The milk came from 
8,693 cows belonging to 913 patrons. The forty-three cheese fac- 
tories made 4,246,156 pounds of cheese out of 41,403,433 pounds 
of milk which came from 11,292 cows belonging to 1,326 patrons. 
For cheese sold $539,199-73 were received during the year. The 
two milk condensing factories produced 650,000 pounds of con- 
densed milk from 5,946,417 pounds of milk received. The value of 
this milk produced sold during 191 1 amounted to $88,745.40. The 
milk came from 1,487 cows, owned by 183 patrons. Besides these 
dairy revenues, 136,508 pounds of butter were made on the farms, 
and 108,670 gallons of milk were sold for use in households in the 
county during the same year. 

The county in 191 1 possessed 12,474 vehicles of various kinds; 
135 automobiles; 755 pianos, and 570 organs. The bank stock 
amounted to $217,100; the merchants' and manufacturers' stock to 
$1,092,500; and the moneys, accounts, notes, bonds, mortgages, etc, 
to $1,887,000. The logs, timber, lumber, etc. (not manufacturers' 
stock) were valued at $43,500; the steam and other vessels, of which 
there are twenty, at $7,000; the property and franchises of v.ater 
and light companies at $13,000; and all other personal property liable 
to taxation at $875,000. 

The aggregate real estate values in the cities and incorporated vil- 
lages in 191 1 were: Hartford, $1,873,550; West Bend, $1,507,989; 
Kewaskum, $574,369; Schleisingerville, $331,015. 

The total real estate and personal property of the county was in 
191 1 valued at over thirty-four million dollars, or $1,416 per capita. 

The total valuation in 1853 was $507,486, which with a population 
of about 15,000 amounted to $^^ per capita; the total valuation in 
1880 was $7,490,000, which with a population of 23,000 amounted 
to $326 per capita. Nothing is more illustrative of the enonnous 
gain of wealth in the county than the comparison of the assessors' 
tables of these three years. 



It is merely a case of modesty that this chapter is put almost 
at the end of the book. The writer belongs to the press of the county 
for many years, and for this reason it could have been considered 
tactless to place it before the other molders of the mind, the schools 
and the churches. That it had, from the very start, a powerful 
influence on public opinion in the county, nobody will deny who is 
familiar with the early history. It actually at one time had a weighty 
influence on the public opinion of the state. Today the press of 
the county, barring the German papers which share the decline of the 
German press all over the country, is in a healthy and thriving con- 
dition. The German press will receive only a casual mention, as 
it has been treated historically in the chapter on "The German Ele- 
ment." There are five English weeklies published in the county, the 
data of which appear in the following sketches. 

The West Bend Nezvs 

This paper was started some time in 1854 under the name ot 
Washington County Organ by a Mr. Wentworth, a practical printer. 
It is the oldest paper in the county. In size it was small, and the 
owner had little luck with it. At the close of 1855 he sold his meagerly 
furnished printery together with the good will and a shattered sub- 
scription list to Josiah T. Farrar and a Mr. Fonda. January i, 1856, 
they issued the first number of the Washington County Democrat, 
having changed the name of the p^per. Farrar very ably edited the 
paper until January 14, 1861, when failing health compelled him 
to resign. Under his editorship the paper gained a reputation all 
over the state. In 1861 the name was changed to West Bend Post, 
and the paper was run until March 25 by Charles D. Waldo and 
Ed. P. Kellogg, when Jacob E. Mann bought an interest in it. The 

Vol. I— 16 



firm of Mann & Waldo owned and conducted it till January, 1863, 
when Mr. Mann became the sole proprietor, and Erastus W. Root 
was engaged as editor. February 14, 1864, Waldo & Mann again 
became the owners, and Jacob E. Mann assumed the editorship. In 
September, 1864, Mann sold out to Waldo who ran it alone as editor 
and proprietor until 1866, when it was bought by Maxon Hirsch 
who remained the possessor for nearly ten years. During his owner- 
ship, Paul A. Weil, Abraham L. Baer, and perhaps others, filled the 
editor's chair. Mr. Hirsch also started a German paper, the Washing- 
ton County Banner, edited by John J. Liver of Schleisingerville, 
which was run for six years in connection with the Post. After that 
it was discontinued for want of support. In 1875 Franckenberg & 
Walters bought the paper and changed its name to West Bend Dem- 
ocrat, William Walters becoming editor. In 1878 Mr. Francken- 
berg retired, and the firm's name was changed to Walters & Murtha, 
Mr. Walters retaining the editorship. In March, 1880, the Washing- 
ton County Publishing Association was formed, who continued the 
publication of the paper of which Mr. Walters remained nominal 
editor until November 15, 1880. when Michael Bohan was entriisted 
with the editorship, continuing it till July i, 1884. He was succeeded 
by E. Aug. Runge who was assisted by Ed. L. Luckow. Both re- 
signed April I, 1886, whereupon the shares of the business were 
sold to E. Franckenberg, Mrs. E. Franckenberg, and Arthur Franck- 
enberg. The latter became the manager, and Walter Wittmann as- 
sumed the editorship. In 1887 the West Bend Times, then the 
property of C. L. Powers, became merged with the Democrat. In 
January, 1888, the Beobachter, a German weekly published in Fond 
du Lac, also became the property of the association, Mr. Wittmann 
continuing as editor of both papers until 1892, when he severed his 
connection and joined C. E. Robinson who founded the Washing- 
ton County Pilot. Arthur Franckenberg now assumed the editor- 
ship with Math. J. Fohn as associate. The latter resigned about a 
year later and entered a mercantile business. His successor was Jos. 
F. Huber. July i, 1894, the firm was reorganized under the name 
of Washington County Publishing Co., with Arthur Franckenberg, 
E. Franckenberg and Jos. F. Huber as shareholders. In March, 1899, 
the writer entered the employ of the company, and soon afterward 
was made editor of the Beobachter. May i, 1902, another change 
took place, when Arthur Franckenberg sold his interest to Theo. E. 
Guth and retired to become cashier in the Bank of West Bend. The 
size of the paper was changed from an eight column folio to a seven 


column quarto, and the name was changed to West Bend News. 
The last link was added to the chain of vicissitudes when in Decem- 
ber, 1905, Mr. Guth turned over his shares to Mr. Huber, to follow 
a mercantile career. Ever since, Mr. Huber is the principal share- 
holder of the business, also its manager, and the editor of the News. 
The paper is Republican, having turned away from the Democratic 
ranks when in 1896 Free Silver was made their campaign issue. It has 
a wide circulation. 

The West Bend Pilot 

Early in 1892 Charles E. Robinson carried out the idea of provid- 
ing another weekly paper for West Bend and the county in general. 
He accordingly started the West Bend Pilot, assisted by Walter 
Wittmann who just had resigned his position with the Washington 
County Publishing Association. The first issue, a five column 
quarto, appeared Feb. 24, cleverly edited by Mr. Robinson. His 
presumption proved correct, there was room for another paper, and 
the enterprise, although the first years were full of hard rubs, turned 
out as a signal success. October 19, 1892, the size of the paper was 
changed to an eight column folio. May 24, 1893, it was sold to D. 
T. Keeley who also became the editor. January 9, 1895, the size 
was again changed, this time to a six column quarto which remained 
up to the present day. The present owner, Hy. B. Kaempf er, who had 
been the local editor of the paper since September 21, 1892, bought 
it May 19, 1902. His success as publisher and editor is evinced by the 
fact that he now owns a neat modern cement-block building with a 
well appointed newspaper and job printing plant including a Mer- 
genthaler typesetting machine. 

The Hartford Press 

The birthplace of this paper was West Bend, its birthday, Septem- 
ber 13, 1872, and its baptismal name, the West Bend Republican. It 
was published by a corporate company, the West Bend Publishing 
Association, and the first editor was S. S. Barney. At the time, and 
for many years afterward, it was the only Republican paper in the 
county. January 9, 1874, Dr. G. F. Hunt succeeded in the editorship 
and held it until June 12, when William George bought an interest 
m the paper and became its editor. After he had gained a controll- 
ing interest, he on July 21, 1876, removed the printing office to 


Hartford and changed the name of the paper to Washington County 
Republican. January i, 1883, the paper was sold to J. M. LeCount 
and H. K. Butterfield who changed the name to its present one. In 
1887 Frank M. LeCount, the son of J. M. LeCount, and Edward 
Hosing bought the paper, and a short time later sold out to J. M. Le- 
Count. In 1887 he again took his son, Frank M., into partnership. 
After the demise of the former, September 27, 1894, Wm. Radke be- 
came a member of the firm. Frank M. LeCount assumed the editor- 
ship. In January, 1897, O. W. Leach was taken into partnership, 
the three being equal shareholders. This continued until December 
8, 1898, when Radke and Leach sold out their shares to Frank and 
Fred L. LeCount. In 1907 Miss Sadie E. LeCount bought the half 
interest of her cousin, Frank M. LeCount. The business is still con- 
tinued under the firm name of LeCount & LeCount, Miss Sadie E. 
LeCount being the editress. The politics of the paper have stayed 

The Hartford Times 

In 1894 Tim Foley and A. J. Hemmy launched a Democratic paper 
in Hartford and named it "The Hartford Times." It filled a want, 
for it has since been well, and deservedly so, supported by the Demo- 
crats in the western part of the county. A few years later, Mr. Foley 
sold his interest to Mr. Hemmy who ever since is the sole proprietor 
and the editor. Both Hartford papers, the Times and the Press, were 
for a number of years issued semi-weekly, but in 191 1 they decided 
to go back to the old weekly issue. 

The Kewaskum Statesman 

The first number of this weekly appeared October 5, 1895. It was 
published by Charles E. Krahn, and very ably edited by George 
Nugent. After a service of many years, the latter resigned, and for 
a number of years Mr. Krahn was the editor. April 10, 1909, 
George H. Schmidt bought a half interest in the paper, and August 29, 
1910, he also bought the other half and changed the size from an eight 
column folio to a seven column quarto. Mr. Schmidt is now the sole 
proprietor and the editor. The paper circulates chiefly in the northern 
part of the county. In politics it is independent. 


Other Papers 

Several other English papers have at times been published in the 
county, but they died a peaceful death either from want of support, or 
from an outlived cause. The most noteworthy of them was The 
Home League, started in Hartford early in 1861, by A. M. Thompson. 
It was devoted to the interests of the railroad mortgagors of Wiscon- 
sin, who were hard beset by the creditors of the bankrupt railroads, 
and were in imminent danger of losing their farms and everything 
they possessed, and actually did lose much. It w-as "the friend of 
labor, and the uncompromising foe of swindling corporations," as the 
prospectus stated. The little paper was very ably edited by Mr. 
Thompson, and it had a good circulation in the county and the state. 
After the courts had decided that the mortgages were valid, his cham- 
pionship was of no further avail. He later became editorial writer 
on the Janesville Gazette, Milwaukee Sentinel, Chicago Tribune, and 
Chicago Journal, and gained quite a reputation, the beginning of 
which must be traced back to the modest little sheet, and the cause 
of his cheated and helpless fellow-citizens, for whom he so valiantly 


The Moundbuilders have passed on their obscure path, no one 
knows whither; the Indians have left long ago, never to return; and 
most all of the real settlers have shuffled ofif the mortal coil. A new 
generation has sprung up that has new duties to perform and new 
problems to solve. That they will be equal to their task, there is 
no doubt. Evidence of it is multiplying. As a valuable unit of a 
state that carries the proud motto "Forward" in her Great Seal, 
and acts upon it so steadfastly, the county cannot help progressing 
on sound economic lines, and enjoys the happiness that comes from 
well spent energies. Here's good luck to Washington County! 



William Wightman, born June 20, 1798, at Herkimer county, New 

York; date of settlement, October 20, 1846; died March 28, 1891. 
Leander F. Frisby, born June 19, 1825, at Mesopotamia, Trumbull 

county, Ohio; date of settlement, October i, 1850; died April 19, 

Samuel S. Barney, born January 31, 1846, at Hartford, Washington 

county, Wis.; date of settlement, January 31, 1846. 
Paul A. Weil, born July 22, 1829, at Besancon, France; date of settle- 
ment, June I, 1846; died April i, 1891. 
William McHenry, born December 25, 1814, at Kilkenny county, Ire- 
land; date of settlement, October 15, 1846; died December 6, 1896. 
John Potter, Jr., born December 25, 1821, at Brookfield, Madison 

county, N. Y. ; date of settlement, March i, 1849; died April 20, 

George Lussenden, bom April 15, 1812, at Thomham Parish, Kent, 

England; date of settlement, April 15, 1852; died October 21, 1884. 
Ananias Wescott, born January 8, 1832, at Nichols, Tioga county, N. 

Y. ; date of settlement. May 8, 1853; died May 17, 1899. 
John Shelly, bom February i, 1817, at York, York county, Penn. ; 

date of settlement, January 7, 1854; died December 4, 1886. 
Henry Glantz, bom February 28, 1833, at Mecklenburg-Schwerin ; 

date of settlement, January 10, 1855; died December 9, 1900. 
Louis Miller, born August 11, 1823, at Hanover; date of settlement. 

November 5, 1845; died August i, 1889. 
John E. Derfus, bora September 20, 1823, at Hetzles. Bavaria; date 

of settlement, December 20, 1843 ; died November 7, 1902. 
Abraham L. Baer, born February 17, 1845. at Strasburg, France; date 

of settlement, May 20, 1852. 
M. Hirsch, born December 24, 1829. at Tremback, France; date of 

settlement, June 15, 1847: died Februan,' 11, 1890. 



Charles H. Miller, born September 26, 1826, at Doebeln, Saxony; 

date of settlement, September 28, 1841 ; died April 14, 1897. 
George W. Knapp, born June 2^, 1831, at Carmel, Putnam county, N. 

Y. ; date of settlement May 15, 1846; died May 17, 1892. 
F. W. Nolting, born June 22, 1822, at Bremen, Germany; date of 

settlement, July 11, 1845; died January 29, 1887. 
James Garbade, born February 20, 1827, at Bremen, Germany; date 

of settlement, January 15, 1854; died May, 1905. 
Jacob T. Van Vechten, born May 8, 1823, at Catskill, Greene county, 

N. Y. ; date of settlement, August 20, 1846; died February 15, 1907. 
Wareham P. Rix, born March 19, 1843, at Canada; date of settlement, 

April 15, 1845. 
John A. Rix, born December 26, 1834, at Massachusetts; date of set- 
tlement, April 15, 1845; died October 2^, 1887. 
Marvin Green, born October 26, 1808, at Carmel, Putnam county, N. 

Y. ; date of settlement. May 16, 1849; died February, 1901. 
Manson Farmer, born August 19, 1808, at Edenburgh, Saratoga 

county, N. Y. ; date of settlement, May 21, 1845; ^"^^^ June 12, 

Reuben S. Rusco, born October 18, 1816, at Onandaga county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, November 5, 1846; died October 18, 1896. 
Thomas Farmer, born October 27, 1838, at Tioga county, N. Y. ; date 

of settlement. May 21, 1845 '> <i'^*^ October 24, 1900. 
B. S. Weil, born June 29, 1802, at Strasburg, France; date of settle- 
ment, November i, 1845; died March 28, 1893. 
E. S. Weil, born February 4, 1847, at Schleisingerville, Washington 

county; date of settlement, February 4, 1847; died January 3, 191 1. 
Caspar Rehrl, bom December 31, 1809, at Salzburg, Austria; date of 

settlement, December, 1855; died September 3, 1881. 
Nic. Schwinn, born November 20, 1825, at Heltzweiler, Prussia; date 

of settlement, October 10, 1848. 
Willet R. Wescott, bom February 15, 1830, at Tioga county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, October 4, 1845; died November 25, 191 1. 
Thomas McHenry, born May 17, 1846, at Jefiferson county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, October 15, 1846. 
Horace Haner, born May 7, 1819, at Schoharie county, N. Y. ; date 

of settlement, November 10, 1845; died June 22, 1902. 
N. A. Potter, born March 20, 1814, at Pownell, Vermont; date of set- 
tlement, July 12, 1849; died April 12, 1894. 
John A. Robinson, born April 25, 181 5, at Killsborough county, N. H. ; 

date of settlement, February 22, 1854; died December 9, 1879. 


John Thielges, born October 19, 1830, at Rhineprovince, rrussia; date 

of settlement, July 5, 1852; died July 28, 1900. 
Wm. Rohn, born October i, 1804, at Leitmeritz, Austria; date of 

settlement, September 10, 1846; died May 18, 1891. 
J. \V. Everly, born February 26, 1824, at Dietlingen, Baden; date of 

settlement, August 15, 1843; died February 6, 1907. 
James Kenealy, Jr., born November 28, 1840, at Boston, Mass. ; date 

of settlement, August 15, 1849. 
Carl D. Wilke, born May 13, 181 1, at Langefeld, Waldeck; date of 

settlement, August 15, 1849; died April 6, 1899. 
Wm. Schroeder, born May 10, 1828, at Langefeld, Waldeck; date of 

settlement, November 15, 1847; died March 17, 19 10. 
S. F. Mayer, bom February i, 1854, at West Bend, Wis.; date of 

settlement, February i, 1854. 
Andrew Pick, bom July 4, 1851, at Milwaukee, Wis.; date of settle- 
ment, July 4, 1854; died August i, 19 10. 
C. H. Wilke, bom January 25, 1841, at Langefeld, Waldeck; date of 

settlement, August 15, 1849. 
John Pick, bom March 9, 1849, at Milwaukee, Wis.; date of settle- 
ment, July 4, 1854; died September 4, 1881. 
John Reisse, bom August 5, 1818, at Hofgeismar, Germany; date of 

settlement. May 15, 1848; died December 19, 1897. 
Andreas Schmidt, bom March 6, 1839, at Worbis, Prussia; date of 

settlement, October 15, 1852; died March 2, 1912. 
J. R. Kohlsdorf, born December 27, 181 5, at Breslau, Prussia; date of 

settlement, July i, 1853; died June 14, 1897. 
Mrs. P. O'Meara, born December 15, 1850, at West Bend, Wis.; date 

of settlement, December 15, 1850. 
Mrs. Mary M. Goetz, born August 18, 1846, at Detroit, Mich. ; date of 

settlement, April 15, 1847; died October i, 1901. 
Nathaniel Emery, born December 21, 1827, at Williamsburg, Canada; 

date of settlement, June 8, 1847. 
Mrs. Julia E. Semler, born July 20, 1842, at Dresden, Saxony; date 

of settlement, October 4, 1847; died January 15, 1895. 
Joseph Mann, born October 13, 1820, at Raudnitz, Austria; date of 

settlement, August 10, 1843; died May 6, 1887. 
Valentine Dhein, bom August 25, 1823, at Seckersbach, Germany; 

date of settlement, August 28, 1842; died September 22, 1892. 
H. Fischbein, born November i, 1847, at Saukville. Wis. ; date of set- 
tlement, November i, 1847. 


Mrs. Frances M. Winkler, born June 20, 1840, at Lima, Mich.; date 

of settlement, October 20, 1846. 
G. E. Weiss, born March 25, 1820, at Marienburg, Saxony; date of 

settlement, October i, 1847; died April 17, 1900. 
Mrs. Rosa W. Weiss, born November 20, 1838, at Austria; date of 

settlement, September 10, 1846; died May 17, 1907. 
Robert Salter, born December 23, 1815, at Ireland; date of settlement, 

June 18, 1846; died August i, 1876. 
Charles Wright, born September 12, 1822, at Dutchess county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement. May 20, 1855; died February 5, 1889. 
Ferd. Daegling, bom September 24, 1810, at Prussia; date of settle- 
ment, September 15, 1846; died January 15, 1901. 
Samuel Ingalls, bom September 12, 1822, at Genessee county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, Sept. 15, 1853. 
D. W. Maxon, born September 30, 1820, at Oneida county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, May 15, 1843; died March 21, 1887. 
Glen way Maxon, born December i, 1851, at Cedar Creek, Wis.; date 

of settlement, December 1, 1851. 
M. S. Fischbein, bom October 18, 1849, at Saukville, Wis.; date of 

settlement, October 18, 1849. 
William Little, bom in Ireland; date of settlement, September 4, 

James D. Smith, born August 17, 1795, at Washington county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, September 4, 1847; died June 29, 1883. 
James Carrel, bom May 15, 1822, at Addison county, Vermont; date 

of settlement. May 15, 185 1 ; died November 20, 1891. 
Samuel Anderson, born November 22, 181 5, at Oneida county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, September 20, 1845 ; died May 2, 1894. 
Asa Varney, bom June 16, 1816, at Addison county, N. Y. ; date of 

settlement, September 15, 1847; died July 10, 1900. 
Sanford J. Wilson, born December 8, 1833, at Hebron, Washington 

county, N. Y. ; date of settlement, November 18, 1844; died July 20, 

Richard C. Rohn, bom April 22, 1834, at Leitmeritz, Austria; date of 

settlement, September 10, 1846; died May 25, 1905. 
Peter Schwin, born September 19, 1808, at Saarlouis, Prussia; date of 

settlement, July 10, 1845 ; died December 24, 1902. 
Jacob Simon, bom April 4, 1819, at Saarlouis, Pmssia; date of set- 
tlement, April 15, 1844; died July 30, 1898. 
William Stewart, bom August 16, 181 6, at Perth county, Scotland; 

date of settlement, October 15, 1846; died October 28, 1892. 


H. Schacht, bom October i, 1825, at Ehringen, Kurlicsscn; date of 
settlement, Sept. i, 1850; died September 8, 1901. 

Peter Bach, born July 24, 1827, at Luxemburg; date of settlement, 
September 14, 1848; died November 22, 1903. 

Peter Boden, bom July 22, 1829, at Losine, Prussia; date of settle- 
ment, July 25, 1843. 

James Finnegan, bom January 12, 1839, at Ireland; date of settle- 
ment. May 20, 1850; died October 6, 1894. 

L. A. Clark, born April 3, 1824, at Oswego county, N. Y. ; date of set- 
tlement, January 27, 1846; died February 20, 1902. 

J. B. Rosco, born April 26, 1822, at Onandago county, N. Y. ; date of 
settlement, April 18, 1843; died June 3, 1900. 

J. H. Myers, born September 18, 1827, at Trumbull county, Ohio; 
date of settlement, November 15, 1847; died May 11, 1889. 

Wm. Johnson, born February 27, 1818, at Scipio, Cayuga county, N. 
Y. ; date of settlement, October 15, 1852 ; died April i, 1886. 

I. N. Frisby, bom March 6, 1820, at Mesopotamia, Ohio; date of set- 
tlement, June, 1850; died November 6, 1893. 

Wm. Clapham, born July 23, 1827, at Lincolnshire, England; date of 
settlement, November i, 1855; died July 26, 1907. 

Frederick O. Rohn, born March 5, 1839, at Leitmeritz, Austria ; date 
of settlement, September 10, 1846. 

John S. Douglas, born April 8, 182 1, at Madison county, N. Y. ; date 
of settlement, October 18, 1846; died Dec. 20, 1887. 

Leopold Mann, bom March 18, 1834, at Roundnitz, Austria; date of 
settlement, July 3, 1846. 

Frank Salter, born June, 1816, at Ireland; date of settlement, June 6, 
1846; died July 2, 1883. 

Otto Boesewetter, bom February 18, 1840, at Germany; date of settle- 
ment, November 10, 1854; died September 30, 1908. 

Gregory Cole, born May, 1830, in Ireland; date of settlement. May 8, 

Mathew F. Kiley, born January 10, 1846, at Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, January 10, 1846. 

Owen Harns, born July, 1809, at County South, Ireland; date of set- 
tlement, April 22, 1854; died December 9, 1889. 

Mrs. Clara Arzbacher, bom March 13, 1835, at Bavaria; date of set- 
tlement, April I, 1852. 

R. B. Salter, born April 11, 1854, at Jackson, Wis.; date of settle- 
ment, April II, 1854. 


Fred Scheiber, born September 2, 1843, ^^ Rhenish Prussia; date of 

settlement, September 2, 1847. 
Peter Fraser, born February 12, 1819, at Livingston county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, September 22, 1846; died November 22, 1900. 
A. C. Fuge, born April 25, 1835, at Tastungen, Prussia; date of set- 
tlement June 21, 1847; died December 12, 1911. 
Ph. J. Brissel, born November 5, 1822, at Hesse-Darmstadt; date of 

settlement, June 4, 1848; died August, 191 1. 
A. M. Thomson, born May 30, 1822, at Pittsburg, Pa.; date of set- 
tlement, April 19, 1848; died June 9, 1898. 
P. W. Harns, bom July 3, 1849, at Monroe county, N. Y. ; date of 

settlement, April 22, 1854; died April 14, 1907. 
F. H. Haase, bom June 5, 1831, at Mecklenburg-Schwerin ; date of 

settlement, February 20, 1855; died March 28, 1908. 
John Clovif, born February 3, 1808, at Athens, Greene county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, June 15, 1848; died September 27, 1885. 
Andrew Martin, bom June i, 1830, at Germany; date of settlement, 

June 26, 1853; died June 30, 191 1. 
Mrs. Lovina Frisby, born Nov. 29, 1783, at Castleton, Rutland county, 

Vermont; date of settlement, September 20, 1848; died July 31, 

Mrs. Joseph Ott, bom January 19, 1855, at West Bend, Wis. ; date of 

settlement, January 19, 1855. 
Mrs. Wm. Wightman, bom October 5, 1808, at East Avon, Livingston 

county, N. Y. ; date of settlement, October 20, 1846; died January 

18, 1903. 
Mrs. E. L. Thomson, born February 7, 1822, at Barre, Washington 

county, Vermont; date of settlement, April 19, 1848; died July 8, 

Henry Albinger, born September 19, 1823, at Kur-Hessen, Ger- 
many; date of settlement, October 15, 1844; died October 19, 1899. 
Peter Walter, born January 28, 1832, at Kur-Hessen, Germany; date 

of settlement, August 15, 1854; died September 10, 1886. 
Mrs. Martha E. Miller, bom August 13, 1833, at Lima, Mich.; date 

of settlement, October 20, 1846. 
Mrs. Eliza A. Weil, bom November 3, 1832, at Angelica, N. Y. ; date 

of settlement, October i, 185 1. 
Mrs. Mary A. Frisby, born October 20, 1848, at Allentown, Pa. ; date 

of settlement. September i, 1855; died September 24, 1878. 
Mrs. Elizabeth T. Burgess, born December 23, 1838, at Terrydremont, 

Ireland: date of settlement, September i, 1855. 


Abigail A. Johnson, born July 3, 1833, at Bradford county, Pa. ; date 
of settlement, 1845; died August 23, 1901. 

Mrs. Samuel Ingalls, born November 19, 1828, at Genessce county, 
N. Y. ; date of settlement. September 15, 1853. 

John Rosenheimer, born June 25, 1847, at Addison, Wash, county, 
W'is. ; date of settlement, June 25, 1847. 

B. Goetter, born May 24, 1817, at Hesse-Darmstadt; date of settle- 
ment, August 15, 1846; died Sept. 21, 1889. 

Louis Geier, born March 2y, 1839, at Hesse-Dannstadt ; date of set- 
tlement, April 15, 1855; date of death unknown. 

John May, bom March 10, 1815, at Hesse-Darmstadt; date of settle- 
ment, September 16, 1853; died September 5, 1900. 

Wm. J. LeCount, born February 2'j, 1834, at Lyons, Wayne county, 
N. Y. ; date of settlement, January i, 1854 ; died November 23, 1904. 

Chas. Smith, bom February 6, 1826, at Hatfield, Mass.; date of set- 
tlement, September i, 1845; died August 29, 1896. 

E. Franckenberg, born November i, 1827, at Hanover, Germany; date 
of settlement, March i, 1856. 

Wm. Templeton, bom November 26, 1848, at Trenton, Washington 
county, Wis. ; date of settlement, November 26, 1848. 

Dorsey Smith, bom September 13, 1850, at New Berlin, Waukesha 
county, Wis.; date of settlement, January i, 1852; date of death 

H. P. Fames, born November 29, 181 5, at Washington, Mass.; date 
of settlement, October 23, 1853; died February 15, 1892. 

Frederick Roll, bom May 5, 1819, at Switzerland; date of settle- 
ment, November i, 1844; died February 9, 1896. 

John Lacraft, bom July 20, 1820, at Toronto; date of settlement, No- 
vember 21, 1847; died January 7, 1886. 

M. L. Schwin, born August 10, 185 1, at Farniington, \\'ashington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, August 10, 185 1; died July 5, 

Damian Hirschboeck, born February 2j, 1831, at Burgheim, Bavaria; 
date of settlement, April i, 1855; died February 8. 1902. 

Herman Gruhle, born May 30, 1832, at Saxony; date of settlement. 
May I, 1849; died Feb. i, 1906. 

J. R. Taylor, born March 28, 1813, at Cayuga county, N. Y. ; date 
of settlement, Jan. 25, 1845; died Jan. 30. 1905. 

P. C. Schmidt, Jr., born May 17, 1853. at Cincinnati. Ohio; date of 
settlement, August ig, 1856. 


John Moran, born June 24, 182 1, at King county, Ireland; date of set- 
tlement, September 13, 1850; died September 26, 1882. 

B. S. Potter, born February 3, 1836, at Elba, Genessee county, N. Y. ; 
date of settlement, September 6, 1856; died September 23, 1908. 

Mrs. J. T. VanVechten, born April 14, 1831, at Syracuse, N. Y. ; 
date of settlement, February 4, 185 1 ; died October 30, 1895. 

Mrs. H. P. Fames, born January 14, 181 8, at Berkshire county, Mass. ; 
date of settlement, October 23, 1853; died January 21, 1906. 

Mrs. W. R. Wescott, born September 25, 1846, at Wauwatosa, Wis. ; 
date of settlement, Sept. 15, 1847. 

Daniel W. Lynch, bom November 15, 1847, ^t Cedarburg, Wis.; 
date of settlement, November 15, 1847; died June 25, 1906. 

Michael Bohan, bom June 22, 1832, at Ireland; date of settlement. 
May 25, 1846; died August 7, 1900. 

Mrs. M. Lacraft, born August 14, 1825, at Ashtabula, Ohio; date of 
settlement, November 19, 1847; died January 17, 1892. 

Mrs. E. C. Knapp, born August 28, 1843, at Jordan, N. Y. ; date of 
settlement, July, 1849; died December 14, 1896. 

Mrs. N. A. Potter, born May 27, 1819, at Skaneateles, N. Y. ; date of 
settlement, July, 1849; died October 5, 1895. 

Mrs. A. J. Wright, bom June 29, 1827, at Onondaga county, N. Y. ; 
date of settlement, July 7, 1855. 

Mrs. N. N. Emery, born September 5, 1836, at Livingston county, 
N. Y. ; date of settlement, October 14, 1846. 

Mrs. M. L. Rix, born November 19, 1847, at Jackson, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, November 19, 1847; died Decem- 
ber 7, 1889. 

Mrs. Ellen S. Barney, born December 2, 1843, at Mount Morris, Liv- 
ingston county, N. Y. ; date of settlement, 1854; died September 3, 

Mrs. Mary A. Eraser, bom March 25, 1823, at Avon, Livingston 
county, N. Y. ; date of settlement, March 2, 1854; died May 5, 1889. 

Mrs.-M. B. Potter, born February 27, 1827, at Genessee county, N. Y. ; 
date of settlement, March i, 1849; died January 5, 1882. 

Mrs. D. W. Maxon, bom February 22, 1828, at Catskill, N. Y. ; date 
of settlement, August 27, 1837. 

Mrs. A. L. Wilke, bom July 21, 1843, at Saxony; date of settlement, 
February 5, 1855. 

Mrs. A. H. Schroeder, bom July 9, 1836, at Saxony; date of settle- 
ment, February 5, 1855. 


Herman Gottsleben, born March 9, 182 1, at Hildesheim, Hanover; 
date of settlement, August jg, 1846; died April 9, 1902. 

Mrs. P. F. Gottsleben, born April 2, 1828, at Leitmeritz, Bohemia; 
date of settlement, September 10, 1846; died July 25, 1900. 

J. Ross Rice, bom June 6, 1842, at Medina county, Ohio; date of set- 
tlement, May 4, 1855. 

Mrs. J. H. Meyers, born March 25, 1840, at Onondaga county, N. Y. ; 
date of settlement, November, 1849; died November 21, 1908. 

Ph. Schneider, born November 30, 1826, at Germany; date of settle- 
ment, October 14, 1846; died January 12, 1902. 

Frederic Wolfrum, born February 19, 1832, at Bavaria; date of settle- 
ment, November, 185 1 ; died June 18, 1909. 

Mrs. Cora Wolfrum, born December 22, 1840, at Michigan; date of 
settlement, November, 1846; died November 17, 1907. 

G. A. Kuechenmeister, born March 11, 1850, at Washington county, 
Wisconsin; date of settlement, March 11, 1850. 

Mrs. Jane Salter, born November 18, 1827, at County Cork, Ireland ; 
date of settlement, June, 1846; died December 16, 1897. 

Mrs. Lizzie W. Hams, bom December 16, 1856, at Milwaukee, Wis. ; 
date of settlement, January, 1858. 

Frederika Frisby, born March 17, 1852, at Newburg, Wis.; date of 
settlement, March 17, 1852. 

Mathilda W. Nolting, born April 3, 1852, at Jackson, Washington 
county, Wis. ; date of settlement, April 3, 1852. 

Mrs. Mary Farmer, born March 22, 1813, at Windham, Bradford 
county, Tenn. ; date of settlement, November 9, 1845; died Novem- 
ber 30, 1896. 

Mrs. Miranda N. Varney, born August 24, 1819, at Cuyahoga county, 
Ohio; date of settlement, November, 1847; died Feb. 27, 1896. 

Mrs. Anna Schuler, born May 4, 1849, at Oneida county, N. Y. ; date 
of settlement. May 6, 1855. 

Elias A. Calkins, born February 7, 1828, at Royalton, Niagara county, 
N. Y. ; date of settlement, October 7, 1843. 

Mrs. Armina Salisbury, born May 30, 1814, at Irisburg, Vermont: 
date of settlement, 1839; died March 21, 1890. 

Mrs. Anna E. Hunt, born May 2, 1841, at Mequon, Wis.; date of 
settlement, May 2, 1841. 

Mrs. Anna Leisgang, born June 12, 1840, at Germany; date of set- 
tlement, 1847; died June 2, 1908. 

A. Rolfe, born June 18, 1825, at Hillsborough, N. H. ; died January 
ID, 1892. 


M. E. Rolfe, born July lo, 1838, at Painesville, Ohio; date of settle- 
ment, 1847; died August 11, 1875. 

Mrs. Mary E. Rolfe, born September 8, 1857, at Polk, Washington 
county, Wis.; date of settlement, September 8, 1857. 

C. A. Schroeder, born March 30, 1856, at Town of West Bend, Wash- 
ington county, Wis.; date of settlement, March 30, 1856. 

A. Kuehlthau, born May 16, 1840, at Erie, Pa.; date of settlement, 
March i, 1851; died February 6, 1906. 

Mrs. Cora M. Powers, bom December 23, 1849, ^t Hartford, Wis. ; 
date of settlement, December 2^, 1849; <^i^d J^'y 3°! 1909. 

August Backhaus, born March i, 1851, at Prussia; date of settle- 
ment, September 3, 1853; died February 11, 1909. 

Mathias Regner, born Nov. 8, 1839, at Spiesheim, Hessia; date of 
settlement, July 3, 1856. 

Chas. F. Leins, born June 4, 1852, at Town of Polk, Washington 
county. Wis. ; date of settlement, June 4, 1852. 

B. C. Rix, born April 14, 1845, at Town of Polk, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, April 14, 1845. 

Mrs. Eliza M. Rix, born January 26, 1854, at Trenton, Washington 

county. Wis.; date of settlement, January 26, 1854. 
Mrs. Amelia A. Harding, born January 16, 1827, at Leitmeritz, Aus- 
tria; date of settlement, September 8, 1846. 
Mrs. Julia E. Wood, born October 29, 1831, at Albany county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, 1844; died July 15, 1898. 
Mrs. H. W. Sawyer, bom February 15, 1851, at Hartford, Wis.; 

date of settlement, February 15, 1851. 
Michael Ruplinger, born July 22, 1850, at Polk, Washington county. 

Wis. ; date of settlement, July 22, 1850. 
Jacob Moersfelder, Jr., born May 7, 1846, at Hesse-Darmstadt; date 

of settlement. May 7, 1855. 
Jacob Myers, born November 4, 1840, at Allegheny county. Pa.; date 

of settlement, October 28, 1849; died August 8, 1908. 
Henry Bratz, born November 8, 1838, at Lassenburg, Pommerania; 

date of settlement, July, 1853. 
Don Cameron, born May 16, 1856, at Trenton, Washington county, 

Wis.; date of settlement. May 16, 1856. 
M. N. Thinnes, bom September 7, 1850, at Town of West Bend, 

Washington county. Wis.; date of settlement, Sept. 7, 1850. 
S. C. Lang, born March 24, 1853, at Trenton, Washington county. 

Wis. ; date of settlement, March 24, 1853. 


Michael Foley, born February 25, 1845, at Erin, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, February 25, 1845; died June 10, 1892. 

Oscar Seliger, born January 20, 185 1, at Fannington, Wasliington 
county, Wis. ; date of settlement, January 20, 185 1. 

Wm. M. Colvin, born April 14, 1835, at New York; date of settle- 
ment, April 15, 1848. 

Ludwig Joeckel, bom June 20, 1806, at Mainz, Germany; date of set- 
tlement, September, 1843; died March 10, 1892. 

George Duerr, born March 5, 1827, at Wuertemberg, Germany; date 
of settlement, June, 1849; died September, 1903. 

Patrick Keown, born March 17, 1822, at County of Down, Ireland; 
date of settlement. May 2, 1845; died May 10, 1892. 

Sebastian Keller, bom January 22, 1830, at Bavaria, Germany; date 
of settlement, Oct. 18, 1855. 

F. W. Schroeder born May 7, 1818, at Langefeld, Waldeck, Gennany ; 
date of settlement, November 15, 1847; died August 7, 1899. 

P. C. Schmidt, born October 24, 1824, at Kempfeld, Prussia; date 
of settlement, June 8, 1851 ; died July 17, 1901. 

Michael Immel, born February 24, 1856, at West Bend, Washington 
county. Wis. ; date of settlement, February 24, 1856. 

George Salter, born August 18, 1864, at Jackson, Washington county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, August 18, 1864. 

Mrs. George Salter, born September 5, 1864, at Trenton, Washington 
county, Wis. ; date of settlement, September 5, 1864. 

Mrs. H. Williams, born July 11, 1832, at Dexter, Mich.; date of set- 
tlement, October 20, 1846; died January 18, 1892. 

Mrs. Hortense Weil Schreier, born July 8, 1854, at West Bend, 
Wis. ; date of settlement, July 8, 1854. 

Mrs. Andrew Pick, born January 9, 1856, at West Bend, Wis. ; date 
of settlement, January 9, 1856. 

Mrs. Esther Robertson, born July 24, 1838, at Spring Valley, Minn. ; 
date of settlement, 1845; died April 26, 1899. 

John Klumb, born November 24, 1864, at West Bend, Wis.; date of 
settlement, November 24, 1864. 

Wm. H. Ramsey, born July i, 1827, at Greenfield, N. H. ; date of set- 
tlement, November, 1847; died March 7, 1912. 

Mrs. Frankey Mayer, born February 21, 1853, at Barton, Washing- 
ton county, Wis.; date of settlement, Feb. 21, 1853. 

Mrs. Mary Meyer, born February 7, 1827, at Prussia, Germany; date 
of settlement, 1840. 


Mrs. A. C. Fuge, bom November 25, 1837, at Prussia, Germany; date 
of settlement, June 27, 1856. 

Mrs. A. Kuehlthau, bom January 11, 1846, at Prussia, Germany; date 
of settlement, August i, 1870. 

A. H. Pfeiffer, born November 14, 1853, at Milwaukee, Wis. ; date of 
settlement, August 15, 1849; died August i, 1895. 

Mrs. Jane Rohn, born June 16, 1845, at Langefeld, Waldeck, Ger- 
many; date of settlement, August 29, 1849. 

Mrs. E. Franckenberg, bom September 16, 1849, at Barton, Wis.; 
date of settlement, September 16, 1849. 

Mrs. L. D. Reisse, born January 11, 1827, at Strasburg, Alsace; date 
of settlement, May, i860; died September 12, 1900. 

Mrs. M. Liebig, born February 15, 1850, at West Bend; date of set- 
tlement, February 15, 1850. 

Wm. Peters, born March 15, 1858, at West Bend; date of settle- 
ment, March 15, 1858. 

John Lohr, born February 5, 1855, at Weinolsheim, Germany; date 
of settlement, July 5, 1861. 

Max Gruhle, born August 23, 1853, at Farmington, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, August 23, 1853. 

N. S. Gilson, bom March 23, 1839, at Middlefield, Ohio; date of set- 
tlement, April, i860. 

Byron Fairbanks, born January 23, 1847, at Antwerp, N. Y. ; date of 
settlement, December 28, i860. 

August Bastian, born July 14, 1855, at Barton, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, July 14, 1855. 

T. H. Walther, born October 24, 1847, at Saxe-Weimar; date of set- 
tlement, September, 1854; died May 30, 1906. 

J. A. Christnacht, born October 4, 1854, at Hartford, Washington 
county. Wis. ; date of settlement, October 4, 1854. 

Wm. Froehlich, born June 22, 1857, at Jackson, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, June 22, 1857. 

John Treviranus, bom June 23, 1849, at Trenton, Washington county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, June 23, 1849. 

F. P. Leich, born October 5, 1839, at Nassau; date of settlement, 
September 15, 1867. 

E. M. Rogers, born January 14, 1832, at Windham, Bradford county. 
Pa. ; date of settlement, March 18, 1856. 

Matt. Altenhofen, bom January 31, 1831, at Germany; date of set- 
tlement, June, 1847; died October 18, 1893. 


Carl Wittig, born March 29, 1838, at Germany; date of settlement, 
March, 1850; died December 28, 1895. 

Mrs. S. F. Mayer, born June 28, 1857, at Schleisingerville, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, June 28, 1857. 

Mrs. Mary A. Pick, born September 8, 1850, at West Bend; date of 
settlement, September 8, 1850. 

Mrs. Charlotte A. Rix, born November 15, 1855, at West Bend; date 
of settlement, November 15, 1855. 

Mrs. Anna Bohn, born August 18, 1850, at Germany; date of settle- 
ment, 1859. 

Mrs. Susanna Mayer, born February 28, 1836, at Prussia, Germany; 
date of settlement, 1840; died October 18, 1900. 

John H. Langler, bom October 28, 1827, at England; date of settle- 
ment, October 28, 1849; ^'^<i November 4, 1893. 

Mrs. E. I. Langler, bom December 24, 1829, at Newfoundland; date 
of settlement, June 26, 1848. 

Mrs. M. Kuechenmeister, born August 15, 1848, at Paris, France; 
date of settlement, October, 1852. 

Mrs. John Rosenheimer, bom January 12, 1846, at New York ; date of 
settlement. May, 1848. 

Gerhard Wenninger, born January i, i860, at Addison, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, January i, i860. 

Nicholas Schottler, born January 16, 1843, at Hesse-Darmstadt; date 
of settlement, June, 1846. 

Mrs. Anna Schottler, born June 17, 1849, at Germantown, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, June 17, 1849; died June 13, 

Moritz Rosenheimer, born January 21, 1850, at Addison, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, January 21, 1850. 

Mrs. Lena Rosenheimer, born October 17, 1850, at Addison, Wash- 
ington county, Wis.; date of settlement, October 17, 1850; died De- 
cember 17, 191 1. 

Adolph Rosenheimer, born March 25, 1861, at Schleisingerville. Wash- 
ington county. Wis.; date of settlement, March 25, 1861. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Rosenheimer, born January 25, 1862, at Wayne, 
Washington county. Wis.; date of settlement, January 25, 1862. 

H. J. Lay, born March 16, 1859, at Wayne, Washington county. Wis. ; 

date of settlement, March 16, 1859; died Nov. 25, 1907. 
Mrs. Katherine Lay, born May 2, i860, at Wayne, Washington county, 
Wis. ; date of settlement, May 2, i860. 


A. G. Koch, born November 7, 1859, at Kewaskum; date of settlement, 

November 7, 1859. 
Wm. Krahn, bom December 28, 1829, at Pommerania, Germany; date 

of settlement, May 4, 1856; died July 21, 1899. 
Mrs. Henrietta Krahn, bom October 14, 1840, at Silesia, Germany; 

date of settlement, May, 1855. 
Carl Kuehn, born January 21, 1834, at Brandenburg, Germany; date 

of settlement, August 24, 1867. 
Henry Backhaus, bom December 29, 1822, at Naugard, Prussia; date 

of settlement, October, 1850; died December 25, 1910. 
Mrs. Carolina Backhaus, born March 27, 1836, at Stagert, Prussia; 

date of settlement, June, 1854; died March 5, 1900. 
Henry Backhaus, Jr., born May 19, 1856, at Kewaskum, Washington 

county. Wis.; date of settlement. May 19, 1856. 
Mrs. Matilda Stark, bom April 24, 1862, at Kewaskum, Wash- 
ington county, Wis. ; date of settlement, April 24, 1862. 
N. Guth, Sr., bom December 29, 1832, at Hesse-Darmstadt; date of 

settlement, June, 1846; died June 13, 19 10. 
John Strobel, born June 10, 1847, at Columbiana county, Ohio; date 

of settlement, April, 1862. 
Mrs. Katherine Strobel, born October 23, 1850, at Kewaskum, 

Washington county. Wis.; date of settlement, October 23, 1850; 

died March 25, 1908. 
F. Gottsleben, born Nov. 17, 1861, at West Bend; date of settlement, 

November 17, 1861. 
Mrs. Magdalena Gottsleben, bom March 18, 1864, at Jackson, Wash- 
ington county. Wis.; date of settlement, March 18, 1864. 
Gearry B. Wright, born January 21, 1852, at Lyons, Wayne county, 

N. Y. ; date of settlement. May 20. 1855. 
Mrs. Emma Wright, bom July 30, 1861, at Kewaskum, Washington 

county, Wis.; date of settlement, July 30, 1861. 
David C. Casey, born August 15, 1836, at Boston, Mass.; date of 

settlement, October, 1849; died January 22, 1902. 
Michael Gehl, Sr., born May 22, 1839, at Luxemburg, Germany ; date 

of settlement, May 21, 1846; died July i, 1910. 
Mrs. Theresa Gehl, bom March 19, 1842, at Luxemburg, Germany; 

date of settlement. 1846. 
Arthur Franckenberg, born July i, 1863, at Newburg, Washington 

county. Wis.; date of settlement, July i, 1863. 
Ferdinand Kuechenmeister, born June 27. 1825, at Sonizig, Saxony; 

date of settlement, 1849; died October 22, 1905. 


Heinrich Brinker, born June 14, 1815, at Osnabruck, Hanover; date 
of settlement, August, 1S52; died January 6, 1905. 

Paul M. Weil, born May 18, 1856, at Barton, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, May 18, 1856; died August 20, 1905. 

Peter Cameron, born May 24, 185 1, at Trenton, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement. May 24, 1851 ; died August 6, 1900. 

Adolph A. Wendel, born March 30, 1867; at Hancock, Mich.; date 
of settlement, September, 1869. 

Joseph Ott, born March 10, 1847, at Marshallsville, Ohio; date of 
settlement, May, 1861. 

Henry Lemke, born September 14, 1843, at Mecklenburg; tlate of 
settlement, January, 1851. 

Mrs. Miena Lemke, bom December 23, 1850, at Milwaukee; date of 
settlement, April, 1864. 

Fred G. Schlamer, born September 22, 1858, at Trenton, Washing- 
ton county, Wis.; date of settlement, September 22, 1858. 

Mrs. Anna Schlamer, born January 23, 1858, at West Bend ; date of 
settlement, January 23, 1858. 

Philip Heipp, born February 12, 1843, at Eckweiler, Prussia, Ger- 
many; date of settlement, 1854. 

Mrs. Augusta Labisky, born February 9. 1858, at Newburg, Wash- 
ington county. Wis.; date of settlement, Feb. 9, 1858. 

Mrs. Hortense Mooers, born May 15, 1864, at West Bend; date of 
settlement. May 15, 1864. 

Mrs. Susanna Treviranus, born September i, 1853, at Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, Germany; date of settlement, 1864. 

Mrs. Mary B. Klumb, born March 25, 1864, at Town of West Bend, 
Washington county, Wis.; date of settlement, March 25, 1864. 

Charles Mayer, born May 24, 1850, at Germantown, Washington 
county, Wis.; date of settlement. May 24, 1850; died February 6, 

H. W. Sawyer, born June 11, 1843, at Haverhill, N. H. ; date of 
settlement, November 12, 1867. 

Mrs. Jane Myers, born December 25, 1844, at St. Mary's, Canada; 
date of settlement, November, 1855. 

Geo. P. Boden, born January 9, 1855, at Town of Barton. Washing- 
ton county; date of settlement, January 9. 1855. 

Mrs. Emma Boden, born September 17, 1854, at Milwaukee, Wis.; 
date of settlement, September 21, 1858. 

Eugene Courtney, born August 16, 1844. at Milwaukee. Wis. ; date of 
settlement, December 3, 1844; died December 31, 1907. 


J. G. Frank, born June 24, 1832, at Breslau, Germany; date of settle- 
ment, April 4, 1849. 
Mrs. Maria Pick, born July 13, 1821, at Wuertemburg, Germany; 

date of settlement, July 3, 1855. 
Mrs. Augusta Wilke, bom September 21, 1858, at West Bend; date of 

settlement, September 21, 1858. 
Chauncey Gray, born November 12, 1824, at Dorset, Vermont; date 

of settlement, March, 1849. 
Mrs. Caroline Gray, born December 8, 1832, at Phelps, Ontario 

county, N. Y. ; date of settlement, July, 1850. 
Ulrich Ruber, bom March 29, 1849, at Switzerland; date of settle- 
ment, 1855. 
Chas. A. Weil, bom March 20, 1866, at West Bend; date of settlement, 

March 20, 1866. 
Henry B. Schwin, bom March i, 1844, at Trier, Prussia, Germany; 

date of settlement, August, 1845 ; died August 14, 1904. 
Mrs. Barbara Schwin, born July 11, 1848, at New York; date of 

settlement, 1850. 
Frederick Stork, bom October 28, 1854, at Barton, Wis.; date of 

settlement, October 28, 1854. 
Mrs. Henrietta Stork, bom June 12, 1855, at Young America, Wis.; 

date of settlement, June 12, 1855. 
Henry Hamm, born May 14, 1856, at Hesse-Darmstadt; date of 

settlement, September, 1869. 
Mrs. Louisa Hamm, born July 30, 1857, at Washington county. Wis. ; 

date of settlement, July 30, 1857. 
Jacob Hamm, born July 17, 1846, at Hesse-Darmstadt; date of settle- 
ment, July, 1868; died June 11, 191 1. 
Mrs. Wilhelmina Hamm, born January 25, 1849, ^t Washington 

county. Wis. ; date of settlement, January 25, 1849. 
A. E. Gray, born January 16, 1865, at Washington county. Wis. ; 

date of settlement, January 16, 1865. 
Mrs. Louise Bennett, bom October 3, 1866, at Washington county. 

Wis.; date of settlement, October 3, 1866. 
John Klessig, born December 7, 1858, at Washington county. Wis.; 

date of settlement, December 7, 1858. 
Mrs. Selma Klessig, bom September 18, 1862, at Washington county. 

Wis. ; date of settlement, September 18, 1862. 
Mrs. Clara Westenberger, born January 7, 1865, at Washington 

county, Wis. ; date of settlement, January 7, 1865. 


Charles Ehlert, born August 14, 1848, at Parcliim, Mecklenburg, 
Germany; date of settlement, June, 1850. 

Mrs. Ida Ehlert, born July 5, 1854, at Town of Barton, Washington 
county; date of settlement, July 5, 1854. 

Joseph Rosenheimer, born March 18, 1859, at Schleisingerville, 
Washington county; date of settlement, March 18, 1859. 

Frank M. Johnson, born November i, 1853, at Kewaskum, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, November i, 1853. 

Mrs. Ella C. Johnson, bom January 29, 1856, at West Bend; date of 
settlement, January 29, 1856. 

Fred M. Schuler, born December 2, 1866, at Young America, Wash- 
ington county; date of settlement, December 2, 1866. 

Mrs. John A. Christnacht, born May 19, 1856, at West Bend ; date of 
settlement. May 19, 1856. 

Mrs. Juliana Weninger, born Oct. 12, i860, at Addison, Washington 
county, Wis.; date of settlement, October 12, i860. 

Mrs. Rosa Lohr, born April 13, 1854, at Polk, Washington county, 
Wis. ; date of settlement, April 13, 1854. 

Thos. Bruhy, born February 24, 1861, at Philadelphia, Pa.; date of 
settlement, March 10, 1865. 

John Horlamus, Jr., bom May 17, 1863, at West Bend; date of set- 
tlement, May 17, 1863. 

W. E. Wolfrum, born May 29, 1867, at West Bend ; date of settle- 
ment, May 29, 1867. 

Anton F. Bratz, bom September 21, 1849, at Farmington, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, September 21, 1849. 

Henry P. Schmidt, born Oct. 25, 1865, at Young America, Wash- 
ington county; date of settlement, October 25, 1865. 

Ulrich Senn, born June 9, 1829, at Switzerland ; date of settlement. 
May I, 1852; died, date unknown. 

Henry Jansen, bom August 2, 1857, at Barton, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, August 2, 1857. 

Michael Peters, born Dec. 20, 1838, at Hammersum, Kreis Cleve, 
Germany; date of settlement, May 22, 1858; died December 9, 

Mrs. Michael Peters, born May 5, 1844, at Randolph. Portage county, 
Ohio; date of settlement, May, 1850. 

Henry Sievers, born July 17, 1856, at Newburg, Washington county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, July 17. 1856; died April 14, 1903. 

E. W. Wittig, born June 14, 1866, at Fillmore, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, June 14, 1866. 


Mrs. Alma Wittig, born June 29, 1866, at Fillmore, Washington 

county, Wis. ; date of settlement, June 29, 1866. 
Carl Hoerig, born March 29, 1839, at Germany; date of settlement, 

May 28, 1 851; died December 17, 1901. 
Florian Lauer, born January 2, 1853, at Milwaukee county, Wis.; 

date of settlement, 1854; died June 18, 1905. 
Henry Krieger, bom November 6, 1853, at Milwaukee, Wis.; date 

of settlement, 1855; died April 27, 1898. 
Mrs. Pauline Bruhy, born May 28, 1863, at West Bend ; date of set- 
tlement. May 28, 1863. 
Peter Detuncq, born June 24, 1820, at Picardy, France; date of 

settlement, September, 1854; died July 27, 1900. 
Adolph E. Detuncq, born December 2, 1859, at West Bend; date of 

settlement, December 2, 1859. 
Mrs. Ida L. Wilson, born July 2^, 1867, at West Bend; date of set- 
tlement, July zy, 1867. 
L. B. Root, bom October 12, 1837, at Albion, Orleans county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, October 20, 1855. 
John McHenry, born November 11, 1837, at Jefferson county, N. Y. ; 

date of settlement, October, 1846; died October 30, 1897. 
Mrs. Frances E. Ott Bovee, born May 29, 1862, at West Bend; 

date of settlement. May 29, 1862. 
George Leisgang, born November 14, 1834, at Germany; date of 

settlement, July 20, 1861. 
Mrs. Augusta Bolton, born October i, 1853, at Germany; date of 

settlement, October, 1865. 
John Hams, born June 3, 1846, at New York; date of settlement, 

April 5, 1853. 
Mrs. Theresia Lauer, born Oct. 25, 1858, at West Bend; date of 

settlement, October 25, 1858. 
John H. Emmett, born June 22, 1847, ^t St. John's, Newfoundland; 

date of settlement, 1850. 
Philip Herriges, born October 13, 1867, at Farmington, Washington 

county, Wis.; date of settlement, October 13, 1867. 
Thomas Toner, born May, 1847, at County South, Ireland; date of 

settlement, April 15, 1853. 
Mrs. Helena Keeley, born September 30, 1863, at West Bend; date 

of settlement, September 30, 1863; died January 19, 1902. 
William Weddig, bom February 16, 1865, at Kewaskum, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, February 16, 1865. 


August Hager, born April 13, 1842, at Westphalia, Germany; date 
of settlement, January 27, 1857. 

Solon Yahr, born March 31, 1850, at Farmington, Washington 
county, Wis.; date of settlement, March 31, 1850. 

Mrs. Susanna Janssen, bom March 23, 1852, at Kewaskum, Wash- 
ington county. Wis.; date of settlement, March 23, 1852. 

Peter Lochen, bom June 27, 1840, at Trier, Germany; date of settle- 
ment, June 15, i860. 

Mrs. Susanna Lochen, born May 23, 1846, at Milwaukee county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, 1848. 

Timothy Foley, born August 14, 1857, at Erin, W^ashington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, August 14, 1857. 

Gad W. Root, born August i, 1827, at Streetsborough, Ohio; date of 
settlement, August, 1846. 

Dwight Jackson, born Nov. 4, 1837, at Hampton, Conn. ; date of 
settlement, April 17, 1857. 

John C. Denison, born August 7, 1832, at Hampton, Conn.; date of 
settlement, August, 1855. 

John C. Coerper, born September 3, 1857, at Milwaukee; date of 
settlement, April 4, 1861. 

F. M. LeCount, born October 8, 1865, at Hustisford, Dodge county, 
Wisconsin; date of settlement, 1868. 

John P. Goetz, born December 17, 1835, at Saxe-Coburg; date of 
settlement, April 15, 1858; died May 14, 1900. 

Mrs. Agnes Goetz, bom February 11, 1846, at Brandenburg, Ger- 
many; date of settlement, September, 1852. 

Christopher Coerper, bom January 8, 1832, at Rheinpfalz, Bavaria, 
Germany; date of settlement, April 4, 1861 ; died October 15, 1903. 

Mrs. Magdalena Coerper, bom February 5, 1833, at Rhenish Prussia, 
Germany; date of settlement, April 4, 1861. 

George C. Coerper, born July 11, 1864, at Hartford, Wasliington 
county, Wis.; date of settlement, July 11, 1864. 

August Konrad, born September 17, 1849, at Milwaukee, Wis.; 
date of settlement, November, 1855. 

Wm. O. Nanscawen, born February 18, 1847, at Hartford. Wash- 
ington county. Wis.; date of settlement, February 18, 1847. 

Elmo W. Sawyer, born August 18, 1871. at Hartford, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, August 18, 1871. 

F. W. Rogers, born March 28, 1863, at Scott, Sheboygan county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, 1865. 


Robert Freeman, born November 19, 1829, at Ohio; date of settle- 
ment, November 5, 1853; died January 6, 1905. 

J. O. Kendall, bom January 4, 1821, at Ashley, Mass.; date of settle- 
ment, December 10, 1856; died May 11, 1901. 

Mrs. W. S. Melcher, born February 22, 1858, at Waukesha, Wis.; 
date of settlement, 1861. 

Dow Maxon, born December 25, 1853,. at Polk, Washington county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, December 25, 1853. 

Lorenz Guth, born August 3, 1824, at Stacken, Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Germany; date of settlement, June 10, 1846; died February 3, 1901. 

Lorenz Guth, Jr., born August 30, 1848, at Polk, Washington county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, August 30, 1848. 

Mrs. Barbara Guth, born May 25, 1852, at Polk, Washington county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, May 25, 1852. 

Geo. McLaughlin, born December 28, 1844, at Canada; date of set- 
tlement, 1850. 

Fred Karsten, born Sept. 11, 1845, at Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Ger- 
many; date of settlement, October i, 1856. 

Mrs. Christina Karsten, born May 13, 1845; date of settlement, May 
15, 1856. 

Ch. Karsten, bom Dec. i, 1814, at Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany; 
date of settlement, October i, 1856; died April 18, 1897. 

Jos. H. Niebler, born March 12, 1856, at Barton, Washington county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, March 12, 1856. 

Mrs. J. H. Niebler, bom August 29, 1859, at Racine, Wis. ; date of 
settlement, August, 1861. 

Mrs. Jennie M. Biersach, born March 22, 1853, at Schoharie, N. Y. ; 
date of settlement, June, 1855. 

Louisa A. Morehouse, born March 9, 1850, at Syracuse, N. Y. ; 
date of settlement, June, 1861. 

Mrs. Alvina Horlamus, born August 14, 1867, at West Bend; date of 
settlement, August 14, 1867. 

L. F. Gordon, born May 11, 1865, at Boltonville, Washington county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, May 11, 1865. 

Fred. Timmler, born November 25, 1825, at Rhoda, Germany; date 
of settlement, March 25, 1855; died February 8, 1908. 

Mrs. Louisa W. Marcellus, born September 3, 1834, at Solon, Court- 
land county, N. Y. ; date of settlement, November 12, 1854. 

Jos. F. Huber, bom August 23, 1866, at West Bend; date of settle- 
ment, August 23, 1866. 


Mrs. Jos. F. Huber, born May 19, 1869, at Town of West Bend, 
Wasliington county, Wis.; date of settlement. May 19, 1869. 

Franz J. Eder, bom January 12, 1845, ^^ Blanich, Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Germany; date of settlement, July, 1845. 

Mrs. Anna Maria Eder, bom July 26, 1852, at Germantown, Wash- 
ington county. Wis.; date of settlement, July 26, 1852. 

Ernst Rudolph, bom June 13, 1850, at Fredonia, Wis.; date of set- 
tlement, June 13, 1850. 

Mrs. Mathilde Rudolph, born August 21, 1854, at Farmington, 
Washington, county. Wis.; date of settlement, August 21, 1854. 

Andrew Kraetzsch, born October 29, 1832, at Prussia, Germany; 
date of settlement, July 10, 1846. 

Mrs. Mathalia Kraetzsch, born June 7, 1839, at Saxe-Weimer, Ger- 
many; date of settlement, 1856; died February 16, 1909. 

Carl Rudolph, born March 11, 1814, at Saxony, Germany; died Feb- 
ruary 24, 1 90 1. 

Qias. A. Holt, born September 29, 1856, at Farmington, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, September 29, 1856. 

Mrs. Brunetta Kuehlthau, born September 16, 1873, at Cedar Creek, 
Washington county. Wis.; date of settlement, September 16, 1873; 
died June 26, 1907. 

Geo. H. Kuehlthau, born October 6, 1870, at West Bend; date of 
settlement, October 6, 1870. 

J. P. Knippel, born November 3, 1848, at Cleveland, Ohio; date of 
settlement, 1851; died October 29, 1904. 

Mrs. Catherine Knippel, born November 10, 1855, at West Bend; 
date of settlement, November 10, 1855; died March 24, 1910. 

Henry A. Otten, bom October 14, 1869, at Barton, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, October 14, 1869. 

S. P. McHugh, born August 24, 1842, at Massachusetts; date of 
settlement, June, 1847. 

Mrs. M. J. Fohn, born October 28, 1871, at Polk, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, October 28, 1871. 

E. H. Glantz, born March 28, 1872, at West Bend; date of settlement, 
March 28, 1872. 

Joseph Ryan, born August 28, 1844, at Canada; date of settlement, 
1847; died March 2, 1907. 

W. C. Bratz, bora July 7, 1848, at Germany; date of settlement, 
June, 1852. 

John Schroeder, born November 20, 1838. at Hesse-Darmstadt, Ger- 
many; date of settlement. May 15, 1855. 


Lorenz Nehrbass, born October i6, 1838, at Hess-Darmstadt, 
Germany; date of settlement June i 1855; died January 29, 1902. 

John G. Liver, born May 25, 1854, at Switzerland; date of settlement, 

Peter Kreutz, born August 27, 1845, at Washington county, Wis.; 
date of settlement, August 27, 1845. 

Louis Kissel, bom in August, 1839, at Nassau; date of settlement, 
1857; died August 20, 1908. 

Louis L. LeCount, bom October 30, 1858, at Schleisingerville, 
Washington county, Wis.; date of settlement, October 30, 1858. 

C. F. Lohr, born February 20, 1845, at Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany; 
date of settlement, November, 1869. 

Wm. Werner, born April 11, 1858, at Washington county. Wis.; 
date of settlement, April 11, 1858. 

George Portz, born November 14, 1865, at Washington county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, November 14, 1865; died March 3, 1910. 

Louis Portz, born July 29, 1864, at Washington county, Wis.; date 
of settlement, July 29, 1864. 

P. Konrad, born May 31, i860, at Washington county, Wis.; date of 
settlement. May 31, i860. 

John Hilt, born October 22, 1854, at Addison, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, October 22, 1854. 

Geo. B. Moulster, born November 18, 1859, ^t Hartford, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, November 18, 1859. 

Nich. Schantz, born April 4, 1856, at Hartford, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, April 4, 1856. 

Wm. H. Fishback, bom July 24, 1863, at Hartford, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, July 24, 1863; died October 9, 

Math. Hosterman, born September 22, 1851, at Hartford, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, September 22, 1851. 

A. G. Laubenstein, born October 3, 1864, at Hartford, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, October 3, 1864. 

M. K. Klumb, born June 30, 1840, at Laubach, Prussia; date of 
settlement, 1858. 

Peter Klumb, born April 19, 1866, at Jackson, Washington county. 
Wis. ; date of settlement, April 19, 1866. 

G. W. Reisse, born September 28, i860, at West Bend; date of settle- 
ment, September 20, i860. 

J. A. Watrous, born September 6, 18.^0, at Conklin, N. Y. ; Honorary 


Ph. G. Duerrw aechter, born September 14, 1847, at Wuertembcrg, 

Germany; date of settlement, June, 1857. 
Mrs. Mary Duerrwaechter, born May 17, 185 j, at Germantown, 

Washington county, Wis.; date of settlement. May 17, 1852. 
Louis Muehl, born May 8, 1851, at Germantown, Washington county, 

Wis.; date of settlement, May 8, 1851. 
Mrs. Louise Muehl, born April 22, 1857, at Richfield, Washington 

county. Wis.; date of settlement, April 22, 1857. 
Mrs. Clara Froehlich, born May 16, 1857, at Cedarburg, Wis. 
Peter Benedum, born November 6, 1846, at Bavaria, Germany; date 

of settlement. May 9, 1854; died May 19, 1904. 
Charles Thode, born March 13, 1864, at Newburg, Washington 

county. Wis.; date of settlement, March 13, 1864. 
John F. Koester, bom January 15, 1835, at Oldenburg, Germany; 

date of settlement, February 21, 1870; died March 2, 1909. 
Wm. Shinners, born August 9, 1858, at Erin, Washington county, 

Wis. ; date of settlement, August 9, 1858. 
Mrs. Hannah Shinners, born February 17, 1861, at Erin, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, February 17, 1861. 
Mrs. Medora Cameron, born April 2, 1861, at Town West Bend, 

Washington county. Wis.; date of settlement, April 2, 1861. 
George Klippel, born March 7, 185 1, at Waukegan, 111.; date of set- 
tlement, January 8, 1858. 
Mrs. Eva Klippel, born June 15, 1852, at Richfield, \\'ashington 

county, Wis.; date of settlement, June 15, 1852. 
P. O'Meara, Honorary Member, born February 27, 1845, at Emmett, 

Dodge county. Wis.; date of settlement, June 6, 1871. 
Phil. Illian, born Jan. i, 1839, at Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, date 

of settlement, November 15, 1853; died October 11, 1903. 
Maximilian Weinand, born January i, 1845, at Prussia, Germany; 

date of settlement. May, 1853. 
Mrs. Cecilia Weinand, born October 20, 1867, at West Bend; date of 

settlement, October 20, 1867. 
Nicholas Schuman, bom April 14, 1838, at Luxemburg. Germany; 

date of settlement, July, 1853; died July 14. iQio. 
Mrs. Mary Schuman, born October 30, 1846, at Bohemia; date of 

settlement, May, 1855. 
Julius Kratzsch, born February 2, 1825, at Saxe-Altenburg; date of 

settlement, July, 1854. 
Casper Geib. born January 4, 1866, at Trenton, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, January 4, 1866. 


Mrs. Johanna Thode, born January 8, 1866, at Newburg, Wis. ; date 
of settlement, January 8, 1866. 

Melchior Neunebel, born July 27, 1842, at Saxe-Altenburg, Germany; 
date of settlement, June, 1848; died May 27, 1900. 

Mrs. Bertha Neunebel, bom May 13, 1849, at Saxe-AItenburg, Ger- 
many; date of settlement, 1869; died April 28, 1909. 

Gustave A. Koenig, born January 19, 1867, at Newburg, Washing- 
ton county, Wis. ; date of settlement, January 19, 1867. 

Jos. Reichl, bom May 6, 1847, ^t Zummern, Bohemia, Germany; 
date of settlement. May 26, 1868. 

Mrs. Anna M. Reichl, born June 12, 1855, at Granville, Wis.; date 
of settlement, August 28, 1873. 

Mrs. Chas. Koelle, bom March 17, 1858, at West Bend; date of set- 
tlement, March 17, 1858. 

Mrs. Louisa Heipp, born November 25, 1848, at Nuerenburg, Ba- 
varia; date of settlement, 1857. 

Phillip Dhein, born May 12, 1843, at Germantown; date of settle- 
ment, May 12, 1843; died July 3, 1901. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Dhein, born December 23, 1851, at Jackson, Wash- 
ington county, Wis.; date of settlement, December 23, 1851. 

E. J. Liebig, bom October 14, 1842, at Brandenburg, Germany; date 
of settlement. May 24, 1874; died July 22, 1910. 

Cora B. Schuler, bom September 9, 1869, at Farmington, Washing- 
ton county, Wis. ; date of settlement, September 9, 1869. 

B. W. Barber, born March i, 1861, at Trenton, Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, March i, 1861. 

Frank H. Loebe, bom September 23, 1858, at Farmington, Washing- 
ton county, Wis.; date of settlement, September 23, 1858. 

Emil Baensch, born June 12, 1857, at Manitowoc, Wis.; Honorary 

Mrs. Camilla Thielges, bom October 29, 1853, at West Bend; date 
of settlement, October 29, 1853; died December 14, 1907. 

Samuel Wescott, bom February 12, 1802, at Peekskill, N. Y. ; date 
of settlement, September 25, 1846; died November 9, 1904. 

Frank Schoenbeck, bom November 24, 1862, at Jackson, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, November 24, 1862. 

Peter Dricken, born July i, 1844, at Schuylkill, Pa.; date of set- 
tlement, August, 1852. 
William Koch, born September 20, 1847, at Prussia, Germany; date 
of settlement, April, 1855. 


N. E. Woodford, born November 22, 1832, at Onondaga county, 
N. Y. ; date of settlement, 1856. 

Mrs. Helen M. Woodford, born October 22, 1834, at Livingston 
county, N. Y. ; date of settlement, June, 1851; died December 9, 

Mrs. Elizabeth A. Koester, born January 20, 1850, at Polk, Wash- 
ington county. Wis.; date of settlement, January 20, 1850. 

Michael Salter, born April 12, 1837, at County Cork, Ireland; date 
of settlement, June, 1846. 

Mrs. M. Salter, born September 6, 1840, at Chicago, 111. ; date of set- 
tlement, January 2, 1862. 

M. D. Salter, bom September 8, 1850, at Washington county. Wis. ; 
date of settlement, September 8, 1850. 

P. A. Rix, bom April 17, 1875, at Jackson, Washington county. Wis. ; 
date of settlement, April 17, 1875. 

John Duernberger, born May 3, 1846, at Long Island, N. Y. ; date 
of settlement, 1847; died November 29, 191 1. 

Mrs. Mary A. McHenry, born December 14, 1837, at Oswego county, 
N. Y.; date of settlement, 1849. 

Christian Beck, born June 11, 1847, at Germantown, Wis.; date of 
settlement, June 11, 1847. 

James J. Knapp, bom July 15, 1845, ^t Wayne county, N. Y. ; date 
of settlement, May, 1858; died November 11, 1906. 

Miss Pauline Z. Nolting, bom February 9, 1851, at Jackson, Wis.; 
date of settlement, February 9, 1851. 

Miss Emilie Nolting, bom February 15, 1853, at Jackson, Wis.; date 
of settlement, February 15, 1853. 

Mrs. Agnes Gerlach, born May 8, 1872, at West Bend ; date of set- 
tlement. May 8, 1872. 

Mrs. Amanda Glantz, born February 20, 1872, at West Bend; date 
of settlement, February 20, 1872; died April 21, 1907. 

Philip Leicht, bom September 19, 1851, at South Germantown, 
Washington county, Wis.; date of settlement, September 19, 1851. 

Mrs. Mary Leicht, bom December 16, 1852, at Germantown, Wash- 
ington county, Wis.; date of settlement, December 16, 1852. 

Jacob Straub, Jr., born July 25, 1845, ^t Germantown, Washington 
county. Wis.; date of settlement, July 25, 1845. 

Mrs. Mary Straub, bom October 3, 1845, at Germantown, Washing- 
ton county, Wis. ; date of settlement, October 3, 1845. 

A. B. Rusco, born October 31, 1854, at Town of West Bend, Wash- 
ington county. Wis.; date of settlement, October 31, 1854. 


Mrs. Marie E. Husting, born June 20, 1873, at Schleisingerville, 
Washington county, Wis.; date of settlement, June 20, 1873. 

John T. Ross, born December 24, 1856, at Farmington, Washington 
county. Wis. ; date of settlement, December 24, 1856. 

John Kocher, bom April 5, 1843, at Kirchheim, Baden, Germany; 
date of settlement, June, 1847. 

C. F. Taylor, born September 30, 1837, at Town of Tyre, Seneca 
county, N. Y. ; date of settlement, April, 1850. 

Joseph Bauer, bom May i, 1843, at Bavaria, Germany; date of 
settlement, August, 1855; died December 25, 1909. 

William Haendel, bom November 15, 1858, at Farmington, Wash- 
ington county, Wis.; date of settlement, November 15, 1858. 

Chas. E. Robinson, born February 14, 1864, at West Bend; date of 
settlement, February 14, 1864. 

Louis D. Guth, born May 25, 1857, at Town of Polk, Washington 
county, Wis. ; date of settlement. May 25, 1857. 

Mrs. Katie R. Guth, born July 19, 1 861, at Town of Richfield, Wash- 
ington county. Wis.; date of settlement, July 19, 1861. 

John Lambrecht, bom September 14, 1840, at Jefferson county, N. 
Y. ; date of settlement, May, 1847. 

Mrs. Clara Wilke Beard, born November 3, 1871, at Town of West 
Bend, Washington county, Wis.; date of settlement, November 3, 

Johanna Schroeder, born December 10, 1858, at Town of West Bend, 
Washington county. Wis.; date of settlement, December 10, 1858. 

Mrs. Bertha Kathryn Leich, born February 10, 1850, at Fort Wayne, 
Ind. ; date of settlement, August 26, 1871. 

Mrs. Katherine Nigh, born June 14, 1859, at Farmington, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, June 14, 1859. 

Alvah Ostrander, bom August 10, 1837, at Wayne county, N. Y. ; 
date of settlement, 1856; died February 2, 1912. 

Julius W. Gerhard, born August 4, 1827, at Neustadt, Sachsen; date 
of settlement, August, 1856; died August 2, 1909. 

William Kuhaupt, born April 9, 1846, at Ehringen, Kurhessen; date 
of settlement, June i, 1866. 

Mrs. Sophia Kuhaupt, born October 23, 1847, ^t Polk, Washington 
county, Wis. ; date of settlement, October 23, 1847. 

Wm. Hayes, born September 7, 1844, at Richfield, Wis.; date of set- 
tlement, September 7, 1844. 

Franz Hoffmann, born April 20, 1837, at Bavaria; date of settlement, 
September, 1846. 


Jacob P. Merten, born November 24, 1861, at Town Polk, Wis. ; date 

of settlement, November 24, 186 1. 
A. L. Endlich, born November 18, 1863, at Town of Addison, Wis. ; 

date of settlement, November 18, 1863; died March 6, 1910. 
Mrs. Hermina Endlich, born January 19, 1864, at Addison, Wis. ; date 

of settlement, January 19, 1864. 
Mrs. Mary H. Schmitt, born February 4, 1868, at Barton, Wis. ; date 

of settlement, February 4, 1868. 
Mrs. Bertha Bratz, bom March 13, 1865, at Trenton, Wis.; date of 

settlement, March 13, 1865. 
Mrs. Fred. H. Haase, born December 12, 1842, at Mecklenburg- 

Schwerin, Germany; date of settlement, February, 1855; died April 

20, 1906. 
Otto Wolfrum, bom Febmary 13, 1873, at West Bend, Wis.; date of 

settlement, February 13, 1873. 
Mrs. Martha M. Rix, born October 21, 1876, at West Bend, Wis.; 

date of settlement, October 21, 1876. 
Peter Reichert, bom February 22, 1845, at Darmstadt; date of settle- 
ment, 1850. 
Mrs. Mary Reichert, bom November 3, 1849, at Germantown, Wis. ; 

date of settlement, November 3, 1849. 
Mrs. Hermina Potter, bom November 4, 1843, at Canada; date of 

settlement, 1847. 
James W. Thorp, born May 12, 1843, ^^ Jefferson county, N. Y. ; date 

of settlement, 1847. 
Jacob Berkes, born September 29, 1828, at Schomsheim, Darmstadt; 

date of settlement, 1856; died December 24, 1903. 
James Mulvanny, bom April 6, 1841, at Waukesha county. Wis. ; date 

of settlement, April 20, 1847. 
Mrs. Catherine Mulvanny, bom August 20, 1846, at Farmington ; date 

of settlement, August 20, 1846. 
Mrs. Magdalena Bastian, born January 11, 1858, at Polk; date of 

settlement, January 11, 1858. 
John Muehleis, born October 2, i860, at Wayne, Wis. ; date of set- 
tlement, October 2, i860. 
Mrs. Katie Muehleis, bom September 26, 1864, at Addison, Wis.; 

date of settlement, September 26, 1864; died July 21, 1905. 
Christ Wolf, born July 2, 1838, at Cologne, Germany; date of settle- 
ment, June 17, 1855. 
Adam Held, born June 20, 1861, at Town Menomonee, Wis. ; date of 

settlement, 1874. 


Mrs. Ellen Dunham, born March 15, 1826, at Oswego county, N. Y. ; 
date of settlement, Spring, 1847; died October 3, 1908. 

Mrs. Estella Colvin, born November 13, 1856, at Kewaskum; date of 
settlement, November 13, 1856. 

William Schoenbeck, born February 13, 1847, at Schoeneberg, Prus- 
sia, Germany; date of settlement, June 13, 1854. 

Mrs. Maria Schoenbeck, bom November 6, 1850, at Trenton, Wash- 
ington county. Wis.; date of settlement, November 6, 1850; died 
July 26, 1909. 

Mrs. Emma Krieger, born August 28, 1855, at Saukville, Wis. ; date 
of settlement, March, 1877. 

Fred. Groth, born August 4, 1863, at Jackson, Wis. ; date of settle- 
ment, August 4, 1863. 

Mrs. Augusta Carman, born June 20, 1843, at Town Lima, Washtenau 
county, Mich.; date of settlement, November, 1846. 

Henry Hembel, born November 15, 1851, at Hessen-Darmstadt ; date 
of settlement, November, 1857. 

Mrs. Cathrine Hembel, born 1852, at Polk, Washington county, Wis.; 
date of settlement, 1852. 

Henry Christnacht, born April 4, 1858, at Hartford, Washington 
county. Wis. ; date of settlement, April 4, 1858; died April 18, 191 1. 

Mrs. Matilda Christnacht, bom May 12, 1865, at Addison, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, May 12, 1865. 

Jacob Ziegler, bom July 3, 1850, at Jackson, Washington county. 
Wis.; date of settlement, July 3, 1850. 

Mrs. Jacob Ziegler, bom February 21, 1852, at Stettin, Prussia, Ger- 
many; date of settlement, June, 1870. 

Mrs. Augusta Bratz, born March 11, 1857, at Farmington, Washing- 
ton county. Wis.; date of settlement, March 11, 1857. 

Mrs. Huldah Gruhle, born April 26, i860, at Farmington, Washing- 
ton county. Wis. ; date of settlement, April 26, i860. 

Mrs. Rosahe Lynch, bom May 27, 1851, at Philadelphia, Pa.; date of 
settlement, August, 1876; died February 16, 191 1. 

Henry Bohn, born August 25, 1845, at Rheinpfalz, Bavaria, Germany; 
date of settlement, August, 1855. 

Mrs. Henry Bohn, born July 10, 1854, at West Bend; date of settle- 
ment, July 10, 1854. 

Mrs. Wm. Peters, bom January 29, 1858, at Bienenbeittel, Hanover, 
Germany; date of settlement, September, 1877. 

Mrs. Ida Sievers, born October 28, 1857, at Saukville, Wis.; date of 
settlement, October 28, 1857. 


John W. Gehl, born December 7, 1872, at Town of Addison, Wash- 
ington county, Wis.; date of settlement, December 17, 1872. 

Mrs. Mary A. Gehl, bom February 17, 1873, at West Bend; date of 
settlement, February 17, 1873. 

Anton Thielmann, born May 22, 1857, at Coblenz, Germany; date of 
settlement, April, 1861. 

John Lauermann, bom April 22, 1848, at South Germantown; date 
of settlement, April 22, 1848. 

Frank Erler, born February 17, 1861, at Trenton; date of settlement, 
February 17, 1861. 

Mrs. Anna Erler, born Febmary 16, 1863, at Milwaukee; date of set- 
tlement, 1877. 

Frederick Erler, born November 25, 1871, at Newburg, Wis.; date of 
settlement, November 25, 1871. 

Mrs. Anna Erler, born February 18, 1875, at Newburg, Wis. ; date 
of settlement, February 18, 1875. 

Peter Leienberger, born March 9, 1853, at Pennelton, N. Y. ; date of 
settlement, June, 1855. 

Mrs. Emilie Leienberger, born January 10, 1855, at Farmington, 
Wis. ; date of settlement, January 10, 1855. 

C. P. Mooers, born March 17, 1856, at Indianapolis, Ind. ; date of 
settlement, December 15, 1873. 

A. Heipp, born April 5, 1869, at West Bend, Wis. ; date of settle- 
ment, April 5, 1869. 

Mrs. Silas W. Bennett, born April 12, 1875, at Hartford, Wis.; date 
of settlement, April 12, 1875. 

Edward Winninghoff, born September 15, 1859, at Town of Jackson, 
Wis.; date of settlement, September 15, 1859. 

Mrs. Elizabeth WinninghofT, born May 19, 1857, at Town of Barton, 
Wis.; date of settlement. May 19, 1857. 

Henry Opgenorth, born November 24, 1855, at Pfalzdorf, Germany; 
date of settlement, April i, 1868. 

Mrs. Wm. Hausmann, born January 18, 1879, at Wayne, Wis. ; date 
of settlement, January 18, 1879. 

Mrs. Charlotte Arzbacher, born March 14, 1833, at Aris, Prussia; 
date of settlement, October 26, 1856; died October 11, 1912. 

Albert Story, born December 9, 1841, at Lockport, N. Y. ; date of 
settlement, 1846. 

Mrs. Martha Gordon Story, born May 14, 1850, at Farmington, Wis. ; 
date of settlement, May 14, 1850. 


Chas. Silberzahn, bom May 3, 1828 at Baden, Germany; date of set- 
tlement, February, 1878. 

Mrs. P. C. Schmidt, born May 7, 1821, at Kunpfeld, Germany; date 
of settlement, August 9, 1856; died February 5, 1908. 

Geo. Garbade, born September 30, 1863, at Jackson, Wis. ; date of 
settlement, September 30, 1863. 

Lizzie Garbade, born February 14, 1866, at Jackson, Wis. ; date of set- 
tlement, February 14, 1866; died July 4, 1904. 

E. W. Jaehing, bom April 22, 1868, at Farmington, Wis. ; date of set- 
tlement, April 22, 1868. 

Wm. Coughlin, bom January 23, 1843, at Waukesha county, Wis. ; 
date of settlement, June, 1854. 

Hy. P. Schloemer, born September 28, 1877, at Washington county, 
Wis.; date of settlement, September 28, 1877. 

Mrs. Susan Martin Schloemer, born December 19, 1877, at Washing- 
ton county, Wis.; date of settlement, December 19, 1877. 

Joseph Y. Brott, born September 5, 1837, at Thomhill, Canada; date 
of settlement. Spring, 1847. 

Chas. A. McCormack, bom September 10, 1859, at Farmington, Wis. ; 
date of settlement, September 10, 1859. 

Geo. M. Deutsch, born August 29, 1877, at West Bend, Wis. ; date of 
settlement, August 29, 1877; ^^^^ October 5, 1912. 

Mrs. Anna Riley Deutsch, bom December 16, 1873, at Farmington, 
Wis.; date of settlement, December 16, 1873. 

Emestine S. Stein, born July 7, 185 1, at West Bend, Wis.; date of 
settlement, July 7, 1851. 

Jennie Y. Friedlander, bora August 8, i860, at West Bend, Wis. ; date 
of settlement, August 8, i860. 

H. T. Coe, born May 11, 1836, at LeRoy, N. Y. ; date of settlement, 
September, 1845. 

Gust. Groth, born January 8, 1865, at Jackson, Wis. ; date of settle- 
ment, January 8, 1865. 

John T. Keeley, born September 12, 1854, at Corning, N. Y. ; date of 
settlement, June, 1869. 

August Schatz, bom December 18, 1855, at Sachsen-Weimar, Ger- 
many; date of settlement, July 3, 1856. 

Jacob Wagner. 

Peter Hembel. 

Peter J. Wittemann, bom September 26, 1870, at Town West Bend, 
Washington county. Wis.; date of settlement, September 26, 1870. 


Bruno Jordan, bom October 28, 1853, at Ketten, Saclisen-Weimar, 

Germany; date of settlement, April i, 1876. 
Bruce P. Wescott, boni August 14, 1874, at Farmington, Wis.; date 

of settlement, August 14, 1874. 
Barbara Reichert, born November 7, 1872, at Schleisingerville, Wis.; 

date of settlement, November 7, 1872. 
Joe Reichert. 
A. S. Weil, bom at Town West Bend, Washington county, Wis.; 

date of settlement, 1883. 
James B. Day, born February 17, 1862, at Neosho, Wis. 
Mrs. James B. Day, born September 18, 1864, at Hartford, Wis. ; date 

of settlement, September 18, 1864. 
Wm. Liessner, bom September 9, 1853, at Jackson, Wis. ; date of set- 
tlement, September 9, 1853. 
Mrs. Frank Day, born December 27, 1871, at Hartford, Wis.; date 

of settlement, December 27, 1871. 
Miss Julia Hilt, born December 12, 1882, at Hartford, Wis. ; date of 

settlement, December 12, 1882. 
Mrs. Rose Bucklin, born February 23, 1878, at West Bend, Wis. ; date 

of settlement, February 23, 1878. 
Miss Ella Kuehlthau, bom March 5, 1882, at West Bend, Wis.; date 

of settlement, March 5, 1882. 
Fred. M. Schnurr, bom March 29, 1873, at Kewaskum, Wis.; date 

of settlement, March 29, 1873. 
Mrs. Mary Hilt Schnurr, born March i, 1881, at Hartford, Wis. ; date 

of settlement, March i, 1881. 
J. C. Russell, born February 15, 1866, at Erin, Washington county. 

Wis.; date of settlement, April 15, 1866. 
H. K. Butterfield, bom August 27, 1857, at Horicon, Wis.; date of 

settlement, June, 1881. 
Fannie Cuddeback Claflin, bom September 25, 1863, at Cardiff, N. 

Y. ; date of settlement, February, 1865. 
Alma Rohn Love, born July 3, 1874, at Jackson, Wis.; date of settle- 
ment, July 3, 1874. 
Mrs. Caroline Fisher, bom November 17, 1853, at West Bend. Wis.; 

date of settlement, November 17, 1853. 
Frank E. Salter, born January 13, 1868, at Jackson, Wis. ; date of 

settlement, January 13, 1868. 
Mrs. Martha Knapp, born July 10, 1849, at Milwaukee, Wis. ; date 

of settlement, 1853. 


Mrs. Emma McHenry, bom August 13, 1857, at West Bend, Wis.; 
date of settlement, August 13, 1857. 

Mrs. Anna Kohlsdorf, bom October 24, 1855, at West Bend, Wis.; 
date of settlement, October 24, 1855. 

Eva W. Lehmann, born November 4, 1852, at Kewaskum, Wis. ; date 
of settlement, November 4, 1852. 

R. N. Cole, bom July 4, 1861, at Jackson, Wis.; date of settlement, 
July 4, 1 86 1. 

J. B. Connell, bom May 26, 1855, at Germantown, Wis.; date of set- 
tlement. May 26, 1855. 

Reuben Gold Thwaites, Secretary State Historical Society of Wis- 
consin, Honorary Member. 

Mrs. O'Meara, born June 19, 1878, at West Bend, Wis. ; date of set- 
tlement, June 19, 1878. 

Mrs. Emma Pick O'Meara, bom February i, 1878, at West Bend, 
Wis.; date of settlement, February i, 1878. 

Henry V. Schwalbach, bom April 24, 1878, at Germantown, Wis.; 
date of settlement, April 24, 1878. 

John B. Pick, born August 12, 1878, at West Bend, Wis. ; date of set- 
tlement, August 12, 1878. 

H. A. Sawyer, born September 4, 1875, at Hartford, Wis. ; date of 
settlement, September 4, 1875. 

Mason M. Maxon, bom January 20, 1847, at Cedar Creek, Wis. ; 
date of settlement, January 20, 1847. 

Judge Martin L. Lueck, Honorary Member, bom July 24, 1872, at 
Juneau, Wis. 

John Homrig, born December 12, 1872, at Richfield, Wis. ; date of set- 
tlement, December 12, 1872. 

Caroline Schloemer Homrig, bom September 29, 1871, at Jackson, 
Wis.; date of settlement, September 29, 1871 ; died June 23, 1912. 

D. Webster Lynch, born January ir, 1879, at Richfield, Wis.; date 
of settlement, January 11, 1879. 

Elizabeth Shinners Lynch. 

Electa Rossman Nau, bom April 2, 1856, at Hartford, Wis. ; date 
of settlement, April 2, 1856. 

Leander D. Wilke, bom December 17, 1875, at West Bend, Wis. ; date 
of settlement, Dec. 17, 1875. 

Julia E. Gould, born Febmary 25, 1863, at Hartford, Wis.; date of 
settlement, February 25. 1863. 

J. W. Salter, bom Febmary 11, 1852, at Jackson, Wis.; date of set- 
tlement, Febmary 11, 1852. '^